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  2. 2.  Radical behaviorism – a doctrine that avoids all hypothetical constructs such as ego, traits, drives, needs, hunger. OVERVIEW
  3. 3.  Determinist Environmentalist - he rejected the notion of volition/free will. - explain behavior on the basis of environmental stimuli.
  4. 4. BIOGRAPHY Burrhus Frederic Skinner or B.F. Skinner  was born in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania, USA, on March 20, 1904.
  5. 5.  William Skinner - A lawyer and politician  Grace Mange Burrhus Skinner - A good Presbyterian, who took care of the house and family.
  6. 6.  Skinner grew up in a comfortable, happy, upper-middle class home where his parents practiced the values of temperance, service, honesty, and hard work. BIOGRAPHY
  7. 7.  when Skinner was 2 ½ years old, Edward was born. BIOGRAPHY  and died during Skinner’s first year at college.
  8. 8. YOUNG ADULTHOOD  Skinner experience his first identity crises when armed with an undergraduate degree in English.  B.F. Skinner returned to his parents’ home hoping to shape his identity in the world of literature. BIOGRAPHY
  9. 9. BIOGRAPHY  William Skinner reluctantly agreed to allow and support Fred but in one condition; He would get a job if his writing career was not successful.  After 3 months of trying to become a creative writer, Fred realized that the quality of his work was poor.  He blamed his parents, their hometown, even literature itself.
  10. 10. BIOGRAPHY  “Dark Year” - time of identity confusion (Erikson) - time for trying to discover who he was, where he was going to get there. November, 1927 - he decided to abandon literature and study psychology.  He became determined to be a behaviorist after reading some of the works of Watson and Pavlov.
  11. 11. BIOGRAPHY 1928 - He became a graduate student at Harvard University’s psychology department, aged 24. 1931 - completed his PhD - received a fellowship from the National Research Council to continue his laboratory research at Harvard.  1933 - Harvard created the Society of Fellows (a program designed to promote creative thinking among young intellectually gifted men in the university).
  12. 12. BIOGRAPHY  1936 - Skinner began a teaching and research position at the University of Minnesota and married Yvonne Blue Julie, 1938 Deborah,1944
  13. 13. BIOGRAPHY  Minnesota Years - published his first book , The Behavior of Organisms (1938). - interesting ventures: 1. pigeon-guided missile
  14. 14. BIOGRAPHY Pigeon-guided missile attempt to condition pigeons to make appropriate pecks on keys that would maneuver an explosive missile into an enemy target.  1944 - Skinner dramatically demonstrated to government officials the feasibility of the project by producing a live pigeon that unerringly tracked a moving target.
  15. 15. BIOGRAPHY 2. Baby tender  an enclosed crib with a large window and a continual supply of fresh warm air.
  16. 16. BIOGRAPHY Skinner, still dependent on his father for financial help. (40 yrs. Old)  1945 - became the chair of Indiana University’s psychology department. - wrote Walden Two ( a utopian novel that portrayed a society in which problems were solved through behavioral engineering.  1948 - He returned to Harvard where he taught mostly in the College of Education.
  17. 17. BIOGRAPHY  1964 - he retired from teaching but retained faculty status. (60 yrs. Old)  1974 - retired as a professor of Psychology but continued working until his death on,  August 18, 1990 - B.F. Skinner died aged 86 in Cambridge, Massachusetts from complications resulting from leukemia.
  18. 18. regarded as the father of Operant Conditioning.
  19. 19. SCIENTIFIC BEHAVIORISM  Skinner insisted that human behavior should be studied scientifically.  Skinner disagreed in postulating a hypothetical internal mental function. “People do not eat because they are hungry.” -Hunger is an inner condition not directly observable.
  20. 20. SCIENTIFIC BEHAVIORISM  Cosmology – concern with causation. To be scientific, psychology must avoid internal mental factors and confine itself to observable physical events. Philosophy of SCIENCE “Scientific behaviorism allows for an interpretation of behavior but not an explanation of its causes”.
  21. 21. SCIENTIFIC BEHAVIORISM Characteristics of SCIENCE  Science is cumulative.  Science is an attitude that places value on empirical observations. Three components of scientific attitude:  rejects authority  demands intellectual honesty  suspends judgment  Science is a search for order and lawful relationships.
  22. 22. STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY  He focused on modifiable behavior and de- emphasized the biological or genetic determinants. CONDITIONING  Classical conditioning(respondent conditioning)  Operant conditioning(Skinnerian conditioning)
  23. 23. Classical conditioning  a response is drawn out of the organism by specific, identifiable stimulus.  a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus a number of times until it is capable of bringing about a previously unconditioned response. (conditioned response)
  24. 24. Classical conditioning reflexive behaviors: - light shined in the eye stimulates the pupil to contract, - food place on the tongue brings about salivation, - pepper in the nostrils results in the sneezing reflex.  responses are unlearned involuntary, and common not only to the species but across species as well.
  25. 25. Classical conditioning The Case of Little Albert  Conditioned stimulus: white rat  Unconditioned stimulus: fear of the loud sudden sound
  26. 26. Operant refer to any "active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences“  In other words, Skinner's theory explained how we acquire the range of learned behaviors we exhibit each and every day.
  27. 27. Operant conditioning a type of learning in which reinforcement, which is contingent upon the occurrence of a particular response, increases the probability that the same response will occur again.  Reinforcement - any condition within the environment that strengthens behavior.
  28. 28. Operant conditioning behavior is made more likely to recur when it is immediately reinforced.  “if the occurrence of the operant is followed by presentation of reinforcing stimulus, the strength is increased”  if a response is followed by a reward, the response will be strengthened;  or if you want to strengthen a response of a behavior pattern, reward it.
  29. 29. Operant conditioning Example:  when a lab rat presses a blue button, he receives a food pellet as a reward, but when he presses the red button he receives a mild electric shock.
  30. 30. As a result, he learns to press the but avoid the red button. Operant conditioning
  31. 31. Operant conditioning  Shaping - a procedure in which the experimenter or the environment first rewards gross approximations of the behavior, then closer approximations, and finally the desired behavior itself.(Fiest) - a process in which reinforcement is used to create new responses out of old ones. - a gradual molding of behavior through reward.
  32. 32. Shaping reward reward reward reward
  33. 33. Operant conditioning  Instances:  A. Antecedent - refers to the environment or setting in which the behavior takes place.  B. Behavior - response must be within the person’s repertoire and must not be interfered with by competing or antagonistic behaviors such as
  34. 34. Operant conditioning  Instances:  C. Consequences - the reward  Operant Discrimination - Skinner’s observation that an organism, as a consequence of its reinforcement history, learns to respond to some elements in the environment. - a function of environmental variables and organism’s previous history of reinforcement.
  35. 35. Types of responses  Neutral operants - responses from the environment that neither increase nor decrease the probability of a behavior being repeated. Reinforcers - Responses from the environment that increase the probability of a behavior being repeated. Reinforcers can be either positive or negative. Punishers - Responses from the environment that decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Punishment weakens behavior.
  36. 36. Operant conditioning Stimulus Generalization - a response to a similar environment in the absence of previous reinforcement. - the tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned.
  37. 37. Operant conditioning  Reinforcement - any condition within the environment that strengthens a behavior. Effects:  Strengthens the behavior  Rewards the person
  38. 38. Operant conditioning  Positive reinforcement - strengthens a behavior by providing a consequence an individual finds rewarding.  Positive reinforcer - Any stimulus that, when added to a situation, increases the probability that a given behavior will occur.
  39. 39. Operant conditioning  Negative Reinforcement -removal of an unpleasant reinforcer can also strengthen behavior.  Negative reinforcer - Any stimulus that, when remove from a situation, increases the probability that the immediately preceding behavior will occur.
  40. 40. Operant conditioning  Punishment - opposite of reinforcement - presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a positive one.  Effects:  supress behavior Ex. If the boy teases his younger sister, his parents can make him stop by spanking him.
  41. 41. Operant conditioning  conditioning of a negative feeling -If the pain of spanking is strong enough, it will instigate a response (crying) that is incompatible with the behavior of teasing a younger sibling.  spread of its effects - The boy may simply learn to avoid his younger sister, stay away from his parents, or develop negative feelings toward the paddle or the place where the paddling occurred.
  42. 42. Operant conditioning Conditioned reinforcer (secondary reinforcers) - those environmental stimuli that are not by nature satisfying but become so because they are associated with such unlearned (primary reinforcers) as food, water, sex, or physical comfort.  Generalized reinforcer - conditioned reinforcer that has been associated with several primary reinforcers. Ex. Money
  43. 43. Operant conditioning  Schedules of Reinforcement  continuous schedules - the organism is reinforced for every response. - type of schedule increases the frequency of a response but is an efficiency use of the reinforcer.
  44. 44. Operant conditioning intermittent schedules (partial schedules) - the reinforcement of an organism on only certain selected occurrences of a response; opposed to a continuous schedule in which the organism is reinforced for every correct trial.
  45. 45. Operant conditioning Ratio - amount of responses  Interval - time  Fixed - consistent  Variable - variation Fixed-Ratio  Fixed- Interval  Variable- Ratio Variable -Interval
  46. 46. Operant conditioning Basic Intermittent Schedules:  Fixed-ratio schedule - the organism is reinforced intermittently according to the number of responses it makes. -Behavior is reinforced only after the behavior occurs a specified number of times. One reinforcement is given after every so many correct responses (after every 5th response). Ex. A child receives a star for every five words spelt correctly.
  47. 47. Operant conditioning Fixed-Ratio Car salesman 1 2 3 4 5 It emits high rate of behavior because the frequency of getting a reward with a reinforce depends on the person.
  48. 48. Operant conditioning  Variable-ratio schedule - the organism is reinforced after the nth response on the average. - Behavior is reinforced after an unpredictable number of times. Ex. gambling or fishing (Playing slot machines) The machine is set to pay off at a certain rate, but the ratio must be flexible, that is, variable, to prevent players from predicting payoffs.
  49. 49. Operant conditioning Variable-Ratio Car salesman 1 2 3 4 5 1st bonus2nd bonus 1 2 3 4 5 61 2 3 4 5 6 7 3rd bonus 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4th bonus 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5th bonus
  50. 50. Operant conditioning  Fixed-interval schedule - the organism is reinforced for the first response following a designated period of time. - One reinforcement is given after a fixed time interval providing at least one correct response has been made. Ex. being paid by the hour, or would be every 15 minutes (half hour, hour, etc.)
  51. 51. Operant conditioning Fixed- Interval Car salesman 1 two weeks The paycheck is on the interval schedule because the reinforcement occurs after a consistent amount of time has passed(two weeks).
  52. 52. Operant conditioning  Variable-interval schedule - the organism is reinforced after the lapse of random periods of time. - reinforcement is given after an unpredictable amount of time has passed Ex. self-employed person being paid at unpredictable times.
  53. 53. Operant conditioning Car salesman 1 Variable- Interval supervisor
  54. 54. Operant conditioning  Four Reasons why responses can be lost: a) passage of time b) interference of preceding or subsequent leaning c) punishment d) cause of lost learning or EXTINCTION - Defined as the tendency of a previously acquired response to become progressively weakened upon nonreinforcement.
  55. 55. Operant conditioning  Operant Extinction - takes place when an experimenter systematically withholds reinforcement of a previously learned response until the probability of that response diminishes to zero.
  56. 56. Operant conditioning  HUMAN BEHAVIOR/PERSONALITY  Forces:  Natural selection  Cultural Evolution  Individuals history of reinforcement
  57. 57. Operant conditioning  Natural selection - we are shaped by contingencies of survival.  Cultural Evolution  Selection is responsible for those cultural practices that have survived.
  58. 58. Operant conditioning  Inner States Drives - the effect of deprivation and satiation and the corresponding probability that the organism will respond.  Emotions  Purpose and Intention
  59. 59. Operant conditioning  Complex behavior  Creativity – result of random or accidental behaviours that happen to be rewarded.  Dreams  Higher Mental Processes - Thinking, problem solving, and reminiscing are covert behaviors that take place within the skin but not inside the mind. As behaviors, they are amenable to the same contingencies of reinforcement as overt behaviors.
  60. 60. Control of Human Behavior Methods of social control: a. Operant conditioning b. describing contingencies c. Deprivation and satiation d. Physical restraint
  61. 61. 2. Self-Control • the contingencies of self-control do not reside within the individual and cannot be freely chosen.
  62. 62. 2. Self-Control Techniques:  physical aids - Such as tools, machines, and financial resources Ex. A person may take extra money when going shopping to give herself the opinion of impulse buying.
  63. 63. 2. Self-Control Techniques:  changing environmental stimuli Ex. A student wanting to concentrate on his studies can turn off a distracting a television set.
  64. 64. 2. Self-Control Techniques:  arranging the environment to allow escape from aversive stimuli Ex. A woman can set an alarm clock so that the aversive sound can be stopped only by getting out of bed to shut off the alarm.
  65. 65. 2. Self-Control Techniques:  Drugs Ex. A man ingest tranquilizers to make his behavior more placid.
  66. 66. 2. Self-Control Techniques:  Doing something else Ex. An obsessive woman may count repetitious patterns in wallpaper to avoid thinking about previous experiences that would create guilt.
  67. 67. The Unhealthy Personality A. Counteracting Strategies People counteract through: - escape People withdraw from the controlling agent either physically or psychologically.
  68. 68. The Unhealthy Personality A. Counteracting Strategies - revolting People rebel through vandalizing public property, tormenting teachers, verbally abusing other people, etc.
  69. 69. The Unhealthy Personality A. Counteracting Strategies - passively resisting Skinner believed that passive resistance is most likely to be used when escape and revolt failed. Ex. A child with homework to do finds dozen excuses why it cannot be finished.
  70. 70. The Unhealthy Personality B. Inappropriate behaviors  excessive vigorous behavior  excessive restrained behavior  blocking of reality  defecting self-knowledge  self-punishment
  71. 71. Skinner was not a psychotherapist, and he even criticized psychotherapy as being one of the major obstacles to a scientific study of human behavior in a therapeutic setting. PSYCHOTHERAPY