Chapter 14 Sec 2

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30 Years War, Spanish Armada, Glorious Revolution

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Chapter 14 Sec 2

  1. 1. Chapter 14 Sec 2 30 Years War & Glorious Revolution
  2. 2. After the defeat of the Armada, Continental Europe is at odds over religion as well.
  3. 4. The Thirty Years’ War <ul><li>All major European countries but England became involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Takes place on German soil, and Germany was plundered and destroyed for 30 years.  </li></ul><ul><li>Some countries gained new territories, and France emerged as the dominant nation in Europe. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Reformation & Thirty Years War Video
  5. 6. The Thirty Years’ War The Peace of Westphalia -1648.  <ul><li>A German states could determine their own religion.  </li></ul>2. The states that made up the Holy Roman Empire became independent.  3. The Holy Roman Empire died, and Germany would not reunite for two hundred years.
  6. 7. The Thirty Years’ War <ul><li>The 30 Years’ War was Europe’s most destructive.  </li></ul><ul><li>flintlock musket :  </li></ul><ul><li>Armies had to be better disciplined and trained.  </li></ul><ul><li>Governments began to support standing armies.  </li></ul><ul><li>By 1700, France had a standing army of 400,000. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Flintlock Musket
  8. 10. Revolutions in England <ul><li>The 17th century saw England’s civil war, the English Revolution.  </li></ul><ul><li>It was a struggle between Parliament & King </li></ul><ul><li>James I King of England  </li></ul><ul><li>Divine right of kings – that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God.  </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament wanted equal power </li></ul>
  9. 11. Revolutions in England <ul><li>Parliament made up of mostly Protestants (Puritans)  </li></ul><ul><li>In 1628, Parliament passed a petition prohibiting passing taxes without Parliament’s consent.  </li></ul><ul><li>Civil war broke out in 1642 between supporters of the king ( Cavaliers or Royalists) and those of Parliament ( Roundheads ).  </li></ul>
  10. 12. Revolutions in England Cavaliers – Royalists/King Roundheads - Parliament 
  11. 13. Charles I: James I’s Son
  12. 14. Charles I : Executed by Oliver Cromwell
  13. 15. Revolutions in England <ul><li>What Causes Revolution? </li></ul>
  14. 18. Revolutions in England <ul><li>Cromwell led the New Model Army  </li></ul><ul><li>Purged the Parliament of anyone not loyal to him, creating “Rump Parliament”  </li></ul><ul><li>Then Cromwell dispersed the Rump Parliament by force.  </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled until his death in 1658  </li></ul>
  15. 19. English Dictator – Oliver Cromwell
  16. 20. Glorious Revolution <ul><li>James II – Catholic King of England  </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant parliament asks William of Orange, husband of James’ daughter Mary to “invade”  </li></ul><ul><li>James, wife and infant son “flee” to France  </li></ul><ul><li>No bloodshed & Bill of Rights  </li></ul>
  17. 21. William and Mary
  18. 22. Revolutions in England (cont.) <ul><li>The Toleration Act of 1689 gave Puritans, not Catholics, the right of free public worship.  </li></ul><ul><li>Few English citizens were persecuted for religion ever again, however.  </li></ul><ul><li>By deposing one king and establishing another, Parliament had destroyed the divine right theory of kingship. </li></ul>
  19. 23. What is Absolutism?
  20. 24. Louis XIV French King <ul><li>The best example of seventeenth-century absolutism is the reign of Louis XIV of France.  </li></ul>
  21. 25. France under Louis XIV <ul><li>One response to the crises of the seventeenth century was to seek stability by increasing the monarchy’s power.  </li></ul><ul><li>This response historians call absolutism, a system in which the ruler has total power.  </li></ul><ul><li>It also includes the idea of the divine right of kings.  </li></ul>
  22. 26. France under Louis XIV (cont.) <ul><li>Louis had an anti-Huguenot policy , wanting the Huguenots to convert to Catholicism.  </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed Huguenot churches and schools.  </li></ul><ul><li>As many as 200,000 Protestants fled France.  </li></ul><ul><li>The mercantilist policies of the brilliant Jean-Baptiste Colbert helped Louis with the money he needed for maintaining his court and pursuing his wars. </li></ul>
  23. 27. France under Louis XIV (cont.) <ul><li>France was debt-ridden and surrounded by enemies at the time of Louis XIV’s death.  </li></ul><ul><li>On his deathbed he seemed remorseful for not caring for the people more. </li></ul>
  24. 28. William Shakespeare
  25. 29. A Golden Age of Literature (cont.) <ul><li>William Shakespeare.  </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare’s works were performed principally at the Globe Theater .  </li></ul><ul><li>The low admission charge allowed the lower classes to attend, and Shakespeare had to write plays pleasing to all classes and types. </li></ul>
  26. 30. Political Thought (cont.) <ul><li>England’s revolutionary upheavals alarmed Thomas Hobbes.  </li></ul><ul><li>“ state of nature,” life is brutal and violent because human nature is self-interested.  </li></ul><ul><li>Life is not about morals, but self-preservation. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in Absolute Rule – to save people from themselves </li></ul>
  27. 31. Political Thought (cont.) <ul><li>John Locke </li></ul><ul><li>Against the absolute rule of one person.  </li></ul><ul><li>People lived in a state of freedom and equality, not violence and war.  </li></ul><ul><li>In this state people had natural rights – rights with which people are born. </li></ul>
  28. 32. Political Thought (cont.) <ul><li>Locke’s ideas were important to the American and French Revolutions.  </li></ul><ul><li>They were used to support demands for constitutional government, the rule of law, and the protection of rights.  </li></ul><ul><li>Locke’s ideas are found in the American Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution. </li></ul>

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