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Carolingians and Visigoths


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The Frankish Kingdom, the Carolingian Empire and the Visigothic Kingdom

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Carolingians and Visigoths

  1. 1. The frankish kingdom and The carolingian empire
  2. 2. THE MEROVINGIANS <ul><li>This dynasty was established by Merovech , a Frankish military chief, in the 5 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Meroveus´ grandson, king Clovis , made the Frankish kingdom larger with his conquests: </li></ul><ul><li>- he defeated the Visigoths in the battle of Vouillé in 507 </li></ul><ul><li>-he established the capital city of the Frankish kingdom in Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>- he converted to Christianity and he received the support of the Romans and the Catholic Church. </li></ul>KING CLOVIS DEFEATING THE VISIGOTHS IN VOUILLÉ
  3. 3. <ul><li>After Clovis´death, his kingdom was divided into different small kingdoms among his sons (common custom in the Germanic peoples). </li></ul><ul><li>In the 7 th century king Dagobert I unified all the Frankish territories. </li></ul><ul><li>This was the last Merovingian powerful king. </li></ul>MEROVINGIAN KINGDOMS KING DAGOBERT I COIN
  4. 4. THE MAYORS OF THE PALACE <ul><li>After Dagobert I´s reign, Merovingian kings became weak. They left their power in the hands of the Mayors of the Palace , who became the real rulers in the Frankish kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>The most famous of these Mayors of the Palace was Charles Martel (688-741): </li></ul><ul><li>- he was a brilliant general </li></ul><ul><li>- he reunified all the Frankish territories </li></ul><ul><li>- He stopped the Muslim invasion by defeating the Muslim army in the battle of Poitiers (732). </li></ul><ul><li>- although he didn´t call himself king, he acted as such. At his death, he divided the territories of the Frankish kingdom among his 2 sons: Pippin and Carloman. </li></ul>CHARLES MARTEL BATTLE OF POITIERS (732)
  5. 5. THE CAROLINGIAN DYNASTY <ul><li>In 751 Pippin the Short deposed the last Merovingian king and declared himself king of the Franks with the support of the Pope of Rome. This was the beginning of the Carolingian dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>When Pippin died, he divided the kingdom among his two sons: Carloman and Charles. </li></ul><ul><li>The two fought one to another for three years. When Carloman died Charles became the owner of all the Frankish territories and started being called “Charlemagne” (Charles the Great”) </li></ul>PIPPIN THE SHORT BECOMES PIPPIN III
  6. 6. CHARLEMAGNE <ul><li>Charlemagne wanted to restore the Western Roman Empire. He conquered different territories: </li></ul><ul><li>- In the East, he conquered the Lombard Kingdom in Italy and Bavaria </li></ul><ul><li>-In the North, he defeated the Saxons </li></ul><ul><li>- In the South, he conquered territories in the North of the Iberian Peninsula, around the Pyrenees. </li></ul>
  7. 7. THE CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE <ul><li>In 800, Charlemagne helped the Pope Leo III and the Pope crowned him as Emperor of the West. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pope wanted to prove that his authority was over the authority of the Byzantyne Emperor and he decided to show it by crowning Charlemagne as Emperor too. </li></ul>CORONATION OF CHARLEMAGNE IN ROME
  8. 8. <ul><li>Charlemagne was an able administrator: </li></ul><ul><li>- He divided the Empire into counties (ruled by counts or earls) and marches (in the frontiers of the Empire, ruled by marquises) and he delegated power to Frankish nobles. </li></ul><ul><li>- He sent MISSI DOMINICI to all the territories of the Empire to control if everything worked in the right way. They were his representatives and they acted on his behalf. </li></ul><ul><li>- He respected the diversity of the inhabitants of his Empire and allowed every group to maintain its own local laws. </li></ul><ul><li>- He also made capitularies: laws that were applied to all the citizens of the Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>- He sponsorized culture and learning: he reformed the palace school and set up monastic schools throughout the Empire. </li></ul>KNIGHT ROLAND PLEDGES FIELTY TO CHARLEMAGNE
  9. 9. AACHEN, CAPITAL CITY OF THE CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE <ul><li>Aachen, in Germany, was the capital city of the Carolingian Empire. Charlemagne built his palace there. </li></ul><ul><li>The only part of the palace that remains today is the Palatine Chapel, where the emperor´s throne was located. The chapel was built with materials taken from Roman monuments brought from Italy (mosaics, decorative elements…) </li></ul>
  11. 11. CHARLEMAGNE´S HERITAGE <ul><li>As was customary in the Frankish kingdom, Charlemagne divided the kingdom among his sons. His one surviving son, Louis the Pious , kept the entire Empire. But when he died (840), he divided the Empire among his three sons. The three of them were not happy with the division and started fighting each other. </li></ul><ul><li>In 843 they stopped fighting and they signed the Treaty of Verdun , wich confirmed the division of the Empire: </li></ul><ul><li>For Charles (called the Bald), the western part (present France) </li></ul><ul><li>For Lothair, the central part of the Empire and he maintained the title of Emperor. </li></ul><ul><li>For Louis, the eastern part (present Germany) </li></ul>
  12. 12. The visigothic kingdom (476-711 ad)
  13. 13. WHO WERE THE VISIGOTHS? <ul><li>Their name means “Goths of the West”. They lived in present Romania, between the rivers Dnieper and Tisza, one of the tributaries of river Danube. They defeated the Romans in the battle of Adrianople in 376 and they came into the Roman Empire trying to escape from the Huns. </li></ul>
  14. 14. HOW DID THEY ARRIVE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA? <ul><li>In 410 they attacked Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>In 416 Honorius, Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, asked the Visigoths for help to expel other Germanic peoples that had settled down in Hispania (the Sueves, the Vandals and the Alans). </li></ul><ul><li>In 418 they arrived to Hispania and they defeated the Vandals Hasdingi and the Alans and they expelled the Vandals Silingi to the north of Africa. They occupied all Hispania except the Sueve kingdom . In exchange, they received lands in the south- east of Gaul . </li></ul>
  15. 15. THE VISIGOTHIC KINGDOM <ul><li>At first they established the capital city in Toulouse , in the south of present France. But in 507 the Frankish king Clovis defeated them in Vouillé and they were expelled from Gaul. They settled down only in the Iberian Peninsula and established their capital city in Toledo. </li></ul>VISIGOTHIC KINGDOM OF TOULOUSE VISIGOTHIC KINGDOM OF TOLEDO
  16. 16. <ul><li>The Visigoths were a minority (300,000). The majority of the population were Hispano- Romans. </li></ul><ul><li>A privileged minority were experienced warriors . Many of them settled down in the valley of river Tajo on the Central Plateau and they lived as farmers and shepherds </li></ul><ul><li>At first monarchy was elective , there were different laws for Visigoths and Hispano-Romans , intercultural marriages were forbidden and the Visigoths were Arians . But as time went by, things changed. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The 6 th and the 7 th century were the most splendorous period of the Visigothic kingdom: </li></ul><ul><li>TERRITORIAL UNIFICATION : </li></ul><ul><li>King Liuvigild was the unifier of all the territories of Hispania: he fought against the Byzantines in the south of Hispania, he defeated the Sueves definitly and added their kingdom to his crown and he also defeated the Basques and the Cantabrians. </li></ul>KING LIUVIGILD FIGHTING AGAINST THE CANTABRIANS VISIGOTHIC KINGDOM DURING LIUVIGILD´S REIGN
  18. 18. <ul><li>RELIGIOUS UNIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>Reccared , son of Liuvigild, became a Catholic in the 3 rd Concile of Bishops of Toledo and all the Visigoths became Catholic with him. </li></ul>RECCARED ACCEPTS CATHOLICISM IN THE 3 RD CONCILE OF BISHOPS OF TOLEDO
  19. 19. <ul><li>LEGISLATIVE UNIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>Recceswinth was responsible for the unification of Visigothic and Roman laws into an only law code: LIBER IUDICIORUM </li></ul>LIBER IUDICIORUM KING RECCESWINTH AND HIS SUCCESOR KING WAMBA
  20. 20. THE END OF THE VISIGOTHIC KINGDOM <ul><li>Some Visigothic kings tried to make monarchy hereditary. Many noblemen tried to avoid this. </li></ul><ul><li>At the beginning of the 8 th century, king Witiza designated his son Agila as his succesor, but the noblemen chose Roderic as king. </li></ul><ul><li>Witiza´s relatives asked the Muslims of the north of Africa for help to defeat king Roderic. </li></ul><ul><li>In 711 two Muslim armies disembarked in Hispania. King Roderic died in the battle of Guadalete and the Visigothic kingdom disappeared. </li></ul><ul><li>The Muslim armies conquered almost all the Peninsula very quickly and many Hispanovisigoths negotiated with them to keep their properties. </li></ul>MUSLIM CONQUEST OF HISPANIA
  21. 21. CULTURE AND ART <ul><li>Roman culture was superior and the Hispano- Romans were more numerous. This is why the Visigoths learned Latin and continued with many Roman traditions . </li></ul><ul><li>The most important works of art of the Visigoths were small churches and precious metal work (crowns, brooches, belt buckles,…) </li></ul><ul><li>They didn´t innovate so much. Their only contribution to architecture was the horseshoe arch. </li></ul>CHURCH OF SAN PEDRO DE LA NAVE, ZAMORA CHURCH OF SAN JUAN DE BAÑOS, PALENCIA HORSESHOE ARCH