Unit 2

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Unit 2

  1. 1. Absolutism Enlightenment Constitutionalism
  2. 2. UNIT INTRODUCTION <ul><li>OBJECTIVES: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Trace the roots of government from regional kings/princes to National leaders, both absolute rulers and limited monarchs. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Understand the development of the Enlightenment and see how it led to Constitutionalism. </li></ul>
  3. 3. ILLUSTRATED DEFINITION <ul><li>Draw an illustration or cartoon that explains one of your vocabulary words from Unit 2 Homework Part 1. </li></ul><ul><li>REQUIREMENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>Must use an entire page of left side of notebook </li></ul><ul><li>Must use at least 4 colors NOT including black or pencil </li></ul><ul><li>Captions are allowed, but must be historically accurate </li></ul><ul><li>FYI: You will be graded on CREATIVITY, not artistic ability!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Be CREATIVE & NEAT....have fun!!!! </li></ul>
  4. 4. RELIGIOUS WARS CONTINUE <ul><li>Calvinists & Catholics growing more militant </li></ul><ul><li>FRANCE </li></ul><ul><li>Huguenots - French Calvinists </li></ul><ul><li>Persecuted by King </li></ul><ul><li>Make up 7% of population, but 40-50% of nobility </li></ul><ul><li>Including House of Bourbon (ruled Kingdom of </li></ul><ul><li>Navarre in S. France) </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic majority did out number Huguenot minority </li></ul>
  5. 5. PEACE IN FRANCE? <ul><li>Henry of Navarre - pol leader of Huguenots & a Bourbon </li></ul><ul><li>1589 - took throne of France --&gt; Henry IV </li></ul><ul><li>Realized would never be accepted by FRance as a Huguenot </li></ul><ul><li>so converted to Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>1594 - coronated King, religious fighting ends --- </li></ul><ul><li>Issued the Edict of Nantes- </li></ul><ul><li>Named Catholicism as official religion of France </li></ul><ul><li>BUT - Huguenots allowed to worship </li></ul>
  6. 6. RELIGIOUS PROBLEMS IN ENGLAND <ul><li>1558 - Elizabeth takes throne after </li></ul><ul><li>her sister, Mary dies </li></ul><ul><li>Returns England to Protestantism </li></ul><ul><li>One of her biggest fears was war </li></ul><ul><li>So she worked hard to make sure </li></ul><ul><li>FR & SP did not get too </li></ul><ul><li>powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: allowed Sir Francis Drake to </li></ul><ul><li>plunder SP ships </li></ul>
  7. 7. SPAIN - ARCHENEMY OF ENGLAND <ul><li>Phillip II - king of Spain (was married to Mary) </li></ul><ul><li>Militant Catholic ('Most Catholic King') </li></ul><ul><li>During his reign Spain was the most populous Empire </li></ul><ul><li>In reality - falling apart; military out-dated, no money... </li></ul><ul><li>1558 - sent Armada to invade England </li></ul><ul><li>Lost - humiliating defeat </li></ul><ul><li>Now England dominant political power in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>(In constant competition with France) </li></ul>
  8. 8. 30 YEARS WAR <ul><li>Started as a religious was, becomes political </li></ul><ul><li>Began btw Cath. Hapsburg HRE v. Protestants in Bohemia </li></ul><ul><li>France (Catholic) decided to join on side of Protestants!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Why??? Cardinal Richelieu (Louis XIII&apos;s chief minister) </li></ul><ul><li>saw if Hapsburs lost, the HRE would collapse & FR </li></ul><ul><li>could gains some land in the defeat </li></ul><ul><li>Most destructive war Europe had ever experienced </li></ul><ul><li>All major Eur powers (except Eng) were involved </li></ul>Peace of Westpahalia - ends 30 Years War Allows multiple Christian faiths in Germany Ends HRE - leaves FR dominant power on continent
  9. 9. <ul><li>When chaos (i.e. war) reigns, leaders often tend to grab hold of more power in an attempt to control the situation. </li></ul>This happened during the wars of religion throughout Europe. This led to Absolutism!
  10. 11. FRANCE - THE MODEL OF ABSOLUTISM <ul><li>The Bourbon Dynasty was th best example of 17th C </li></ul><ul><li>Absolutism, especially Louis XIV </li></ul>The Bourbons were the best examples of 17th C Absolutism Especially Louis XIV Absolutism - ruler has total control Tied to 'divine right of kings' Louis XIII and Louis XIV - were both young boys when they became king, so both had ministers that ruled for them Louis XIV Louis XIII
  11. 12. LOUIS XIII <ul><li>Cardinal Richelieu - his chief minister </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled when Louis XIII was a child </li></ul><ul><li>Stengthened monarchy&apos;s power </li></ul><ul><li>Set up network of spies to uncover </li></ul><ul><li>plots to kill king </li></ul><ul><li>Crushed conspiracies </li></ul><ul><li>Executed conspirators </li></ul>
  12. 13. LOUIS XIV <ul><li>1643 - Louis XIV came to throne (4 yrs old) </li></ul><ul><li>Cardinal Mazarin ruled for him </li></ul><ul><li>Crushed revolt by nobles mad over increase power of king </li></ul><ul><li>But the FR people saw stability (stability = trust) </li></ul><ul><li>1661 - dies, Louis XIV must rule!!! </li></ul>Louis XIV shocked everyone, including his mother & is a strict ruler Established a strict routine & seldom deviated Known as the SUN KING
  13. 14. King Louis XIV <ul><li>Moved Court to Versailles (originally his hunting estate ) </li></ul><ul><li>Builds it to be a great palace </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps all court members close (can keep an eye on them!) </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles are actually his biggest threat </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of Versailles : 1. Home </li></ul><ul><li>2. Chief office of state (govt) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Palace </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles are constantly entertained (kept busy) </li></ul>
  14. 16. Increasing (Absolute) Powers <ul><li>Wanted Absolute powers over nationwide policies </li></ul><ul><li>Limited at the local level </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally locals, lower nobles & town councils </li></ul><ul><li>controlled local affairs </li></ul><ul><li>King starts to bribe local officials to follow his plans </li></ul><ul><li>Religious peace gained by Henry IV had been maintained by </li></ul><ul><li>the kings - until now!! </li></ul><ul><li>Louis XIV repeals the Edict of Nantes </li></ul><ul><li>Begins to persecute Huguenots </li></ul><ul><li>200,000 fled to England, Netherlands, or Ger states </li></ul>
  15. 17. NEED MORE MONEY!! <ul><li>Jean-Baptiste Colbert - General Minister of Finances </li></ul><ul><li>Used mercantilism to increase FR weath & power </li></ul><ul><li>Built roads & canals </li></ul><ul><li>raised tariffs </li></ul><ul><li>Created merchant marines </li></ul><ul><li>Developed standing army (400,000 men) </li></ul><ul><li>1667-1713 wages 4 wars! </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly struggles with King&apos;s spending, esp @ Versailles </li></ul>1715 - Louis XIV dies Leaves France deep in debt & surrounded by enemies
  16. 18. PRUSSIA (think Germany) <ul><li>After 30 Years War - no German State </li></ul><ul><li>300 little Germanies </li></ul><ul><li>Prussia - a leading German state </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick William the Elector - </li></ul><ul><li>laid foundation for Prussian state </li></ul><ul><li>Created a Prussian kingdom in 1701 </li></ul><ul><li>by taking control of other Ger </li></ul><ul><li>states </li></ul>
  17. 19. How does Prussia gain power? <ul><li>Frederick William the Elector - realized Prussia was a </li></ul><ul><li>small nation with no natural defenses </li></ul><ul><li>So he built a large & efficient standing army </li></ul><ul><li>40,000 soldiers (4th largest in Europe) </li></ul><ul><li>Set up General War Commisariat </li></ul><ul><li>To levy taxes for army & oversee growth </li></ul><ul><li>Junkers - landed nobles, served as military officers </li></ul><ul><li>Starts LONG tradition of Prussian/German militarism </li></ul>
  18. 20. AUSTRIA <ul><li>The other powerful German state </li></ul><ul><li>Austrian Empire incl - Austria, Czech Repbulic & Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>18th C gained modern day Transylvania, Croatia & </li></ul><ul><li>Slovania </li></ul><ul><li>Austrian Monarchy - never highly centralized or absolutist </li></ul><ul><li>Remained a collection of lands held together by Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Each area had own laws & political life </li></ul><ul><li>No common sentiment, except service to Hapsburgs </li></ul><ul><li>TOO DIVERSE!! Too difficult to keep united </li></ul>
  19. 21. RUSSIA <ul><li>15th C - a new state emerges </li></ul><ul><li>16th C - Ivan IV, 1st czar </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded RU eastward </li></ul><ul><li>Crushed Russian nobility </li></ul>Nicknamed - Ivan the Terrible Ruthless Killed his own son 1598 - Ivan IV died 'Time of Troubles' begins virtual anarchy
  20. 22. ROMANOV DYNASTY <ul><li>1613 - Michael Romanov named czar </li></ul><ul><li>Romanov&apos;s rule until 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>1689 - Peter Romanov named czar ('Peter the Great') </li></ul><ul><li>Determined to westernize/Europeanize Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted western technology </li></ul><ul><li>Modernized military - built 1st RU navy </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted western customs, clothing, etiquette... </li></ul><ul><li>Created police state to maintain order </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy was very corrupt!! </li></ul><ul><li>1703 - began to build St Petersburg </li></ul><ul><li>His window to the west </li></ul>
  21. 24. BACK TO ENGLAND <ul><li>struggle between Parliament and the King </li></ul><ul><li>Who has the power to do what???? </li></ul><ul><li>1603 - Elizabeth dies </li></ul><ul><li>Tudor Dynasty over - No heir </li></ul><ul><li>New Dynasty - Stuart </li></ul><ul><li>James I (Elizabeth&apos;s cousin) </li></ul>Immediate Trouble... 1. James believes in Divine Right 2. Clashes with Parliament
  22. 25. CHARLES I <ul><li>Son of James I </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in Divine Right </li></ul><ul><li>1628 - Parliament passed petition stating King can&apos;t pass </li></ul><ul><li>tax w/o thier ok </li></ul><ul><li>At first, he accepted the petition </li></ul><ul><li>Later changed his mind (needed money!) </li></ul><ul><li>He tried to add more rituals to Church of England </li></ul><ul><li>Puritans (English Puritans) saw this a too Catholic </li></ul><ul><li>1000s went to America </li></ul>
  23. 26. ENGLISH CIVIL WAR <ul><li>Cavaliers (supporters of King) </li></ul><ul><li>VS </li></ul><ul><li>Roundheads (Parliament&apos;s Forces) </li></ul>Oliver Cromwell - Prime Minister (PM) & military genius Created & led New Model Army Known as Roundheads Made up of Extreme Puritans Parliament Won!!
  24. 27. CROMWELL&apos;S ENGLAND <ul><li>Cromwell now in charge </li></ul><ul><li>January 30, 1649 - executed Charles I </li></ul><ul><li>Purged Parliament of members not supportive of him </li></ul><ul><li>Abolished monarchy & House of Lords </li></ul><ul><li>Declared England a Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a military dictatorship </li></ul>
  25. 28. THE RESTORATION <ul><li>1659 - Cromwell dies...who will rule now? </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament chose to RESTORE monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Charles II - son of Charles I </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathetic to Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>Brother - James, heir to throne </li></ul>Parliament introduces the Exclusion Bill An attempt to bar James from the throne Long debate in Parliament 1681 - Charles II dismissed Parliament (no vote on bill!!)
  26. 29. JAMES II <ul><li>1685 - Charles II dies </li></ul><ul><li>Throne goes to his brother...James II crowned </li></ul><ul><li>Devout & open Catholic </li></ul><ul><li>Named Catholics to high positions in govt </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament objected to James II&apos;s policies, but did nothing </li></ul><ul><li>Waiting for King to die </li></ul>1688 - has a SON!!!!
  27. 30. THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION <ul><li>William of Orange - Dutch (Protestant) </li></ul><ul><li>Married to James II&apos;s daughter, Mary </li></ul><ul><li>Invited by Parliament to invade England! </li></ul><ul><li>1688 - William 'invaded' </li></ul><ul><li>James II & family fled to France </li></ul><ul><li>Glorious Revolution because... </li></ul><ul><li>1. No bloodshed </li></ul><ul><li>2. Parliament made King & Queen agree to a Bill of </li></ul><ul><li>Rights before crowned </li></ul>
  28. 31. ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Set up Parliament&apos;s right to make laws & levy taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Stated - need Parliament&apos;s approval to raise army </li></ul><ul><li>Helped create govt based on rule of law & freely elected </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>laid foundation for limited/constitutional monarchy </li></ul>Toleration Act of 1689 - granted Puritans, but not Catholics the right to freely worship
  29. 32. SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY <ul><li>Theory that explain how people maintain social order. </li></ul><ul><li>Contract implies people give up some rights to a </li></ul><ul><li>govt/authority, in exchange for rule of law. </li></ul><ul><li>The type of Social Contract </li></ul><ul><li>you believe exists, or </li></ul><ul><li>should exists, determines </li></ul><ul><li>the type of government </li></ul><ul><li>you think is most </li></ul><ul><li>effective. </li></ul>
  30. 33. Take your own notes!!!!!!!!
  31. 34. THOMAS HOBBES <ul><li>English Philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote Leviathan - his social </li></ul><ul><li>contract theory </li></ul>Believed life was &quot;solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short&quot; People are selfish - need absolute monarchy to control chaos
  32. 35. John Locke <ul><li>English philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Rights - life, liberty, property </li></ul><ul><li>Gov - protect nat&apos;l. rights </li></ul><ul><li>not protected = revolt + new gov </li></ul><ul><li>Believes demoracy is best for the people </li></ul>
  33. 36. The Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Before - knowledge based on superstition/beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreeing w/Catholic church = heresy </li></ul><ul><li>During SR people began to use the scientific method to determine things </li></ul><ul><li>-People should use REASON & should OBSERVE nature to find scientific truth! </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Rev. aka - Age of REASON! </li></ul>
  34. 37. What people believed prior: <ul><li>Ptolemy- greatest ancient astronomer </li></ul><ul><li>Ptolemaic system - geocentric </li></ul><ul><li>b/c - Earth centered </li></ul><ul><li>The earth is fixed/motionless </li></ul><ul><li>Universe - serires of concentric spheres </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond the universe is HEAVEN! </li></ul>
  35. 38. Nicolas Copernicus <ul><li>Polish </li></ul><ul><li>Believed Ptolomey&apos;s system had flaws </li></ul><ul><li>Heliocentric theory - sun is center, planets revolve around sun, moon around planets. </li></ul><ul><li>Devout Catholic- never declared theory to be true (heresy) </li></ul><ul><li>Theory made Earth just like any other planet, took heaven off the map </li></ul>
  36. 39. Johannes Kepler <ul><li>German mathmatician </li></ul><ul><li>used reason & math to prove Copernicus&apos; theory </li></ul><ul><li>discovered laws of planetary motion </li></ul><ul><li>Elliptical orbits (egg shaped, not circular) </li></ul><ul><li>planet&apos;s speed increase as it gets closer to the sun </li></ul><ul><li>direct relationship btw planet&apos;s distance from sun and time took to orbit </li></ul>
  37. 40. Galileo Galilei <ul><li>Italian mathematician </li></ul><ul><li>Built his own telescope </li></ul><ul><li>Used telescope (& reason) to prove heliocentric theory </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered: Jupiter had moons, Sun had sunspots,Moon had craters </li></ul><ul><li>Debunked old world views of heavenly bodies being composed of perfect matter - different from the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>declared heretic - recanted what he said after threats of torture/execution </li></ul>
  38. 41. Isaac Newton <ul><li>Englishman </li></ul><ul><li>hoped to bring together science & religion - devout Anglican </li></ul><ul><li>Used reason to discover Laws of Gravity, Laws of motion & calculus </li></ul><ul><li>Believed God was the cause of all motion and matter, but not responsible for the behavior of matter </li></ul>
  39. 42. Francis Bacon <ul><li>English philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>scientific method - used reason & observation to prove things - inductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Changed the way people thought </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated gov. funding for science - make nations rich/powerful </li></ul><ul><li>'Knowledge is power' </li></ul>
  40. 43. Rene Descartes
  41. 44. <ul><li>Because so many people began questioning things and trying to prove things, and because people began learning & discovering like never before, this time period in history became known as the </li></ul><ul><li>ENLIGHTNEMENT! </li></ul>
  42. 45. Montesquieu <ul><li>French philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote The Spirit of the Laws - outlined his ideas about gov. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed thee can be no freedom when there is no balance of power </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of Powers - 3 branches </li></ul><ul><li>ENG had a good model: King, Parliment, and judges in the court </li></ul><ul><li>EQUAL BUT SEPARATE!!!!! </li></ul>
  43. 46. Rousseau <ul><li>French </li></ul><ul><li>The Social Contract </li></ul><ul><li>Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains </li></ul><ul><li>Gov&apos;t is contract btw ppl & ruler </li></ul><ul><li>must be what ppl want </li></ul>
  44. 47. Voltaire <ul><li>French </li></ul><ul><li>Life is better with liberty </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of speech & religion </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of church & state </li></ul><ul><li>'I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend you to the death your right to say it.' </li></ul>
  45. 48. The Philosophes <ul><li>United for the common cause of education the public </li></ul><ul><li>(Shared the common beliefe that they were intellectual beacons whose responsibility is was to enlighten the public) </li></ul><ul><li>Hoped to free people from the superstition and dogma by exposing fallacies of organized religion </li></ul><ul><li>believed that b/c God was rational, and could be understood through reason therefore no need for superstition, ceremonies, or mysticism that accompanied organized religion (this new view of God & creation is deism) </li></ul>
  46. 49. The Philosophes 'Reform movement' <ul><li>The only way society would change was through educating those who ruled </li></ul><ul><li>Only they had the power to change existing laws & societal conditions </li></ul>
  47. 50. Enlightened Rulers <ul><li>Allow - religious tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Nurture - arts, science, edu. </li></ul><ul><li>Obey -laws </li></ul><ul><li>Enforce - fairly on everything </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightened Absolutism </li></ul><ul><li>rulers govern w/ Enl. principles and keep royal power </li></ul>
  48. 51. <ul><li>Fredrick II - aka: Fredrick the Great , well versed in Enl. ideas </li></ul><ul><li>abolished - torture (except - murder/treason cases) </li></ul><ul><li>granted - limited free speech & press </li></ul><ul><li>Kept - Serfdom & rigid social structure </li></ul>Prussia Russia Catherine the Great - favored Enl. reforms but expanded serfdom Austria Maria Theresa - worked to centralize empire and end serfdom not open to reform Joseph II - est. equality before the law
  49. 52. How can you be enlightened & absolute? <ul><li>many rulers talked about change </li></ul><ul><li>some even attempted </li></ul><ul><li>But power was a priority </li></ul><ul><li>Powers used to collect more taxes, creating armies </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose - wage war, gain more power </li></ul>
  50. 53. Issues of the time <ul><li>War of Austrian Succession </li></ul><ul><li>Fred II of PR took adv. of Maria Theresa being a woman on the throne & invaded Austrian Silesia </li></ul><ul><li>France - sides w/ PR </li></ul><ul><li>AU made alliance w/ GB </li></ul><ul><li>Prussia seized Silesia </li></ul><ul><li>France V. Britian </li></ul><ul><li>In Far East - FR took Madras from BR </li></ul><ul><li>In N. Am - Br took Ft. Louisbourg </li></ul><ul><li>TReaty of Aix-La-Chapelle (1748) - guaranteed return of occupied terr, except Silesia - Pr refused to return - meant another war </li></ul>
  51. 54. 7 Years War <ul><li>Fr. Aust. RU vs. Pr & BR </li></ul><ul><li>Maria Theresa - refused to accept loss of Silesia </li></ul><ul><li>2 new rivalries </li></ul><ul><li>Br & FR -re: colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>Aust & Pr -re: Silesia </li></ul><ul><li>FR abandoned PR - allies w/ Aust </li></ul><ul><li>RU - saw PR as threat - allies w/ Fr & Aust. </li></ul><ul><li>Br allies w/ Pr </li></ul><ul><li>3 areas of conflict - Europe, India, N. America </li></ul>
  52. 55. More War <ul><li>War in Eur </li></ul><ul><li>1763 - 7 yrs. War over </li></ul><ul><li>all occupied terr returned to orig. owners </li></ul><ul><li>PR - permanent control on Silesia </li></ul><ul><li>War in India - Great War for Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Fr v. Br - Br won, FR left India </li></ul><ul><li>War in N. Am </li></ul><ul><li>Br. & FR fought over Gulf of St. Lawrence & Ohio River Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Fr gained Indian&apos;s support </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Paris - ended war </li></ul><ul><li>Br - Canada & land east of Miss. river </li></ul><ul><li>SP - Florida to Br, Fr - Lousannia to SP </li></ul>
  53. 56. <ul><li>Intellectuals are examining the standards by which rulers governed </li></ul><ul><li>New ideas stated individuals had natural rights and that gov&apos;t was an agreement/contract btw people and their ruler. </li></ul><ul><li>In gov&apos;t contract ruler & citizen had rights & responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Power should be seperated & balanced so groups did not become corrupt through the power </li></ul><ul><li>What did all these great thoughts lead to? </li></ul>CONSTITUTIONALISM! (the belief that the gov't contract should be written down, making clear what powers were given to whom)
  54. 57. English Constitutionalism is caused by: <ul><li>lack of powerful monarch since Henry VIII </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament gains power over kings by choosing/confirming the king </li></ul><ul><li>'Power of the purse' - no taxes w/out Paliament consent </li></ul><ul><li>Kings inability to unite nobles </li></ul><ul><li>religious division </li></ul><ul><li>taste of Divine Right monarchy under Stuart kings </li></ul>
  55. 58. America - influenced by the Enlightenment <ul><li>America became a country during the heart of the Enlightenemnt </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Enl. thinkers </li></ul><ul><li>Locke - Declaration of Independence - '...All men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certian unalienable RIGHTS, among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness...' </li></ul><ul><li>Montesquieu - Constitution - 'Article I: Legislative Power... Article II: Nature and Scope of Executive Power... Article III: Judicial Power, Courts, Judges...' </li></ul><ul><li>Voltaire - Bill of Rights - 'Amendment 1: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of RELIGION, or prohibit the free exercise thereof; or abridging the FREEDOM OF SPEECH, or of the PRESS...' </li></ul>

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