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Attitude Week 1


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A-Level Sports Psychology

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Attitude Week 1

  1. 1. Personality<br />and<br />Attitude<br />A-Level Sports Psychology<br />Miss Bowe<br />
  2. 2. Last Week …<br />Introduction to personality theories<br />Definepersonality<br />Explainthe difference between nature and nurture<br />Describe the different personality theories<br />Trait Theories<br />Social Learning Theories <br />Interactionist Theories<br />
  3. 3. What do we remember?<br />TASK (5 minutes)<br />Using the spider diagram on your hand-out<br />Write down anything you remember from last week<br />Nature vs Nurture<br />Last Week<br />On Personality<br />
  4. 4. This Week …<br />You should now be able to<br />Explain the three key theories of personality<br />Trait Theories<br />Social Learning Theories <br />Interactionist Theories<br />List ways of testing personality<br />Explainattitude and its three components<br />Discusshow attitude can influence behaviour<br />Give examples ofprejudice and stereotyping in sport<br />
  5. 5. Recap … <br />Definitions<br /><ul><li>the unique characteristics of an individual
  6. 6. how people relate to each other
  7. 7. how people act or reacttodeal with different situations</li></ul>Nature vs Nurture<br />Are we born with our characteristics?<br />Can they be learnt or changed?<br />
  8. 8. Trait Theory<br />personality is heredity and is passed onthrough genetics<br />Social Learning Theory<br />personality is learned through environmental influences<br />Interactionist Theory<br />personality is a combination of genetic and environmental influences.<br />Recap … the theories <br />
  9. 9. Trait theory … how we cope with stress<br />Type A or Type B Personalities<br /><ul><li>Type A personality, means that you are a fast-paced individual who is always on the run.
  10. 10. More easily stressed, who does not accept failure easily, and expects the most in others.
  11. 11. Type B personality is exactly the opposite of a Type A.
  12. 12. More reserved and calm, not easily bothered by small problems in life.</li></li></ul><li>The main difference between trait theory and social learning theory is the importance of the environment<br />Will people act or react differently in different situations?<br />Social Learning Theory<br />
  13. 13. Interactionist Personality Theory<br />Interactionists believe <br /> B= f (P,E) <br />What does this mean?<br />Behaviour as a function of personality traits and environmental conditions<br />This can be seen as a combination of the best bits of Trait Theory and Social Learning Theory<br />
  14. 14. Measuring Personality<br />How do we measure personality?<br />Observations … charlotte<br />Interviews … chris<br />Questionnaires … me<br />
  15. 15. Measuring Personality<br />QUESTIONNAIRES<br /><ul><li>before or after the event
  16. 16. not directly related to performance
  17. 17. rigidly and systematically set out
  18. 18. transient feelings or attitudes may be expressed
  19. 19. able to quantify accurately
  20. 20. would not be influenced by another
  21. 21. can be used to assess specific traits</li></li></ul><li>Profile of Mood States (POMS)<br />MOODS<br />are an important aspect of<br />personality which may<br />influence sports performance<br />tension<br />depression<br />anger<br />vigour<br />fatigue<br />confusion<br />
  22. 22. Profile of Mood States (POMS)<br />Elite sportspeople <br />show LOW<br /><ul><li>tension
  23. 23. depression
  24. 24. fatigue
  25. 25. confusion</li></ul> and HIGH vigour<br />Unsuccessful sportspeopleshow HIGH<br /><ul><li>tension
  26. 26. depression
  27. 27. fatigue
  28. 28. confusion</li></ul> and LOW vigour<br />
  29. 29. Attitude <br />Developing a positive attitude is vital for sporting success<br />Simply having a positive attitude is good for you!<br />e.g. a positive attitude towards a healthy lifestyle a negative attitude towards a healthy lifestyle<br />
  30. 30. Defining attitude <br />Attitude is like personality … <br />It is hard to measure directly<br />Includes different perspectives or beliefs <br />For example an attitude can be<br />Positive or negative<br />Subjective and evaluative<br />Stable and enduring<br />Developed by experiences<br />Linked to a situation or item<br />
  31. 31. Defining attitude <br />Trandis (1971)<br />‘ideas charged with emotion (positive or negative) which automatically result an action to a particular social situation.’<br />Attitude Object<br />Linked to a situation or item<br />Focus of an individuals attitude<br />Can you think of an example?People, objects, events, ideas<br />
  32. 32. Three Components of Attitude<br />Cognitive component<br />What a person thinks or believes about an attitude object<br />e.g. I believe that jogging is good for me and helps me keep fit<br />Affective component<br />What a person feels about the attitude object, their emotions<br />e.g. I enjoy keeping fit an healthy, it makes me feel good<br />Behavioural component<br />How a person acts or intends to act towards the attitude object<br />e.g. I go jogging three times a week and encourage my friends to<br />
  33. 33. How is an attitude formed?<br />TASK (10 minutes)Give examples of how an attitude is formed using the example below from the four categories of attitude objects;<br />A person e.g. Lady Gaga/Wayne Rooney<br />An object e.g. Facebook<br />An event e.g. Giving a Speech/Karaoke<br />An idea e.g. Revision Day<br />We have a belief … the cognitive component<br />Then an emotion … the affective component<br />Finally action or intent … the behavioural component<br />
  34. 34. General vs Specific<br />Our general attitude towards something will not be a true determinant of our actual behaviour.<br />We must be specific in our<br />Thoughts<br />Feelings<br />Actions<br />If you want to be a professional footballer or represent your country in the next Olympic Games you must be specific.<br />
  35. 35. Attitude and Sporting Excellence<br />Beth Tweddle doesn’t just enjoy gymnastics …<br />She knows she is an elite Olympic athlete<br />She remembers what it feels like to win an Olympic medal<br />She trains like every session is her Olympic performance<br />
  36. 36. Attitude and Sporting Excellence<br />Lionel Messi doesn’t just enjoy a kick about on the park …<br />He knows he is the best footballer in the world<br />He remembers what it is feels like to score an amazing goal.<br />He lives, breathes and sleeps football to be the best.<br />
  37. 37. General vs Specific Attitudes<br />General attitudes will not help us predicttrue behaviour<br />Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) state<br />Specific attitudes must be considered to predict behaviour<br />If the intention is present the behaviour will follow<br />So to predict, perform or encourage a behaviour we must;<br />Understand its relevance of a specific behaviour<br />Get all the info and facts, or experience it directly<br />Discuss and deal with any negative attitudes immediately<br />
  38. 38. Prejudice and Stereotyping<br />Prejudice is …<br />A extreme or strongly held attitude that is resistant to change<br />We can feel this way towards a situation or a person<br />This is known as stereotyping<br />Stereotypes are<br />rarely accurate with little evidence or fact<br />generalisations, derived from indirect contact<br />preconceived influenced by the media<br />Think of an example of stereotyping or prejudice in sporte.g. boys are more competitive than girls<br />
  39. 39. Key Terms<br />TASK (8 minutes)Fill in your glossary<br />Chapter 9: Page 130 in your textbook<br />Try to use your own words or bullet points<br />Don’t be afraid to ask questions or discuss your answers<br />
  40. 40. This Week …<br />You should now be able to<br />Explain the three key theories of personality<br />Trait Theories<br />Social Learning Theories <br />Interactionist Theories<br />List ways of testing personality<br />Explainattitude and its three components<br />Discusshow attitude can influence behaviour<br />Give examples ofprejudice and stereotyping in sport<br />