• Learning is a continious activity.• People learning new things always without evenbeing concious about it.• Jarvis 5 meaning of the concept– Any more or less permanent change in behaviouras a result of experience.– A relative change in behaviour as a result ofpractice– The process whereby knowledge is created throughthe transformation of experience.– The process of transforming experience in to K,S,A– Memorsing information.
• From T & D perspective learning may be definedas “a complex process of acquring knowledge,skills, and values inorder to be able to adapt toenvironment in which we live”. Such adaptioninvolves changes in behaviour.• The psychology of learning is deals withtheoretical and empirical aspects of the learningprocess.• It involves principles of learning, lerning process,components of learning, and motivationalstrategies
Theories of learning• Reinforcement Theory• Cognitive Theory• Social Learning Theory• Goal setting Theory• Need Theory• Expectancy Theory• Experimental Learning Theory• Learning to learn & self development
Learning Process• Receiving Information• Accepting or Taking in the information• Assimilating the information• Storing the information• Applying the information
Receiving• Learning begins when one receives newinformation that one finds interesting.• Human being always receive informationsfrom various sources, all of them are notrelevant. So they accept what relevant andrejects irrelavant ones.
Taking In• Once information is received and irrelavantparts are filtered out, one assimilate theinformation• The amount of information taken varies withevery individual because each individual has adifferent ability to sensory perception.• Individual learn from what they takensincethey are differ in their ability to take theirlearning ability also differ.
Assimilating• It is the process of connecting new informationwith the already existing framework of thought.• For learning occur a connection between thenew information and the prior stored informat-ion has to be made.• Assimilating is also a process where a learningconflict may occur. Learning Conflict is asituation where the new information is foundcontradictory to the existing framework ofthought.
Storing• Assimilated information is stored for futureuseApplying• Learning process is complete only when thelearner is able to recall and apply the storedinformation
PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING1. Recency2. Appropriateness3. Motivation4. Primacy5. Two-way communication6. Feedback7. Active Learning8. Multi-sense Learning9. Exercise
1.Recency• Accoring to the priciple of recency the contentsthat the trainee learns at the end of the sessionare best remembered.• The principle is applicable to two ares oflearning that are– It applies to the content at the end of the session– It applies to the the things that are the freshest inthe trainee’s mind
• Implication on Trainer– The trainer has to provide brief recaps of thecontent throught the session.– Has to keep emphasising the key messagesregularly throughout the session.– Must build review sessions into his presentaionsthat the learning content is retained by thetrainees.
2.Appropriateness• All the training content, materials, learningresources must be relevant to the training andtrainees learning needs.• It is also related to the verbal presentation.• Inorder to create appropriate learning contentthe trainer must assess the learnig need of thetrainee and design the content & materials.• Trainer also need to assess the learning styleof trainees, so that he can design materialaccording to their learning style
3.Motivation• Learning will occur only if the trainees want tolearn, are ready to learn, and have a reason tolearn.• Trainees who have a reason to learn and areready to learn are trainees who are motivatedto learn,such trainees succeed in learning.• It is the duty of the trainer to motivate thelearner by creating an appropriate learningclimate, by pointing out the virtues of theparticular programme and by catering theirlearnig needs.
4.Primacy• The contents which the trainees learn first, arelearnt best.• Recency points out that the last content is bestremembered while primacy says the first islearnt best.• In other words the opening and closing of thesession are the most crucial part of a trainingsession.• If the end can be used for a recap, the beginningcan be used for an overview.
5. Two-way Communication• In a training situation communication must betwo way for learning to be effective.• Learning must be interactive and the deliveryof the trainer must not be a monologue.• The session must be participative and thetrainer must allow the trainees to interactduring the session.• Learning success entirely depends on thecommunication of training content.
6. Feedback• Both the trainees and trainers need to exchangeinformation with each other.• The trainees should know their learning progressand the trainer should know whether they areable to follow his presentation of the content.• Feedback also serve as a learning reinforcement• It can be in the form of positive or negative• Positive feedback assures the trainee of hislearning progress while negative feedback allowsthe the trainees to know his shortcomings.
• The following factors must be considered foreffective feedback :-– Frequent test must be conducted for givingfeedback– Trainees must be provided performance feedbackimmediately, only then will the feedback have anyeffect.– Trainer must use random in-session question toassess the impact of his presentation.– Appropriate behaviour or correct responses must beacknowledged.– Training sessions must be planned in such a mannerthat reinforcement strategies are built into it.
7. Active Learning• For effective learning the trainees must beactively involved in the learning process.• They learn more by doing rather than hearingor seeing. Eg: Resume writing.• Active learning allows trainees to keep thetrainees involved throughtout the session
8. Multi-sense Learning• It involves the use of training techniques andaids which will appeal to multiple sensoryorgans at the same time.• The aim is to cater to different learning stylesof the learner and to increase the attentionspanof the learner.
9. Exercise• It is also known as Overlearning or MeaningfulRepetition states that for the better retention oflearning content, it should be repeated.• Research points out that trainees forgot one-third of what they have learned in 6 hrs, one-third of what they have learned in 24 hrs,around 90% of what they have learned within sixweeks.• The only solution for this is to make the traineesexcercise or repeat the key information regularlyso that they retain it for a long time.
• Learning -Definition• Theories of Learning• Learning Process• Principles of Learning