C. operant learning

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C. operant learning

  1. 1. PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING Chapter III: Associative Learning
  2. 8. <ul><li>Operant Learning is a kind of associative learning whereby behavior is strengthened or weakened by its consequences. </li></ul>
  3. 9. <ul><li>Animals have the capacity to reason by presenting logical argument and conclusion to problems. </li></ul>
  4. 10. <ul><li>Can animals really think? </li></ul>
  5. 12. <ul><li>A behavior has typically one of the two kinds of consequences or effects: </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfying state of affairs; and </li></ul><ul><li>Annoying state of affairs. </li></ul>The Law of Effect
  6. 13. <ul><li>The term OPERANT LEARNING indicates that the individual operates the environment. </li></ul>
  7. 15. In the attempt of perfecting Thorndike’s study on animal intelligence, Skinner developed what came to be the “Skinner’s box”. He was then regarded as the founding father of operant conditioning.
  8. 18. <ul><li>“ Classical conditioning has the tendency to be passive in terms of learning…” </li></ul>CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS) UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (UCS)
  9. 19. <ul><li>CONSEQUENCES </li></ul>INDIVIDUAL (perceiving the situation and ACTING on it) MANIPULATING the ENVIRONMENT for our own BENEFIT ENVIRONMENT (presenting situation ) POSITIVE RESULTS (strengthening behavior) NEGATIVE RESULTS (weakening behavior)
  10. 20. <ul><li>A concept referring to an increase in the strength of behaviour due to its consequences. </li></ul>
  11. 21. <ul><li>Behaviour must have a consequence; </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour must increase in strength; and </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in strength of behaviour must be the result of the consequence. </li></ul>
  12. 22. <ul><li>If I do X, then Y. </li></ul>YOU HAVE TO TAKE YOUR MEDS DAD . CAN’T TALK RIGHT NOW. I’M BLOGGING THIS! If the tendency to do X has not been strengthened because of the Y, then, there is no REINFORCEMENT. CAUSE EFFECT
  13. 23. <ul><li>Positive Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Reinforcement </li></ul>increases the probability of behaviour's occurrence due to the presentation of a pleasant stimulus. increases the probability of behaviour's occurrence due to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus.
  14. 24. <ul><li>Primary Reinforcers are stimuli that naturally or innately reinforcing behaviour. </li></ul>
  15. 25. <ul><li>Secondary Reinforcers are reinforcing stimuli dependently associated with other reinforcers. </li></ul>
  16. 26. <ul><li>States that human behaviour is motivated by our needs. </li></ul>
  17. 28. <ul><li>Response Deprivation Theory states that behaviour becomes reinforcing when the organism is prevented from engaging in it at its normal frequency. </li></ul>
  18. 29. The natural tendency of an organism to eat.
  19. 30. <ul><li>Study the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Kinds of punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency and Contiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of Punishment </li></ul>
  20. 31. <ul><li>Punishment is a kind of stimulus that aims to decrease the strength in behaviour due to its consequence. </li></ul>
  21. 32. <ul><li>Behaviour must have a consequence; </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour must decrease in strength; and </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in strength of behaviour must be the result of the consequence. </li></ul>
  22. 33. <ul><li>Positive Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Punishment </li></ul>decreases the probability of behaviour's occurrence due to the presentation of an unpleasant stimulus. decreases the probability of behaviour's occurrence due to the removal of a pleasant stimulus.
  23. 34. <ul><li>Positive Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Reinforcement </li></ul>increases the probability of behaviour's occurrence due to the presentation of a pleasant stimulus. increases the probability of behaviour's occurrence due to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus.
  24. 35. Increases Decreases Stimulus is presented Stimulus is removed POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT Strength of Behavior POSITIVE PUNISHMENT NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
  25. 36. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
  26. 39. NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
  27. 40. POSITIVE PUNISHMENT
  28. 42. NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT
  29. 44. <ul><li>Contingency </li></ul><ul><li>Contiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity of Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Introductory Level of Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement of the Punished Behaviour </li></ul>
  30. 45. <ul><li>“ The degree to which punishment weakens a behaviour varies with the degree to which a punishing event is dependent on that behaviour.” </li></ul>
  31. 46. <ul><li>“ The interval between a behaviour and a punishing consequence has a powerful effect on learning. The longer the delay, the slower the learning.” </li></ul>

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