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Age Of Absolutism 16th – 19th Century


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study guide for Age of Absolutism assessment.

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Age Of Absolutism 16th – 19th Century

  1. 1. Age of Absolutism 16th – 19th Century Civitella
  2. 2. Key Terms <ul><li>Absolute Monarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruler with complete authority (over people/government) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divine Right </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority to rule came from God </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Overview of Spanish Monarchy <ul><li>Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought stability and greatness to Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oversaw Columbus’ expeditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charles V </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grandson of Isabella & Ferdinand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Married 1 st cousin Isabella of Portugal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruler of Spain and Holy Roman Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave up crown for monastery… now what ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passes legacy onto Son Phillip </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Overview of Spanish Monarchy continued… <ul><li>Phillip II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid-late 16 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It is best to keep an eye on everything” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very methodical and meticulous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performed with order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme care to minor detail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saw himself as guardian of Catholic Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relied on Inquisition to halt the Reformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded Spanish empire </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Spanish and The Netherlands Relations <ul><li>The Netherlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Protestant representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually breaks away from Spanish rule & declares itself independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Netherlands were getting help from Protestant England </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spain sends Armada to stop insurrection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish navy; most powerful in all the world </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>130 ships; 20,000 men; 2,400 pieces of artillery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>English navy + horrible storms = armada defeat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>End of Spanish naval glory? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Downfall of Spain <ul><li>Late-17 th century Spain was shell of former self </li></ul><ul><li>Economy was drained </li></ul><ul><li>Ineffective rulers </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in power of France and England </li></ul>
  7. 8. Overview of French Monarchy <ul><li>Louis XIV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late-17 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I am the state” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruled for 72 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great-grandson of Phillip II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm believer in divine right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Sun King” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built strong army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created Versailles as symbol of power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palace outside of Paris; the most magnificent building in Europe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>King’s home and seat of government </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Downfall of France <ul><li>King Louis XVI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late-18 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only king of France to be executed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad with $$$ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King during the French Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neglected his people/abused his power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>King Louis’ death leads to end of Absolute monarchy </li></ul>
  9. 11. Overview of British Monarchy <ul><li>Parliament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative governing body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>James I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stuart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early 17 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From Scotland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed in divine right/absolutism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battled Parliament for power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charles I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James’ son </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid-17 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolved Parliament and ruled as absolute ruler for 11 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angered Puritans; seemed a Catholic supporter </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. English Civil War & Revolution <ul><li>Charles I recalls Parliament for funding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament upset with Charles I try to limit his power = English Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cavaliers versus Roundheads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supporters of the King </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supporters of Parliament led by Oliver Cromwell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Puritan military leader; Lord Protector of England post-Civil-War </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charles I executed by Parliament </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>England enters kingless decade </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Oliver Cromwell dies 1658 ending the kingless decade </li></ul>
  11. 13. English Civil War & Revolution continued… <ul><li>Cromwell’s death + Puritans losing control = return to monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>James II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles II brother (Charles II = Charles I son) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People feared James would restore the Catholic church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic supporter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed in absolutism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament becomes worried and calls for help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament reaches out to William of Orange and wife Mary (James II daughter) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 14. English Civil War & Revolution continued… <ul><li>Glorious Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late 17 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James II leaves England for France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William and Mary take over as King and Queen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No bloodshed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of Bill of Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of Constitutional Monarchy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monarchs governing alongside Parliament with Parliament having ultimate power </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power lies in Parliament </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monarchy can’t interfere with Parliament </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Catholics allowed to sit on throne </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trial by jury </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Habeas corpus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be charged before being imprisoned </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Overview of Russian Monarchy <ul><li>Peter Romanov </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Peter the Great” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tsar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Russian equivalent of king </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 years old when taking throne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late 17 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to westernize Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traveled Europe & brought back experts in intellectual fields </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copy western ideas (Europe/United States) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted feudalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tortured and killed those who defied him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See video on Peter the Great here . </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Overview of Russian Monarchy continued… <ul><ul><li>Created powerful army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St. Petersburg “his” city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded Russian empire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Catherine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Catherine the Great” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid-18 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German princess married Peter III age 15 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peter III murdered making Catherine Queen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embraced western ideas like Peter the Great </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education = important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded empire </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Downfall of Russia <ul><li>Russian Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During World War I – 1917 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monarchy collapses in favor of Communism </li></ul></ul>