Muslim empires


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Muslim empires

  1. 1. Muslim Empires 1453 CE – 1757 CE
  2. 2. Rise of the Ottoman Turks• In the 13th century, the Ottoman Turks began to build power on the Anatolian Peninsula – As the Seljuk Empire began to decline in the 14th century, the Ottoman Turks began to expand – The Ottomans expanded westward and eventually controlled the Bosporus and the Dardanelles• In the 14th century, the Ottoman Turks expanded into the Balkans – Ottoman rulers claimed the title of Sultan and began to build a strong military – They recruited from an elite guard called janissaries; the Janissaries were converted to Islam and trained as foot soldiers to serve the sultan
  3. 3. Ottoman Turk Empire Expansion• Over the next 300 years, Ottoman rule expanded to include large areas of Western Asia, North Africa, and parts of Europe• Under the leadership of Mehmet II, the Ottomans moved to end the Byzantine Empire – Mehmet laid siege to Constantinople; the battle began April 6, 1453 and lasted two month – The Ottomans were able to breach the walls and take over the city; it was sacked for over three days – Mehmet regretted the damage caused to Constantinople• Constantinople was renamed Istanbul
  4. 4. Ottoman Turk Empire Expansion• With their new capital at Istanbul, the Ottoman Turks dominated the Balkans and Anatolian Peninsula• From 1514 to 1517, Sultan Selim I took control of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Arabia – The Sultan controlled several of the holy cities, including Jerusalem, Makkah, and Madinah• Ottoman Turks expanded westward along the African coast, eventually almost reaching the Strait of Gibraltar – They preferred to administer their rule through local rulers; the central government appointed officials, called pashas to collect taxes, maintain law and order, and report to the sultan
  5. 5. Ottoman Expansion into Europe• After capturing Constantinople, the Turks tried to complete their conquest of the Balkans – They took the Romanian territory of Walachia, but were unable to advance up the Danube Valley; they were stopped by the Hungarians• In 1520, Suleyman I began his rule and moved against Europe – He seized Belgrade in the Danube Valley; in 1526 at the Battle of Mohacs, the Turks won a major victory against the Hungarians – The Ottomans were then able to conquer most of Hungary – They moved into Austria, where they were finally defeated in 1529 (near Vienna)• By mid-1683, the Ottomans laid siege to Vienna, but were repulsed by an army of Europeans; they were pushed out of Hungary, and were no longer a threat to central Europe
  6. 6. Ottoman Empire, 1300-1699
  7. 7. Ottoman RuleThe Ottomans werelabeled a gunpowderempire – an empire thatwas formed by outsideconquerors who unifiedthe regions theyconquered. Their successwas based on theirmastery of the technologyof firearms.
  8. 8. Sultans• At the head of the Ottoman system was the Sultan, who was the supreme authority in political and military endeavors• The Sultan was a hereditary position, passed on through sons; often sons fought over succession• As the empire expanded, the Sultan became more important and the position became an imperial ruler (emperor)• The private domain of the Sultan was called the harem (sacred place); here the sultan and his wives resided• The Sultan controlled his bureaucracy through a council led by the Grand Vizier• The Empire was divided into provinces and districts, each governed by local officials
  9. 9. Religion in the Ottoman World• The Ottoman Turks were Sunni Muslims – The Sultan also claimed the title of caliph• The Sultan used religious advisors called ulema, who administered the legal systems and schools for educating Muslims – Islamic law and customs were applied to all Muslims in the empire• The Ottomans were tolerant of non-Muslims – Non-Muslims paid a tax, but were allowed to practice their religion or convert to Islam
  10. 10. Ottoman Society• People were divided into social classes based on occupation; there were four main occupational groups: – Peasants – farmers, leased land from the state – Artisans – organized according to craft guilds, which provided financial services, social security, and training to its members – Merchants – the most privileged class outside of the ruling class, they were exempt from taxes and regulation and could amass large fortunes – Pastoral Peoples – nomadic herders who had their own regulations and laws• Women were allowed to own and inherit property, they could not be forced into marriage and in some cases were permitted to divorce; women occasionally served in government offices
  11. 11. Problems in the Ottoman Empire• The Ottoman Empire reached its highest point under Suleyman the Magnificent, who ruled from 1520 to 1566 – He was succeeded by his only surviving son (he had the other two killed)• In the late 1600s, the empire began to lose territory• After the death of Suleyman, the sultans allowed the ministers to exercise too much power; only elites were given government positions; the bureaucracy lost control of rural areas• There was corruption throughout the empire and the treasury was depleted• Western ideas began to invade the empire, including fashion, art, furniture, and more
  12. 12. Ottoman Art• Ottoman Sultans were enthusiastic patrons of the arts• Ottomans flourished in the production of pottery, rugs, silk, jewelry, arms, and armor
  13. 13. Ottoman Architecture• Ottoman architecture was probably the greatest contribution of the empire. Elaborate and magnificent mosques were built throughout the empire• Sinan, one of the greatest Ottoman architects, built 81 mosques
  14. 14. Rule of the Safavids• After the collapse of Tamerlane’s empire in Asia, the area from Persia to central Asia fell into anarchy• In the 16th century, a new dynasty known as the Safavids took control• The Safavids were strict Shiite Muslims
  15. 15. Shah Ismail• The Safavid dynasty was established by Shah Ismail, the descendent of Safi al-Din• In 1501, Ismail used his forces to seize most of Iraq and Iran; he appointed himself shah (king) of the new Persian state• Ismail sent Shiite preachers to Anatolia to convert members of the Ottoman empire• He conquered Baghdad in 1508 and ordered the massacre of Sunni Muslims• The Ottoman Sultan Selim I attacked the Safavids in Persia and won a major battle near Tabriz – They could not maintain control of the region and it went back to the Safavid Empire• The Safavids spend years consolidating their rule throughout Persia
  16. 16. Glory of the Safavid Empire• Shah Abbas took control of the empire in 1588 and ruled to 1629 – Under his rule, they reached their highest point• Shah Abbas strengthened his army and armed them with the latest technology• Shah Abbas moved against the Ottomans to regain lost territories; he was helped by the European states who wanted the removal of the Ottoman Turks• After his death, the empire began to decline
  17. 17. Decline of the Safavid Empire• After Shah Abbas’ death, the empire dealt with internal pressures – Religious orthodoxy, or strict conformity to religious beliefs and practices – Women were forced into seclusion and had to wear veils• In the 18th century, Afghan peoples invaded and seized the capital of Isfahan and took over the empire – The Ottoman Turks took advantage of the chaos to retake territories along the western border• Persia sank into a long period of political and social anarchy
  18. 18. Political & Social Structures• Persia under the Safavids was a mixed society; the Safavids came to power with the support of some Nomadic Turkish groups, but the majority of people were Persian; all aspects of the empire were affected by having two distinct groups of people• The Safavid political system was organized like a pyramid, with the Shah at the top, with the bureaucracy and landed classes in the middle and the common people at the bottom
  19. 19. Role of the Shah• The Shah was considered a direct successor of Muhammad• The Shah’s declared Shia Islam to be the state religion• Shah’s controlled the landed aristocracy by seizing estates and bringing them under state control• Shah’s appointed people to the bureaucracy based on merit, not birth
  20. 20. Economy & Trade• The Safavid empire had a large and affluent middle class involved in trade• Most goods traveled by camel caravan; the government provided resting places for weary travelers but did not maintain the roads• The Safavid empire was not as prosperous as the Moguls or Ottomans, because they were hemmed in on all sides by other empires
  21. 21. Safavid Culture• The capital city of Isfahan was built by Shah Abbas – It was well-planned, with wide spaces and a sense of order – Palaces, mosques, and bazaars were arranged around a massive polo ground – Buildings were richly decorated with metalwork, tiles, and glass• Much of Isfahan still stands in modern-day Iran• Safavids were known for silk weaving, carpet weaving, and painting
  22. 22. The Mogul Dynasty• In 1500 the Indian subcontinent was divided into a number of Hindu and Muslim kingdoms• The Moguls established a new dynasty and brought a new era of unity to the region
  23. 23. Mogul Dynasty• The founder of the Mogul Dynasty was Babur; he was descended from Timur Lenk and Genghis Khan – He inherited part of Timur Lenk’s empire – He seized Kabul as a youth in 1504 – In 1517, he crossed the Khyber Pass to India• Babur captured Delhi and established his power in Northern India• Babur’s grandson Akbar was only 14 when he inherited the throne; by 1605 he had brought Mogul rule to most of India – He used heavy artillery in battle and was able to overcome his opponents
  24. 24. Akbar• His conquests created the greatest Indian empire since the Mauryan dynasty 2,000 years earlier• He was known for the humane nature of his rule – He adopted policies of religious tolerance – He welcomed views of Christian and Jesuit advisers at court – He allowed non-Muslims to serve in government offices
  25. 25. Akbar• The upper ranks of government were filled with non- native Muslims• The lower ranks were often Hindus (demonstrating his religious tolerance)• The lower ranking and local officials were given plots of farmland known as zamindars for their own use – They kept a portion of the taxes paid by the peasants instead of a salary – They had to forward the rest of the taxes to the central government• Akbar’s reign was a time of progress, with flourishing trade and manufacturing
  26. 26. Decline of the Moguls• Akbar died in 1605 and was succeeded by his son Jahangir – He lost power when he allowed one of his wives to influence him into giving her family members power and wealth• He was succeeded by Shah Jahan, who ruled from 1628 to 1658 – Jahan expanded the boundaries of the empire, taking control of the Deccan Plateau – Jahan failed to deal with internal domestic issues and his empty treasury – There was a power struggle among his sons that ended in the death of a brother and the death of their father• Aurangzeb became emperor in 1658; he was one of the most controversial rulers of India, ever – He forbade Hindu customs (like suttee, the cremation of a widow on her husband’s pyre) – He tried to get rid of vices like drinking and gambling – He discriminated against Hindus
  27. 27. The British in India• The arrival of the British hastened the decline of the Mogul Empire• By 1650, British trading forts were established in Calcutta and Madra – British ships carried Indian made goods to the East Indies, where they were traded for spices• The French also came to India, mostly in response to British trade• The French & British fought over trade routes and territory; the British eventually won control because of Sir Robert Clive, who became the chief representative of the British in India• In 1757, Clive led British forces against a Mogul army and soundly defeated them; the Mogul court gave the British power to collect taxes, which increased Britain’s power• The British eventually expanded throughout India, taking control of local governments and taxing the locals to pay their expenses• The British remained the dominant force in India until the 20th century
  28. 28. Society & Daily Life Mogul India• The Moguls were foreign Muslims ruling over a local Hindu population – Women were allowed to hold office, but still had to live under the strict guidelines of Islamic Law; many of the rules for women were adopted by Hindus• Under the Moguls, a wealthy landed nobility and prosperous merchant class developed in India• The Indians were able to establish strong trade ties with foreign nations
  29. 29. Mogul Culture• The Moguls brought together Persian and Indian influences that were seen especially in the architecture of India• The Taj Mahal was built by Shah Jahan in the 17th century; considered the most beautiful building in India, it’s decorated with cut-stone patterns, inlays, and mosaics