Age of exploration


Published on

Published in: Education
1 Comment
  • it was pretty learnable
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Age of exploration

  1. 1. 1500 ce – 1800 ce
  2. 2.  Beginning in the 1500s, European countries began to expand into the rest of the world Europeans were motivated by trade and potential wealth that could be gained through trade with Asia and the East The conquests of the Ottoman Turks in the Middle East prevented Europeans from traveling to the East and Asia; Europeans sought oversea routes instead Religion was also a factor in European expansion; the Spanish, especially, were motivated by “God, Glory, and Gold” and wanted to convert native populations to Christianity European monarchies were stabilized, so the monarchs could focus on expansion The level of technology had increased, enabling people to make long sea voyages
  3. 3.  Portugal was the leader of European exploration and expansion In 1420, under the sponsorship of Prince Henry the Navigator, Portuguese fleets moved southward along the western coast of Africa  They discovered new sources for gold; the area was called the Gold Coast In 1488, Bartholomeu Dias rounded the tip of Africa (the Cape of Good Hope) Vasco de Gama went around the Cape and cut across the Indian Ocean to the Coast of India, arriving in 1498
  4. 4.  After de Gama reached the Indies, Portuguese fleets returned to the area and attempted to destroy Muslim shipping routes so the Portuguese could control the spice trade In 1509, Portuguese warships destroyed a combined fleet of Turkish and Indian ships off the coast of India  Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque established an Indian port for the Portuguese  Albuquerque eventually sailed to Melaka on the Malay Peninsula, which also led to trade with China and the Spice islands  The Portuguese signed a treaty with the Spice Islands allowing them to control the spice trade
  5. 5.  Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer He believed he could sail west around the world and reach Asia and the Indies  This was an alternative route to sailing around the tip of Africa and going east Columbus was sponsored by Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain  He reached the Americas in 1492, where he explored Cuba and the island of Hispaniola  He believed he had reached Asia; in three more voyages, he attempted to find a route through the major islands of the Caribbean to central Asia; he named the islands the Indies (Caribbean, Honduras, Cuba)
  6. 6.  Spain and Portugal were both extensively exploring other lands and creating new sea routes for trade Both were concerned the other country would attempt to infringe on their newly discovered territories They agreed on a line of demarcation, an imaginary line that divided the earth into two “spheres of influence” This line of demarcation was spelled out in the Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494, which gave Portugal control of anything east of the line, and Spain control of anything west of the line Portugal gained control of everything around Africa while Spain was given “rights” to most of the Americas  Keep in mind they were not concerned with native populations, only with their expanding territory and wealth  See the MAP on the next page for the LINE OF DEMARCATION
  7. 7. Spanish Control Portuguese Control
  8. 8.  Other explorers recognized what Columbus did not: he had found an entirely new part of the world (to the Europeans, at least) John Cabot, from Venice, explored the New England coastline Pedro Cabral landed in South America in 1500 Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine, went on several voyages to the Americas and wrote letters describing what he say; the letters led to the use of the name America for the new land Although the Europeans called the Americas the “New World” it was already inhabited by flourishing civilizations made up of millions of people
  9. 9.  The Spanish conquerors of the Americas were known as Conquistadors.  Their guns helped them overwhelm natives Hernán Cortés took only three years to overthrow the Aztec Empire in Central Mexico By 1550, the Spanish had gained control of northern Mexico Francisco Pizarro took control of the Incan Empire in the Peruvian Andes Within 30 years of the arrival of the Spanish, the western part of Latin America (including Mexico, Central, and South America) were under Spanish control
  10. 10.  By 1535, the Spanish had created a system of colonial administration in the Americas Queen Isabella declared the Natives her subjects  She allowed the Spanish settlers and Conquistadors the right to use Native Americans as laborers The Spanish were supposed to protect the Natives (after all, they were the queen’s “subjects”) but rules were ignored  The distance to Spain meant any rules were difficult to enforce  Natives were used as laborers on sugar plantations and in mines
  11. 11.  Forced labor, starvation, and disease wiped out many of the Native Americans  Natives had little to no resistance to European diseases  When Columbus arrived in Hispaniola, there were 250,000 natives on the island; by 1538 there were only 500 left  In Mexico, the population dropped from 25 million in 1519 to only 1 million in 1630 Catholic missionaries converted and baptized hundreds of thousands of native people  The missionaries established schools, hospitals, and parishes; all the trappings of European society  Native American social and political structures were destroyed
  12. 12.  Colonists established plantations and ranches to raise sugar, cotton, vanilla, livestock and other products for export to Europe Conquerors sought gold and silver, and exploited deposits throughout Latin America New products, like cocoa, potatoes, corn, and tobacco were introduced to the Europeans Trade with the new world transformed economic activity in both worlds, and created great wealth for the Spanish
  13. 13.  Portuguese Expansion in the East created its own economic impact; they soon challenged the Italian states as great traders of wealth Other nations wanted the economic boons of the Portuguese and Spanish; they began exploring the New World The Spanish took control of the Philippines (where Ferdinand Magellan had landed earlier) and established a base for trade across the Pacific
  14. 14.  The English landed in India in the early 17th century and established trade with India  Southeast Asian trade followed shortly thereafter The Dutch arrived in India in 1595 and formed the East India Company, which competed with the English and Portuguese for trade with India  They also started the West India Company and started a colony in the New World called New Netherlands, in the Hudson River Valley  After 1660, the Dutch lost control of New Netherlands to the English, who named it New York  The Dutch commercial empire collapsed
  15. 15.  During the 1600s, the French colonized parts of Canada and Louisiana The English founded colonies in Virginia and Massachusetts  By 1700, the English had a colonial empire along the eastern seaboard  The English also established sugar plantations throughout the Caribbean Islands
  16. 16.  European nations established trading posts and colonies in the Americas and the East  A colony is a settlement of people living in a new territory, linked with the parent country by trade and direct government control Europe entered an age of increasing international trade  Colonies played a role in the theory of mercantilism, a set of principles that dominated economic thought in the 17th century
  17. 17.  According to mercantilism theory, the prosperity of a nation depended on a large supply of gold and silver To bring in gold and silver, nations tried to have a favorable balance of trade.  A trade balance is the difference between a nations imports and exports  A favorable balance means a nation exports more than it imports
  18. 18.  To encourage a favorable balance of trade, governments will stimulate industries that export, and build infrastructure, like roads, highways, and ports, to encourage trade Governments will also charge a tariff, or a tax, on imports, so imported goods cannot compete with local goods
  19. 19.  European expansion affected Africa with a dramatic increase in the slave trade Prior to worldwide expansion, the primary market or African slaves was Southwest Asia where most slaves were domestic servants  Slavery also existed in some European countries  The demand for slaves changed dramatically in the 1490s, as the sugar trade in the Americas increased ▪ Slaves were used on plantations, large agricultural estates, where sugarcane was grown; sugarcane had high labor demands
  20. 20.  In 1518, a Spanish ship carried the first boatload of African slaves directly from Africa to the Americas  Slavery became part of the triangular trade system, which connected the Americas, Europe, and Africa ▪ European merchant ships carried guns and cloth (and other European goods) to Africa, where they were traded for slaves ▪ The slaves were carried to the Americas, where they were traded for American products like tobacco, molasses, sugar, and cotton ▪ The American products were shipped to Europe, where they were sold and the cycle started again
  21. 21.  An estimated 275,000 African slaves were exported during the sixteenth century; 2,000 went every year to the Americas In the 17th century, over 1,000,000 slaves were exported; by the 18th century, it was over 6,000,000. As many as ten million African slaves were brought to the Americas between the 16th and 19th centuries
  22. 22.  One reason for the large number of slaves exported was the high death rate The journey of slaves from Africa to America was called the Middle Passage, which was the middle portion of the triangular trade route  Many slaves died on the journey, those who survived the journey often died from exposure to new diseases from the Europeans and Americans
  23. 23. • Before the coming of Europeans in the 15th century, most slaves in Africa were prisoners of war• When Europeans first began to take part in the slave trade, they bought slaves from African merchants on the coasts• At first, local traders obtained slaves from the coastal regions nearby; as the trade increased they moved further inland
  24. 24.  Local rulers were concerned about the impact of the slave trade on their societies  King Afonso worried that the Congo was becoming depopulated  Some African rulers were using slave trade as a source of income The slave trade depopulated some areas of Africa  It also deprived many communities of their strongest men and women  It increased warfare in Africa, as coastal leaders fought with inland leaders for a supply of slaves Some African states were completely devastated  Benin, in West Africa, experienced population decline and an increase in warfare, they lost faith in their gods, their art deteriorated, and human sacrifice became more common
  25. 25.  In general, traditional African political systems continued to exist  Monarchy was the dominant form of government  European influence was felt mostly in coastal regions Europeans were causing changes, including shifting trade routes, increased warfare, and religious beliefs  Islam expanded in Northern Africa  Christianity was introduced in Africa
  26. 26.  Mainland Asia, the Malay Peninsula, and the Indonesian Archipelago were gradually penetrated by Muslim merchants attracted to the spice trade  The creation of an Islamic trade network had political results as new states arose along the spice route  Melaka became a power, as it had a strategic location along the Melaka strait
  27. 27.  In 1511, the Portuguese seized Melaka and soon occupied the area  The area was the chief source of spices to Europe Dutch traders followed soon after; in the early 1600s, the Dutch seized Portuguese trading posts and began their occupation of most of the trading posts in the Indian Ocean  The Dutch consolidated their political and military control over the entire area; they eventually brought the entire region under their control
  28. 28.  Europeans had less impact on the mainland than on the Peninsula and Archipelago  The Portuguese established trade with several mainland states – part of the continent of Asia – including Thailand, Vietnam, Burma, and Cambodia  By the 17th century, other European countries were trading with the mainland states ▪ European countries interfered with local governments, but European economic opportunities remained limited ▪ Missionaries attempted to convert many, but many governments saw Catholicism as a threat to their power and thus forbid it’s practice
  29. 29.  The mainland states were better able to resist European influences  They had strong monarchies that resisted foreign intrusion  They had distinct political identities  In the non-mainland states, there was less political unity  The non-mainland states were also growing wealthy because of the Europeans, so they succumbed more easily to their influence
  30. 30.  Religious beliefs changed in Southeast Asia between 1500 to 1800  Islam and Christianity were attracting converts  Buddhism was advancing on the mainland Political systems evolved into monarchies: kings, sultans, and emperors led different countries  Kings in Burma, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia  Islamic countries had Sultans, especially on the Malay Peninsula  Vietnam had emperors who tended to adapt foreign models of government; the emperor used the Confucian model from China