Classical vs Operant Conditioning


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Classical vs Operant Conditioning

  1. 1. Classical vs Operant conditioningElements that CC & Elements of CC & OC OC have in common that are clearly different Extinction Role of learner Spontaneous recovery Timing of stimulus Stimulus discrimination Timing of response Stimulus generalisation Nature response Acquisition
  2. 2. Classical vs Operant conditioning Classical Operant conditioning conditioning Nature of Involuntary Voluntary (usually) but response (reflexive) can be both – Vol & Involuntary Timing of Precedes the After the desired Stimulus response response Timing of After the Before the Response stimulus stimulusRole of learner Passive Active
  3. 3. Nature of response• In C.C response is usually reflexive or involuntary eg. Salivating or blinking• O.C the response is more active & voluntary eg. Pressing a leaver or putting up an umbrella• In C.C the response often involves the action of the autonomic nervous system & the association of 2 stimuli (which is not conscious)• In O.C, the response is more likely to involve the Central nervous system (brain) and is conscious, intentional & often goal directed• i.e. the individual is more likely to produce the desired response if the consequence is good and less likely if the consequence is punishment
  4. 4. Timing of Stimulus/ Response• CC; the response (eg. Salivation) depends on the presentation of the UCS (meat powder) occurring first• OC; the presentation of the reinforcer (eg. Food) depends on the response (pressing lever) occurring first. The reinforcement strengthens (food) strengthens the stimulus-response association• CC; the timing of the 2 stimuli (CS then UCS) needs to very close (ideally 0.5 second), but the CS must come before the UCS so that the animal/person can learn to associate the stimuli eg. Ring the bell, just before presenting the food to build the association• OC; the learning occurs faster when reinforcement or punishment occurs soon after the behaviour. But there can be a considerable time difference between them (for humans in particular)
  5. 5. Role of the Learner• CC, the learner is relatively passive when the CS or UCS is presented, i.e. the response elicited by the learner occurs automatically without any effort (i.e. a reflex)• OC, the learner must actively operate on the environment to obtain the reinforcement or punishment. The learner is not reinforced or punished without performing the behaviour that produces that consequence
  6. 6. Other differences between Classical & Operant conditioning Classical conditioning Operant conditioning 1 stimulus substitutes for No substitution another takes place 1 reinforcer elicits only 1 type 1 reinforcer can be used to of response – i.e. food leads strengthen a variety of responses eg. to salivation money for lawnmowing, running laps Emotions such as fear are Reponses associated with goal- associated with the seeking behaviour are primarily autonomic N.S (for humans) involved