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Crisis and absolutism


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Crisis and absolutism

  1. 1. 1520 CE – 1701 CE
  2. 2. French Religious wars of the 16th century pittedProtestant Calvinists against CatholicsFrom 1560 to 1650, wars and social crisesplagued EuropeEuropean monarchs sought economic andpolitical stability through absolutism and thedivine right of kingsConcern with order and power was reflected inthe writings of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke
  3. 3. By 1560, both Catholics and Calvinists werebecoming more militant; that is, they werecombative against other religions, aggressive intrying to convert people and worked toeliminate the authority of other religions.The French Wars of Religion had a devastatingaffect on France The Catholic French king prosecuted Protestants, but were unable to stop the spread of Protestantism
  4. 4. The Huguenots were French Protestantsinfluenced by Calvin that made up about 7% ofthe French population About half of the nobility were Huguenots, including the house of Bourbon, who ruled southern France (in Navarre) Because so many nobles were Huguenots, the crown felt threatened Catholics still outnumbered Huguenots; they also could recruit and pay for large armies
  5. 5. The Catholics and Huguenots fought for 30 years Huguenot nobles wanted to weaken the monarchy Towns and provinces resented the power of the monarchy and sided with the Huguenot noblesIn 1589, Henry of Navarre, a Huguenot, succeeded tothe French throne as Henry IV He converted to Catholicism He was crowned king in 1594, which ended the religious wars He issued the Edict of Nantes (1598) that recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France, but gave the Huguenots the right to worship and to enjoy political privileges previously denied to them, like holding public office
  6. 6. Philip II was a militant Catholicwho ruled Spain from 1556 to1598 He consolidated conquered territories, including the Netherlands, parts of Italy, and parts of the Americas; he strengthened his control by insisting on strict conformity to Catholicism and his authority He was a champion of Catholic causes, and fought battles to regain lands taken over by the Turks
  7. 7. The Spanish Netherlands were important toPhilip II, as they provided great wealth to SpainThe nobles of the Netherlands resented Spainand Philip II as they lost privileges and werepersecuted for practicing the ProtestantreligionIn 1566, Calvinists in the Netherlands destroyedstatues in Catholic churches; Philip sent 10,000troops to crush the rebellion
  8. 8. William the Silent, theprince of Orange,Netherlands resistedPhilip II’s rule They battled until 1609, when Spain signed a truce with him (the truce only lasted 12 years) The northern provinces began to call themselves the United Provinces of the Netherlands, which became the core of the modern Dutch state
  9. 9. Philip’s reign came to an end in 1598 Spain was bankrupt from spending too much on war His successor spent excessively on his home and courtAfter Philip’s death, power in Europe shifted toEngland and France
  10. 10. Elizabeth ascended the Englishthrone in 1558; she was thedaughter of Henry VIII, who createdthe church of EnglandDuring her reign, England becamethe leader of the Protestant nationsof EuropeShe used diplomacy to keep Spainand France from fighting; theSpanish sent an armada (fleet ofships) to attack her, but sheprevailed and most of the fleet wasdestroyed; what was left weredamaged by storms on their wayback to Spain
  11. 11. From 1560 to 1650, Europe witnessed severeeconomic and social crises One critical problem was inflation, or rising prices. This was brought about because of the influx of gold and silver into Europe An economic slowdown occurred when the amount of silver imported from the Americas was reduced due to failing mines and pirates Population growth also caused economic problems
  12. 12. During the 16th and17th centuries, ahysteria aboutwitchcraft affectedEurope (and parts ofAmerica)More than 100,000people were chargedwith witchcraft; 75% Those who were foundwere women guilty were often put toThose accused were death, usually by beingtortured into burned aliveconfessing
  13. 13. This war was a result of religious conflictsthroughout EuropeIt began in 1618 as a struggle between the HolyRoman emperor and Protestant nobles inBohemia.The conflict became political and Denmark,Sweden, France, and Spain entered the conflictMost of the battles were fought on German soil;this was the most destructive war Europe hadseen to this point in history
  14. 14. Germany was plundered and destroyed for 30yearsRival armies roamed the German countryside,sacking towns and fighting battlesThe Peace of Westphalia officially ended thewar in 1648 The major players gained new territories France emerged as the dominant nation after the war The peace treaty declared that the German states could choose their own religion The war brought an end to the Holy Roman Empire
  15. 15. After Queen Elizabeth’s death in 1603, James I took the throne James believed in the divine right of kings – the belief that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God Parliament disagreed strongly with James, which would cause problems in the futureThe Puritans were alienated by James I, who wanted tostrengthen the Church of England Parliament had a strong contingent of Puritans holding office, which created conflict with the kingJames’ son Charles held the same beliefs as his father, but hehad more conflicts with Parliament Parliament passed a tax law that prohibited the king from imposing taxes without their consent He also alienated the Puritans further, causing many of them to flee to the Americas
  16. 16. The English Civil War started in 1642; the supporters ofthe king (called Cavaliers or Royalists) fought againstsupporters of the Parliament (called Roundheads)Parliament won, largely due to the army of OliverCromwell Cromwell purged Parliament of anyone who did not support him Charles I was executed on January 30, 1649 Parliament abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords and declared England a republic, or commonwealthCromwell found it difficult to deal withParliament and eventually replaced it with amilitary dictatorship
  17. 17. After Cromwell dies, the Parliament restoredthe monarchy and put Charles II (Charles I’s son)on the throneParliament kept most of its power and passedlaws favorable to the Church of EnglandIn 1685, James II became king; he was aCatholic, which caused conflict with ParliamentJames appointed Catholics to prestigiouspositions and Parliament worried about aCatholic monarchy
  18. 18. English nobles who feared a Catholic monarchy asked William ofOrange (married to James’ daughter Mary) to invade EnglandWilliam and Mary raised an army in 1688 and “invaded”England; James and his wife fled to FranceIn January of 1689, Parliament offered the throne to William andMary They accepted it, along with a Bill of Rights The Bill of Rights allowed Parliament to make laws and levy taxes It did not allow the monarch to raise an army without Parliament’s consent It also allowed citizens to keep arms and have a jury trial It created a system of government based on the rule of law (instead of the divine right of kings)Parliament passed the Toleration Act of 1689, which gavePuritans the right to free public worship It did not protect Catholics, but citizens were no longer persecuted for their religious beliefs
  19. 19. One response to the crises all over Europe was to makethe monarch stronger by increasing his/her power.The result was called absolutism, a system in which theruler holds total power. Tied to the “divine right of kings”. It was thought rulers received their power from God and were responsible to no one except GodAbsolute monarchs had extensive powers They could make laws, levy taxes, administer justice, control the state and determine foreign policy
  20. 20. Louis XIV is consideredthe best example of thepractice of absolutismThe French kingdominated the politicalaffairs of western andcentral Europe; hiscourt was imitatedthroughout Europe
  21. 21. Prior to Louis XIV taking the throne, France wasin a period of struggle, as government forcesfought to keep the state from breaking down This situation was difficult because Louis XII and Louis XIII were boys when they came to the throne Both were strongly influenced by advisors and ministersTwo ministers played an important role inpreserving the authority of the monarchy:Cardinal Richelieu and Cardinal Mazarin
  22. 22. Cardinal Richelieu was Louis XIII’s chief minister; hestrengthened the power of the monarchy Richelieu took away the political and military rights of the Huguenots, but preserved their religious rights Richelieu used a network of spies to keep the nobility in lineLouis XIV came to the throne a the age of four; Cardinal Mazarinwas his chief minister and took control of the government Mazarin maintained the power of the monarchy Mazarin crushed a revolt led by nobles who were unhappy with the growing power of the monarch When Mazarin died in 1661, Louis XIV took over as supreme power (he was 23) He established a strict routine and fostered the myth of himself as the Sun King – the source of light for all his people
  23. 23. The Royal Court at Versailles served three purposes: Louis’ personal household Chief offices of the state located there Subjects came to find favors & officesLouis removed high nobles & princes from his court toremove their threat; he invited them to court to keepthem busyLouis expected ministers to obey his every wish; thisgave him complete authority over FranceLouis did not run day-to-day life in towns and cities,local governments didLouis attempted to convert Huguenots to Catholicism;many fled France out of fear when Louis closed theirchurches and schools
  24. 24. Finances were a crucial issue for Louis; he had Jean-Baptiste Colbert as controller-general of finances Colbert followed the ideas of mercantilism He granted subsidies to new industries He built roads and canals He decreased imports and raised tariffsThe king developed a standing army; he waged fourwars between 1667 and 1713Louis died in 1715 He left debt and enemies on all sides His great-grandson became king at five years old
  25. 25. After the Thirty Years’ War, Germany was no longerunified, instead there were over 300 independentstates; Prussia & Austria emerged as strongest powers Prussia gained power by building a standing army; Frederick William the Great Elector ruled Prussia through a General War Commissariat that ran the army and eventually the civil bureaucracy Frederick’s son became King Frederick I of PrussiaAustria was ruled by the Hapsburgs (who used to runthe Holy Roman Empire) Austria took control of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slavonia The monarchy avoided absolutism; the Austrian empire was a loose collection of territories held together by the Hapsburg emperor
  26. 26. A new Russian state emerged under theleadership of Muscovy and its dukesIvan IV became the first Czar in the 16th century Ivan expanded the territories eastward; he crushed the power of the Russian nobility He was known as “Ivan the Terrible” because he was so ruthlessAfter his death, there was a period of anarchythat lasted until 1613, when Michael Romanovbecame the new Czar; the Romanov’s ruleduntil 1917
  27. 27. Peter the Great was one of the most prominentmembers of the Romanov familyHe was an absolutist monarch He was determine to “westernize” Russia after a trip to Europe Under Peter, Russia became a great military powerPeter reorganized the armyHe divided Russia into provincesHe introduced Western customs, practices, andmannersPeter fought Sweden to gain access to the Baltic Sea He built St. Petersburg as a western city It remained Russia’s capital until 1918
  28. 28. In the 1520s and 1530s, a newmovement called Mannerism emergedin Italy Deliberate breaking down of Renaissance principals; Proportion and harmony were deliberately ignored Elongated figures used to show suffering, emotion, and religious ecstasyEl Greco was considered a master ofMannerism; his use of elongated andcontorted figures depicted the mood ofreligious upheaval felt in theReformation
  29. 29. Mannerism was eventually replaced by theBaroque movement. Again, this movement began in Italy Catholic reform movement adopted this style of art for churches and cathedralsBaroque art brought together the classicalideals of Renaissance art with the spiritualfeelings of religious revival Used dramatic effects to arouse emotions Art and architecture was magnificent with rich details
  30. 30. Bernini is considered one of the greatest figures of the Baroque period; note the emotional detail in the face and the rich detail in the clothing and furniture of the Ludovica:Bernini’s Ludovica
  31. 31. England experienced a cultural flowering calledthe Elizabethan Era, because so much of itoccurred during the reign of Queen Elizabeth IWilliam Shakespeare is the most famous of thisera’s writers London theater was very successful, with multiple venues and playwrightsShakespeare wrote and acted in plays; he alsoowned part of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, atheater company
  32. 32. Spain also produced great literature during thisperiod Miguel de Cervantes wrote his greatest work, Don Quixote, which examined the dual nature of the Spanish character It examined the conflict between religious ideals and reality Lope de Vega was a Spanish playwright who wrote over 1500 plays
  33. 33. Hobbes wrote Leviathan, a work on political thought thataddressed the disorder of the 17th century He believed that before society was organized, humans were solitary, poor, nasty, and brutish He wrote about the social contract, wherein people agreed to be ruled by a king in order to maintain a civil societyLocke wrote about government and was against the rule of oneperson Locke believed in natural rights – the rights which people were born with, like life, liberty, and property Locke believed it was difficult for people to protect their natural rights against an absolute ruler He believed government should protect these rights, and then people would act reasonably toward the government Locke was writing about the aristocracy, not the poor; he did not advocate democracy