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  1. 1. The Age of Absolutism
  2. 2. Challenges in 17 th Century <ul><li>17th Century an age of many conflicts and crises </li></ul><ul><li>Many causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>religious and state-centered warfare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social unrest and widespread peasant revolts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenge to European governments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to maintain order and give the nation sufficient power to compete internationally? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Absolutism <ul><li>Most common response of European governments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>seek more power to deal with the problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strengthen the king. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>European rulers tried to attain absolute power and build absolutist states. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monarchs regulated religious sects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished many liberties long held by certain areas, groups or provinces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created new state bureaucracies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to eliminate control by nobles and traditional representative bodies, such as parliaments. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absolutism meant that monarchs were claiming absolute power; Divine Right of Kings. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Road to Louis XIV <ul><li>Louis XIV’s consolidation of absolute power was a process that started with grandfather, Henry IV- (ruled 1593-1610) </li></ul><ul><li>Issued Edict of Nantes- granted religious liberties to Catholics and Protestants. </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant king who became Catholic -“Paris is worth a mass.” </li></ul><ul><li>Ended religious wars in France. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642 ) <ul><li>Until Louis XIII comes of age his mother led the government. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1624 she appoints Armand Jean du Plessis ( Cardinal Richelieu ) to the council of ministers. </li></ul><ul><li>As first minister, Richelieu strengthened the power of the monarch. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Richelieu’s Policies <ul><li>Oppressive policy toward Huguenots </li></ul><ul><li>Moved to reduce the power of the French nobility. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large network of spies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installed royal commissioners in each district. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Richelieu wanted to destroy the fence of Hapsburg territories that surrounded France. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus, in the thirty Years War Richelieu supported the Hapsburg’s enemies even though they were largely Protestant. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Practice of Absolutism: France Under Louis XIV <ul><li>The Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715) most complete fulfillment of the idea of absolute monarchy in 17th Century Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>French policies and wars dominated Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchs elsewhere used Louis as a model. </li></ul><ul><li>Louis proclaimed himself the “Sun King” </li></ul><ul><li>Refused to call Estates General </li></ul><ul><li>He built magnificent palaces and courts as symbols of his power and magnificence-Ex.:Versailles. </li></ul><ul><li>Reigned for 72 years (55 in his own right) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Versailles <ul><li>Versailles served three functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seat of machinery of government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palace/court. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meant that all noble society was under his roof. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Louis Consolidates Power <ul><li>1685 Louis revokes the Edict of Nantes . </li></ul><ul><li>Forbids Huguenots to leave France, but 200,000 flee to other places in Europe and to America. </li></ul><ul><li>This is why we have Huguenot Road and Huguenot Bridge in the Richmond area. They came here. </li></ul><ul><li>Closes schools, destroys churches. </li></ul>
  10. 10. France at War <ul><li>Louis was almost constantly at war. Waged four wars between 1667-1713. </li></ul><ul><li>France most powerful country in Europe. This led other countries to gang up against France to keep France from dominating Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>France had a standing army of 100,000 that expanded to 400,000 in times of war. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare to U.S. Army today . </li></ul>
  11. 11. War of Spanish Succession <ul><li>Most significant of these wars was the War of Spanish Succession (1701-1713) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause—Charles II of Spain died in 1700 and left in his will control of the Spanish empire and Spanish crown to Phillip of Anjou, Louis XIV grandson. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other European powers found this intolerable. Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England, Prussia, Dutch, Austria join in the Grand Alliance against France. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Treaty of Utrecht <ul><li>Louis is forced to sue for peace . Treaty of Utrecht . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France gives up Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and area around Hudson bay to English. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Louis agrees that Spanish and French crown will never be united. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria gets Spanish Netherlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain gives England control of slave trade from Africa. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Completes the decline of Spain as a major power in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Expands the British Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Marks the end of French Expansionist policy. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Prussia <ul><li>Located in Modern northeastern Germany and Northwestern Poland </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of 30 Years War in 1648 Germany was fragmented with virtually no central government. </li></ul><ul><li>Each principality was for all intents and purposes independent. </li></ul><ul><li>Prussia emerged around Berlin, Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Frederick William, created a large, well-trained army. </li></ul><ul><li>He levied heavy taxes to support it and created an efficient bureaucracy to supervise collection of taxes and administration of army. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1678 his 40,000-strong army was the 4th largest in Europe. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Expansion of Prussia
  15. 15. Frederick the Great <ul><li>1701 Frederick the Great took power, was elevated to king status as King Frederick I; kingdom was named Prussia. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 18th century it becomes a major European power. </li></ul><ul><li>Prussia was a harsh state; peasants heavily taxed and very poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Society was rigid, highly militaristic and highly disciplined. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Development of Russia <ul><li>The Russian state that emerged starting in the 15th Century had a much different history and tradition than the rest of Europe. Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not have a Roman Catholic tradition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had to deal much more directly with the Mongols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much less touched by the Renaissance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not experience the turmoil of the Reformation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Russia not part of the European community before the 18th Century and considered a backwater by those in Europe who were even aware of it. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Origins of Russian Expansion <ul><li>Ivan III (Ivan the Great: 1440-1505) increased the size of Muscovy and gained the Novgorod region, giving Muscovy access to the Baltic Sea. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1480 he stops acknowledging the Mongol Khan as a supreme ruler. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ivan III begins a process of stripping nobles (Boyars) of their power by requiring that Nobles serve the king in order to keep their land. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ivan the Terrible <ul><li>Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible; 1533-1584) continued this process. </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated the remnants of Mongol power and declared himself Tsar </li></ul><ul><li>Added vast new territories to Russia in the east </li></ul><ul><li>All nobles had to serve the tsar and thus were under his control. </li></ul><ul><li>Oppressed peasants, tying them to the land as serfs, perpetually bound to the nobles. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Rise of the Romanovs <ul><li>After Ivan’s death in 1598 was a period of chaos. </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles were able to regain some power. </li></ul><ul><li>1613 Russian assembly of nobles realized that the chaos was putting them all at risk from Cossacks </li></ul><ul><li>Appoint Michael Romanov as Tsar, and the Romanov family rules Russia until 1917 when the Communists take over. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Peter the Great (1672-1725) <ul><li>Peter the Great takes the throne in 1682 and transforms Russia, determined to westernize it. Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He wanted to import modern military methods and technology and modern governmental administration in order to make his country more powerful. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He wanted to adopt mercantilist economic policies in order to strengthen the tax base to support his military, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This required modernizing manufacturing and production. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempting to catch up with the power and strength of Europe. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Window on the West <ul><li>In war with Sweden, Peter captures modern Estonia and Latvia from the Swedes, </li></ul><ul><li>Gave Russia a port on the Baltic making it the dominant power in the Baltic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ window on the west” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also eases travel between Russia and the rest of Europe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds St. Petersburg in NW Russia as a symbolic window on the West, which remains the Russian capital until 1917. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peter gained state control of the Russian Orthodox Church in 1721 by abolishing the position of patriarch and placing administration of the church under state control </li></ul>
  22. 22. Effect of Peter’s Policies <ul><li>As a result of Peter’s Policies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western ideas and technology flowed into Russia and Russians were exposed to Western culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New class of Russian educated nobility emerged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Split between the nobility and the average citizen widened and deepened. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia became a major power, moved much closer to Europe and was much more a factor in European affairs. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23.
  24. 24. England and the Emergence Of Constitutional Monarchy <ul><li>England is the most prominent example of resistance to Absolute Monarchy and the development of Constitutional Monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>When Elizabeth I died in 1603 the Crown fell to her cousin James, who becomes King James I of England . </li></ul>
  25. 25. King James <ul><li>King James was a strong believer in divine right monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>His absolutist notions ran counter to English ideas of due process and no taxation without consent of Parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>James I ruled during the early English settlement of America (Jamestown). </li></ul><ul><li>Known also for sponsoring a printing of the Bible in English- King James Version. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Charles I (1600-1649) <ul><li>Charles I becomes king after James dies in 1625. </li></ul><ul><li>Also believed in divine right monarchy and just as conservative on religious issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Charles I was forced by Parliament to accept the Petition of Right passed by Parliament in 1628 </li></ul><ul><li>The Petition of Right stated that the King could not : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>impose cruel and unusual punishments on prisoners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impose military rule during peacetime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>require homeowners to shelter troops without consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>obtain taxes, gifts, or loans without the consent of Parliament. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. English Civil War <ul><li>Charles tried to impose Anglican prayer book and Anglican organization on the Calvinist Scots. </li></ul><ul><li>Scots revolted. </li></ul><ul><li>Charles needed to put down the revolt, but also needed the consent of Parliament to raise the taxes to support an army. </li></ul><ul><li>So he calls Parliament into session in 1640 . </li></ul><ul><li>Long Parliament . Refused to disband unless Charles makes concessions. </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament passed a number of acts to limit King’s power. </li></ul>
  28. 28. English Civil War <ul><li>When Parliament refused to give Charles his army, he made peace with Scots, then moved to arrest Members of Parliament for treason. </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament rose in opposition, raising a militia from its supporters </li></ul><ul><li>English Civil War. 1642-49. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cavaliers v. Roundheads </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Interregnum <ul><li>1649 Charles and his Cavaliers are defeated by Puritan forces led by Oliver Cromwell </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning of period known as the Interregnum . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles is beheaded, monarchy is abolished, House of Lords is abolished and England is proclaimed to be a republic ruled by Parliament. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Cromwell and the Republic <ul><ul><li>Cromwell soon finds Parliament inconvenient, dispersed it, and created a military dictatorship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He instituted puritan social policies in England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>censored the press, closed the theaters and outlawed sports. Dancing and drinking were considered socially unacceptable. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When Cromwell dies in 1658, a majority in England are ready to end the Puritan experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Charles II , son of the slain Charles I, is invited in 1660 to take the throne and return England to monarchy. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Restoration <ul><li>The restoration of Charles II did not immediately solve problems that had caused the revolution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still had to work out state attitude toward religion and role of Monarch. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Declaration of Indulgence- suspended laws against non-Anglican worship. </li></ul><ul><li>Worried Parliament responds in 1673 with the Test Act - Anyone seeking public office must take Anglican sacraments. </li></ul>
  32. 32. James II <ul><li>1685 Charles II dies without an heir and the crown passes to brother, James II, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He is Catholic. Parliament is strongly Protestant. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>James II passes Declaration of Indulgence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspended all laws excluding Catholics and Puritans from office. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parliament does nothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Why does James’ second marriage and birth of a son change things? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Glorious Revolution <ul><li>James II Protestant Daughter Mary is married to William of Orange (Dutch). </li></ul><ul><li>1688 Group of prominent English noblemen invited them to invade England and take the throne. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James flees and England has another revolution with almost no bloodshed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Glorious Revolution” </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Bill of Rights <ul><li>1689 Parliament offered the throne to William and Mary as joint Monarchs on the condition that they accept the Bill of Rights . </li></ul><ul><li>Terms of Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>affirmed Parliament’s right to make laws and levy taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>standing armies could be raised only with the consent of parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>citizens have right to petition government, keep arms, have a jury trial and not be subject to excessive bail. </li></ul></ul>