Learning theories


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Learning theories

  1. 1. Page 1
  2. 2. Page 2 Psychology • Psychology: It is a scientific study of mind and behavior (or behavior and mental processes), especially as it relates to individual human beings. • Psyche: Totality of human mind, conscious and unconscious. • Psychology is the scientific or objective study of the psyche.
  3. 3. Page 3 Learning • Learning: relatively permanent change in an individual's behavior or behavior potential (or capability) as a result of experience or practice. 1. Change in behavior 2. Change takes place due to practice or experience 3. Change is relatively permanent
  4. 4. Page 4 Theories of learning • BehaviouralBehavioural Classical conditioningClassical conditioning Operant conditioningOperant conditioning • CognitiveCognitive Social learningSocial learning
  5. 5. Page 5 Classical conditioning • Also called ‘PAVLOVIAN’ orAlso called ‘PAVLOVIAN’ or ‘RESPONDENT’ learning‘RESPONDENT’ learning • Explained by IVAN PAVLOV- a RussianExplained by IVAN PAVLOV- a Russian Physiologist.Physiologist. • A type of conditioning in which anA type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus thatindividual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such awould not ordinarily produce such a response.response.
  6. 6. Page 6 Classical conditioning
  7. 7. Page 7 Experiment of IVAN PAVLOV
  8. 8. Page 8 Theories of classical conditioning  Stimulus-Substitution  Because of the pairing of US- CS, CS acquires the capacity to substitute for the US in evoking the response.  US and CS represents different brain areas. After US- CS pairing, CS acquires the ability to excite the US area, thus leading to the reflex response.  CS becomes equivalent to US in eliciting response.  Information- Expectation theory  When CS is presented US is expected, and the learner responds in accordance with this expectation.  CS becomes signal for the US.  In brain, memory traces are found that shows association between US & CS.
  9. 9. Page 9 Extinction • When CS is presented without US for number of trials, the strength and magnitude of CR gradually decreases. • Process of EXTINCTION is not ‘FORGETTING’ • Extinction does not remove entirely the tendency to respond to stimulus.
  10. 10. Page 10 Theories for Extinction • Excitation- Inhibition theory • During acquisition, excitatory tendency has the upper hand • During extinction, inhibition builds up to suppress the conditioned responding • Information- Expectation theory • During extinction, CS is no longer paired with US, the CS ceases to be a signal for the US. • So, CS becomes the neutral stimulus.
  11. 11. Page 11 Spontaneous recovery • On the next day after extinction, if the dog is taken to the laboratory and conditioned stimulus is presented, there is conditioned response which is greater than extinction day before. • So, it shows that extinction does not remove the tendency to respond to the CS.
  12. 12. Page 12 Reconditioning • After extinction when experiment is repeated with lapse of few days, conditioning occurs more rapid than original conditioning.
  13. 13. Page 13 Stimulus generalization Sound of bell Salivation response Buzzer Sound Salivation response • Animal tends to generalize the conditioned response to other stimulus that were somewhat similar to the original conditioned response.
  14. 14. Page 14 Discrimination • is the process of learning to make one response to one stimulus and a different response or no response to another stimulus.
  15. 15. Page 15 Significance of classical conditioning • To study emotional responses that becomes conditioned on a certain stimuli • Extinction and alteration of disturbing emotional responses by classical conditioning is one form of Behavior Therapy. • Systematic Desensitization, Flooding, Aversive therapy are techniques used for behavior therapy.
  16. 16. Page 16 Operant conditioning Instrumental conditioning: behavior of the animal which leads to reward is done in instrumental manner, so that due to reward desirable behavior is increased. Operant conditioning: response operates on the environment, it may have the consequences that can affect the likelihood that the response will occure again.  Reinforcement:  Positive reinforcement  Negative reinforcement
  17. 17. Page 17 Reinforcement Positive reinforcement • Stimulus or event, when its presentation is contingent on a response, increases the likelihood that the response will occur again • Example- homework completion-TV watching for two hours Negative reinforcement • Stimulus or event, when its cessation or termination is contingent on a response, increases the likelihood that the response will occur again. • Example: tell daily good morning-don’t clean your room
  18. 18. Page 18 Skinner box
  19. 19. Page 19 Operant conditioning
  20. 20. Page 20 Punishers 1. Punishment: • Stimulus or event which when its onset is contingent on a response, decreases the likelihood that the response will occur again. • e.g: traffic fines. 2. Omission of reinforcement: • Positive reinforcement is withdrawn following a response. • e.g: switches off TV and send the child in the room.
  21. 21. Page 21 Operant conditioning
  22. 22. Page 22 Operant conditioning • Thorndike’s experiment: • Cat in a puzzle box with wire loop attached to the door, kept one handle at roof. • Food outside the door
  23. 23. Page 23 Operant conditioning • Shaping: teaching a chain of simple responses leading to the final response. • Also called ‘Method of successive approximation’ • Extinction: Procedure of not reinforcing a particular response is known as extinction • Extinction tends to be slower for scheduled reinforcement than for continually reinforced ones
  24. 24. Page 24 Operant conditioning Reinforcement schedules Nature of reinforcement Effects of reinforcement Example continuous Reward given after each desired behaviour Fast learning of new behaviour but rapid extinction Compliments Fixed- Interval Reward given at fixed time intervals Average and irregular performance with rapid extinction Weekly pay checks Variable Interval Reward given at variable time interval Moderately high and stable performance with slow extinction Pop quizzes Fixed Ratio Reward given at fixed amount of output High and stable performance attained quickly but also with rapid extinction Every three lever press Variable Ratio Reward given at variable amount of out put Very high performance with slow extinction 1- two response 2- five response
  25. 25. Page 25 Conditioned positive reinforcers• Primary Reinforcers • Are reinforcers that work from the first time they are made contingent on a response. • They work naturally, no previous training is necessary. • Secondary or Conditioned Reinforcers • Does not work naturally • Their ability to reinforce instrumental responses depends upon learning. • Stimuli become conditioned reinforcers in instrumental conditioning by being paired with primary reinforcers.
  26. 26. Page 26 Conditioned positive reinforcers • Secondary Reinforcers: • Click occurs each time a food pellet (primary reinforcers) is delivered • Thus click becomes the conditioned reinforcer • Initially click stimulus has no reinforcing properties, but by it presence every time the primary reinforcer is delivered, it becomes reinforcer in its own right.
  27. 27. Page 27 Stimulus generalization • In instrumental conditioning tendency to respond depends upon degree of similarity between the original training situation and changed one. • Situation of operant chamber is changed (light)
  28. 28. Page 28 Little Albert’s experiment
  29. 29. Page 29 Stimulus discrimination • In Instrumental conditioning experiment, Discrimination is achieved simply by reinforcing a particular response to one stimulus and not reinforcing it for another stimulus. • Positive stimulus: S+ • Negative stimulus: S- • E.g: Pigeon-yellow green illumination of light- pecking key-food but if red light-pecking key-no food • Also called ‘Stimulus control of behavior’
  30. 30. Page 30 Stimulus discrimination
  31. 31. Page 31 Negative Reinforcement • Escape learning: • E.g: rat in box with two compartment: A & B. A is white and B is black with small hurdle in between. A chamber has metal rods under it. • Shock given-Jumps the hurdle and goes into another compartment.
  32. 32. Page 32 Avoidance learning • Similar to the escape learning, but here before shock is given there is buzzer sound • Duration between electric shock and buzzer sound is about 5 seconds • Gradually animal learns to avoid the noxious stimuli (shock) by producing the response (crossing the hurdle)
  33. 33. Page 33 Avoidance Learning
  34. 34. Page 34 Significance • Socialization of children • Programmed learning: School education • Personalized system of instruction: educational application-course is divided in to easy units- each unit must be mastered at highest level of proficiency • Business operations • Behavior therapy and behavior modification: extinction, shaping, differential reinforcement, punishment, token economies, covert sensitization
  35. 35. Page 35 Cognitive learning • Cognition: processing of the information about the environment that is received through senses. • Cognitive learning: a change in the way information is processed as a result of experience a person or animal has had.
  36. 36. Page 36 Cognitive learning • Latent Learning: learning that occurs but is not evident in behavior until later, when conditions for its appearance are favorable. • Insight Learning: In a typical insight situation, a problem is posed, a period follows during which no apparent progress is made, and then the solution comes suddenly. • Simply what has been learned can be applied easily to other, similar situations. • Imitation Learning: a person or animal watches or hears another do or say something, then responds in the same way.
  37. 37. Page 37 Cognitive process in classical and operant conditioning • Classical conditioning: pairing of the stimulus CS-US, when CS is presented US is expected. • Operant conditioning: Expectation of reward • Avoidance learning: warning stimulus is considered signal for impeding shock.
  38. 38. Page 38 Thank you for your warm listening • Everyone wanted a change in me, so I learned myself and tried to identify problems within me, now I have changed myself, ultimately what I got is these words ‘you have changed completely’, now they have nothing to do with me. • I wondered a lot for these behaviors and I found out that no one wants any change in you, what they actually want is expression of emotions in a different way, but one should not change for anyone apart from his own self, ultimately what we need is pleasure from within not from outside……………Ravi