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Absolute Monarchs in Europe<br />
What is absolutism?<br />Period of time when Europe’s monarchs got stronger<br />Monarchs ruled with absolute power<br />D...
Europe During the Age of Absolutism<br />
Strengths of Absolute Monarchies<br />Efficiency<br />Decisions are made by one person<br />Nationalism<br />Promoted a co...
Weaknesses of Absolute Monarchies<br />Undemocratic<br />No collaboration of ideas<br />Individual rights<br />Often viola...
How to achieve more power?<br />Monarchs gained power generally in one of two ways:<br />Raising taxes<br />Increased thei...
Absolute Monarchy-Spain<br />Phillip II (reign: 1554-1598)<br />Fought to protect and expand Catholicism<br />Took control...
Spain’s Golden Age<br />1600-1700s<br />El Greco<br />Expressed the deep Catholic faith in Spain<br />Diego Velazquez<br /...
El Greco<br />
Velazquez<br />
Don Quixote<br />
The Fall of the Spanish Empire<br />Inflation and Taxes<br />Spain suffered from a severe economic decline<br />Wars cost ...
Absolute Monarchy in France<br />Religious Wars and Power Struggles<br />Henry of Navarre-converted to Catholicism<br />Su...
Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu<br />Louis XIII was a weak King<br />Had an extremely powerful minister for support-Card...
Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu<br />
Louis XIV Comes to Power<br />Louis XIV, the Boy King (1643)<br />Was not the true leader until 1661<br />Cardinal Marazin...
The Sun King’s Grand Style<br />King Louis spent much money on his personal life (servants, food, etc.)<br />Especially th...
Louis XIV<br />“The Sun King”<br />
The Palace at Versailles<br />
The Palace at Versailles<br />Bedroom of Louis XIV<br />
Louis Fights Disastrous Wars<br />Attempts to Expand Boundaries<br />France had four times the population than England by ...
War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714)<br />Fought over the possible unification of Spain and France under one monarch<...
War of Spanish Succession<br />
Death of Louis XIV and Legacy<br />Louis died in 1715<br />Positive Legacy<br />France much more powerful<br />At the top ...
Central Monarchs Clash<br />The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)<br />Fought between Protestants (Hapsburgs) and Catholics in...
Hapsburg Crest – Dual Headed Eagle<br />Spain<br />Austria<br />
The Thirty Years’ War<br />
The Peace of Westphalia<br />Ends the Thirty Years’ War<br />Hapsburgs of Spain and Austria weakened<br />France was stren...
States Form in Central Europe<br />Economic Contrasts with the West<br />Serfdom still strong in eastern Europe<br />Weak ...
States Form in Eastern Europe (cont)<br />Austria Grows Stronger<br />Gains Hungary and Bohemia<br />Wiped out Protestanti...
Prussia Challenges Austria<br />The Rise of Prussia<br />Became a rigidly controlled, highly militarized society<br />Cont...
Frederick the Great<br />
Prussia Challenges Austria (cont)<br />War of Austrian Succession<br />War between Prussia and Austria (1740)<br />Fought ...
The Seven Years’ War<br />Austria, France, Russia vs. Prussia and Britain<br />1756 – Frederick attacked and Austrian ally...
Russian History<br />Russia Contrasts with Europe<br />Economically<br />Still heavily reliant on serfdom<br />Socially<br...
The Absolute Rulers of Russia<br />The First Czar<br />Ivan IV (“The Terrible”)<br />became czar (caesar) in 1533<br />Too...
Ivan IV<br />
The Absolute Rulers of Russia (cont)<br />Rise of the Romanovs<br />After Ivan IV’s death (1584), there was a power vacuum...
Peter the Great Comes to Power1689-1725<br />Peter visits the West<br />Wanted to learn about European customs and manufac...
Peter the Great<br />
Peter Rules Absolutely<br />Peter’s Reforms<br />Russian Orthodox Church under state control<br />Reduced the power of lan...
Peter Rules Absolutely<br />Establishing St. Petersburg<br />Wanted to establish a seaport<br />Make it easier to get to E...
St. Petersburg<br />The Cathedral of the Spilled Blood<br />
Parliament Limits the English Monarchy<br />Monarchs Defy Parliament<br />King James’s Problems<br />Offended Puritan memb...
King James and Charles I<br />
English Civil War<br />War Topples a King<br />Parliament tried to limit the powers of King Charles I – starts a war inste...
English Civil War (cont)<br />Oliver Cromwell’s Rule<br />General during the war who now led the country<br />Established ...
Oliver Cromwell<br />
Restoration and Revolution<br />Charles II Reigns<br />Restored the Monarchy of England<br />Reformed the legal system<br ...
 King Charles II and King James II<br />
William and Mary<br />
Limits on Monarch’s Power<br />Bill of Rights<br />William and Mary established a constitutional monarchy<br />Limits on r...
English Bill of Rights<br />Ruler cannot:<br />Suspend Parliament’s laws<br />Levy taxes without permission<br />Interfere...
END<br />
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Ch.5 european absolutism

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Ch.5 european absolutism

  1. 1. Absolute Monarchs in Europe<br />
  2. 2. What is absolutism?<br />Period of time when Europe’s monarchs got stronger<br />Monarchs ruled with absolute power<br />Divine Right Theory<br />Idea that God had chosen the monarch to rule<br />Everyone believes the theory during this period<br />If you question the king, you question God<br />
  3. 3. Europe During the Age of Absolutism<br />
  4. 4. Strengths of Absolute Monarchies<br />Efficiency<br />Decisions are made by one person<br />Nationalism<br />Promoted a common culture and identity<br />Stability<br />The ruler stays in power until death<br />Wealth<br />No resistance means a large and powerful empire<br />
  5. 5. Weaknesses of Absolute Monarchies<br />Undemocratic<br />No collaboration of ideas<br />Individual rights<br />Often violated<br />Stability<br />If the ruler was poor, it could affect the country for decades<br />
  6. 6. How to achieve more power?<br />Monarchs gained power generally in one of two ways:<br />Raising taxes<br />Increased their overall wealth and treasuries<br />Waging war<br />Victory often led to riches<br />
  7. 7. Absolute Monarchy-Spain<br />Phillip II (reign: 1554-1598)<br />Fought to protect and expand Catholicism<br />Took control of Portugal when its king died without an heir<br />Created an army of about 50K soldiers<br />
  8. 8. Spain’s Golden Age<br />1600-1700s<br />El Greco<br />Expressed the deep Catholic faith in Spain<br />Diego Velazquez<br />Reflected pride in the Spanish monarchy<br />Miguel de Cervantes<br />Wrote Don Quixote<br />
  9. 9. El Greco<br />
  10. 10. Velazquez<br />
  11. 11. Don Quixote<br />
  12. 12. The Fall of the Spanish Empire<br />Inflation and Taxes<br />Spain suffered from a severe economic decline<br />Wars cost Spain too much money<br />Had to declared bankruptcy<br />
  13. 13. Absolute Monarchy in France<br />Religious Wars and Power Struggles<br />Henry of Navarre-converted to Catholicism<br />Survived the 1572 St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (of Huguenots)<br />Edict of Nantes (1598)<br />Henry’s declaration of religious toleration<br />Allowed Catholics and Huguenots to live in peace<br />Louis XIII and Richelieu<br />After Henry died, his son took over<br />Louis XIII<br /> Henry of Navarre<br />
  14. 14. Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu<br />Louis XIII was a weak King<br />Had an extremely powerful minister for support-Cardinal Richelieu<br />Richelieu took two major steps towards power<br />Moved against the Huguenots and all Protestants<br />Weakened the Nobles power and relied on the middle class instead<br />
  15. 15. Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu<br />
  16. 16. Louis XIV Comes to Power<br />Louis XIV, the Boy King (1643)<br />Was not the true leader until 1661<br />Cardinal Marazin ran the country<br />Louis Weakens the Noble’s Authority<br />Excluded the Nobles from his council<br />Economic Growth<br />Minister of Finance-Jean Baptiste Colbert<br />Gave tax benefits to companies<br />Believer in mercantilism and self-sufficiency<br />
  17. 17. The Sun King’s Grand Style<br />King Louis spent much money on his personal life (servants, food, etc.)<br />Especially the Palace at Versailles<br />Louis Controls the Nobility<br />Forced Nobles to be at the palace<br />Making them dependant on the King<br />Forced them from their homes<br />Patronage of the Arts<br />Palace was the center of European arts<br />
  18. 18. Louis XIV<br />“The Sun King”<br />
  19. 19. The Palace at Versailles<br />
  20. 20. The Palace at Versailles<br />Bedroom of Louis XIV<br />
  21. 21. Louis Fights Disastrous Wars<br />Attempts to Expand Boundaries<br />France had four times the population than England by 1660<br />Gained territory in the Netherlands through warfare<br />A European alliance helped to stop French aggression and expansion<br />Wars cost France a tremendous amount of money<br />
  22. 22. War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714)<br />Fought over the possible unification of Spain and France under one monarch<br />France and Spain vs. England, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Netherlands<br />Ended with the Treaty of Utrecht<br />Thrones of Spain and France remained separate<br />England gained a colony and greater access to the Atlantic Slave Trade<br />
  23. 23. War of Spanish Succession<br />
  24. 24. Death of Louis XIV and Legacy<br />Louis died in 1715<br />Positive Legacy<br />France much more powerful<br />At the top of art, literature<br />Military leader of Europe<br />Negative Legacy<br />Constant warfare and construction <br />Deep debt<br />Unfair tax system <br />
  25. 25. Central Monarchs Clash<br />The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)<br />Fought between Protestants (Hapsburgs) and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire<br />Naval warfare expanded its destruction<br />Helped to shape colonial formation of future nations<br />First 12 years, Protestants are successful<br />Next 18 years, Catholics eventually gain the advantage<br />
  26. 26. Hapsburg Crest – Dual Headed Eagle<br />Spain<br />Austria<br />
  27. 27. The Thirty Years’ War<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. The Peace of Westphalia<br />Ends the Thirty Years’ War<br />Hapsburgs of Spain and Austria weakened<br />France was strengthened<br />Religious wars in Europe ended<br />German princes were independent of HRE<br />Peace negotiation to end war started<br />Beginning of Modern States<br />Ended the idea of a Catholic empire<br />
  30. 30. States Form in Central Europe<br />Economic Contrasts with the West<br />Serfdom still strong in eastern Europe<br />Weak Empires<br />Ottoman Empire <br />Holy Roman Empire<br />The rise of Austria and Prussia<br />Due to the end of the Holy Roman Empire<br />
  31. 31. States Form in Eastern Europe (cont)<br />Austria Grows Stronger<br />Gains Hungary and Bohemia<br />Wiped out Protestantism<br />Maria Theresa Inherits the Throne<br />Fought constantly with Prussia<br />Limited the labor that nobles could force peasants to do<br />
  32. 32. Prussia Challenges Austria<br />The Rise of Prussia<br />Became a rigidly controlled, highly militarized society<br />Controlled by the King and the Junker class – landowning nobles<br />Frederick the Great<br />Very practical leader – ruler as father<br />Atheist- established religious toleration<br />Very aggressive in foreign affairs<br />
  33. 33. Frederick the Great<br />
  34. 34. Prussia Challenges Austria (cont)<br />War of Austrian Succession<br />War between Prussia and Austria (1740)<br />Fought for control of Silesia (iron, textiles)<br />France helped Prussia, England and Austria<br />Prussia wins in 1748, becoming a major European power<br />
  35. 35. The Seven Years’ War<br />Austria, France, Russia vs. Prussia and Britain<br />1756 – Frederick attacked and Austrian ally, beginning the war<br />War did not change European territory<br />France lost all colonies in North America and India to Britain<br />
  36. 36. Russian History<br />Russia Contrasts with Europe<br />Economically<br />Still heavily reliant on serfdom<br />Socially<br />Mongols kept Russia isolated from Renaissance and Age of Exploration<br />Geographically<br />Ports froze during winter<br />Size of Russia was a problem<br />Religious differences<br />Europe: Catholic or Protestant<br />Russia: Orthodox<br />
  37. 37. The Absolute Rulers of Russia<br />The First Czar<br />Ivan IV (“The Terrible”)<br />became czar (caesar) in 1533<br />Took control over the nobles<br />Rule by Terror<br />Police force organized to track down and murder “traitors” to Ivan<br />Killed many nobles (boyars) and gave the land to new, more loyal nobles<br />
  38. 38. Ivan IV<br />
  39. 39. The Absolute Rulers of Russia (cont)<br />Rise of the Romanovs<br />After Ivan IV’s death (1584), there was a power vacuum<br />“Time of Troubles” – nobles struggling for power<br />1613 Michael Romanov was chosen as the next czar<br />Romanov Dynasty 1613-1917<br />
  40. 40. Peter the Great Comes to Power1689-1725<br />Peter visits the West<br />Wanted to learn about European customs and manufacturing techniques<br />
  41. 41. Peter the Great<br />
  42. 42. Peter Rules Absolutely<br />Peter’s Reforms<br />Russian Orthodox Church under state control<br />Reduced the power of landowners<br />Hired European military officers<br />Westernizing Russia<br />Introduced potatoes<br />Women’s status increased<br />Nobles had to give up traditional dress<br />Advanced education <br />
  43. 43. Peter Rules Absolutely<br />Establishing St. Petersburg<br />Wanted to establish a seaport<br />Make it easier to get to Europe<br />Warm water port – would not freeze in winter<br />Built on a swamp<br />25-100K people died to build the city<br />Became a very important port city<br />
  44. 44. St. Petersburg<br />The Cathedral of the Spilled Blood<br />
  45. 45. Parliament Limits the English Monarchy<br />Monarchs Defy Parliament<br />King James’s Problems<br />Offended Puritan members of Parliament<br />Fought over money<br />King Charles I Fights Parliament<br />Wanted money, Parliament refused each time – he dissolved Parliament <br />Parliament forced him to sign the Petition of Right – took power from King<br />He did, but then just ignored it<br />
  46. 46. King James and Charles I<br />
  47. 47. English Civil War<br />War Topples a King<br />Parliament tried to limit the powers of King Charles I – starts a war instead<br />English Civil War (1642-1649)<br />Royalists (Cavaliers) vs. Roundheads<br />Puritan Roundheads won<br />Tried, convicted and executed Charles I<br />Never had a monarch been tried and executed<br />
  48. 48. English Civil War (cont)<br />Oliver Cromwell’s Rule<br />General during the war who now led the country<br />Established a republican government<br />Had to squash a rebellion in Ireland<br />Puritan Morality<br />Sought to reform society<br />Abolish sinful activities – sports, theater<br />Religious toleration for all except Catholics<br />Cromwell ruled until death, gov’t collapsed<br />
  49. 49. Oliver Cromwell<br />
  50. 50. Restoration and Revolution<br />Charles II Reigns<br />Restored the Monarchy of England<br />Reformed the legal system<br />James II and the Glorious Revolution<br />King James offended many b/c of his Catholicism<br />Parliament worried of a Catholic line of Kings<br />James’s Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William were asked by Parliament to overthrow James<br />William invaded, and James fled – Bloodless Revolution known as the Glorious Revolution <br />
  51. 51. King Charles II and King James II<br />
  52. 52. William and Mary<br />
  53. 53. Limits on Monarch’s Power<br />Bill of Rights<br />William and Mary established a constitutional monarchy<br />Limits on royal power increased<br />Establishment of the English Bill of Rights<br />Cabinet System Develops<br />Became the link between the King and Parliament - advisors to the King<br />Leader of the majority party heads the cabinet – Prime Minister<br />
  54. 54. English Bill of Rights<br />Ruler cannot:<br />Suspend Parliament’s laws<br />Levy taxes without permission<br />Interfere with freedom of speech<br />Penalize a citizen who criticizes the King<br />
  55. 55. END<br />

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