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  1. 2. Foreign Trade and Colonial Plunder <ul><li>Foreign trade limited by transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only land route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantinople captured by the Turks, the land route to Asia was cut off </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Age of Exploration” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find a route to India around Russia or America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade with colonies of other powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find land to plan colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pope had given the whole unexplored world to Spain and Portugal </li></ul>
  2. 3. The strengthening of the Centralized Monarch <ul><li>Henry VIII </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established a new dynasty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthened the judicial system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthened the treasury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put down revolts and rivals to the throne </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Left a stable and wealthy monarchy for his son </li></ul>
  3. 4. The Reformation <ul><li>Strength of the church hindered the social and political process of England </li></ul><ul><li>External pretext for the reformation was Henry VIII’s divorce case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry VIII married Catherine but had no sons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied to the pope to divorce and marry again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But Rome was occupied by Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign influence through the church </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>1533 Divorce through Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>1534 “Act of Supremacy” ->head of the English Church, independent from Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Catholic Church-international </li></ul><ul><li>English (Anglican) Church-national </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant: A branch of Christianity which broke off from the Roman Catholic Church at the time of the reformation </li></ul>
  5. 6. The Counter-Reformation <ul><li>Mary re-established Catholicism and burnt 300 protestants->”Bloody Mary” </li></ul><ul><li>After Mary’s death in 1558, Elizabeth becomes queen and restores the Anglican Church </li></ul>
  6. 7. The English Renaissance <ul><li>Renaissance=rebirth </li></ul><ul><li>Italians believed that they were merely discovering lost knowledge, English were influenced by the Italians and rediscovered the Classics through them </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly literary </li></ul>
  7. 8. Bourgeois Revolution <ul><li>Capitalist mode of production needs two basic conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large number of employed workers and expansion of domestic market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large amount of capital </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tension between the Bourgeoisie (middle class) and the Crown </li></ul><ul><li>Early 17 th century refusal of Parliament to grand taxes and over the efforts of the Kings to secure their consent </li></ul>
  8. 9. Absolutist Rule of the Stuarts <ul><li>James VI, King of Scotland, 1603 also becomes the King of England after Elizabeth dies </li></ul><ul><li>Divine Right of Kings-the right to rule is from God and also King is only responsible to God </li></ul><ul><li>1611 dissolved Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>1614 “Addled Parliament”-ineffective </li></ul><ul><li>Set the scene for Civil War under his son and successor, Charles I </li></ul>
  9. 10. English Civil War <ul><li>West and North supported Charles: feudal nobles and their followers, Anglican Clergy, Peasantry in the NW </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament: Bourgeoisie, plebeians, peasants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Royalist vs. Roundheads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cromwell’s “New Model Army” </li></ul><ul><li>1649 Charles was deposed as “tyrant, traitor, murderer, and a public implacable enemy of the Commonwealth of England” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>January 1649-beheaded </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Commonwealth and Protectorate <ul><li>August 1649- Cromwell confiscates the land of the “rebels” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Karl Marx “The English Revolution ship wrecked in Ireland” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cromwell then defeats the Scottish forces, Scotland under English Rule </li></ul><ul><li>1651-Navigation Act: No goods should be imported from abroad except in English ships or from ships of the colonies </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>1653: Parliament dissolved and Cromwell was made Lord Protector for life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonwealth became the Protectorate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1657 office of Lord Protector was made hereditary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cromwell dies in 1658, his son Richard declared Lord Protector but retires in 1659 </li></ul><ul><li>May 1660-Charles II, son of Charles the I, proclaimed King Charles II of England </li></ul>
  12. 13. Restoration and the Coup D’Etat <ul><li>First political parties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cavaliers/Loyalists: Tories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roundheads:Whigs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>June 1688: Leaders of Parliament invite William of Holland to take the throne </li></ul><ul><li>” The Glorious Revolution” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1689 Bill of Rights: limits powers of the Crown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutiny Act: army only possible through Parliament’s consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triennial Act of 1694 ensured frequent Parliament sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevented Kings from ruling without Parliament </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Concluded the medieval period and marked the beginning of the modern period </li></ul>