Learning• Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom.
Learning• Learning refers to relatively permanent changes in behavior resulting from practice or experience• Innate behaviors are inborn, emerge during certain periods, and are not the result of learning
مقدمة• يعد التعلم سمة وقدرة يكاد يتميز بها الكائن البشري عن كافة المخلوقات الخرى, على الرغم من وجودها في بعض الكائنات الحية الخرى. • التعلم يشير إلى عملية حيوية تحدث لدى الكائن البشري وتتمثل في التغيرالسلوكي وفي الخبرات ويستدل عليها من خلل السلوك الخارجي القابل للملحظة والقياس. • يمكن النظر إلى التعلم على أنه عملية ديناميكية تتجلى في جملة التغيرات السلوكية وفي خبرات الفرد بهدف تحقيق التوازن بين الفرد والبيئة المحيطة به.
Classical Conditioning• Certain stimuli can elicit a reflexive response – Air puff >> eye-blink – Smelling food >> can produce salivation• The reflexive stimulus (UCS) and response (UCR) are unconditioned• The neutral stimulus is referred to as the conditioned stimulus (CS)• In classical conditioning, the CS is repeatedly paired with the reflexive stimulus (UCS)• Eventually the CS will produce a response (CR) similar to that produced by the UCS
Generalization – Learning on stimulus A changesbehavior regarding stimulus BDiscrimination – Learning on stimulus A doesn’tchange behavior regarding stimulus BExtinction – Loss of learned behavior aftertraining stopsSpontaneous Recovery – Exhibiting learnedbehavior after extinction has occurred.
Extinction (Deconditioning)• Pairings of the CS and UCS lead to conditioning whereas presentation of the CS only leads to loss of the conditioned response• Extinction refers to loss of response to a CS presented without the UCS – Extinction is not forgetting• Extinction is useful in clinical situations – Extinction of a phobia can be treated by exposure to the CS only
Operant/Skinnerian Conditioning• Organisms must make responses that have consequences – Punishment – Reinforcement – The response can be associated with cues in the environment • We put coins in a machine to obtain food • But we refrain when an Out of Order sign is placed on the machine
Key Aspects of Operant Conditioning• In operant conditioning, the stimulus is a cue, it does not elicit the response• Operant responses are voluntary• In operant conditioning, the response elicits a reinforcing stimulus
Key Terms of Operant Conditioning• Reinforcement is any procedure that increases the response• Punishment is any procedure that decreases the response• Types of reinforcers: – Primary: e.g. food or water – Secondary: money or power
Punishment• Positive Punishment – presenting a stimulus that leads to a lowered likelihood for a response to occur in the future• Negative Punishment – removing a stimulus that leads to a lowered likelihood for a response to occur in the future
Two Types of Reinforcers and Punishers.• Positive reinforcement occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a favorable stimulus (commonly seen as pleasant) that increases the frequency of that behavior. In the Skinner box experiment, a stimulus such as food or sugar solution can be delivered when the rat engages in a target behavior, such as pressing a lever.• Negative reinforcement occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus (commonly seen as unpleasant) thereby increasing that behaviors frequency. In the Skinner box experiment, negative reinforcement can be a loud noise continuously sounding inside the rats cage until it engages in the target behavior, such as pressing a lever, upon which the loud noise is removed.• Positive punishment (also called "Punishment by contingent stimulation") occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by an aversive stimulus, such as introducing a shock or loud noise, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.• Negative punishment (also called "Punishment by contingent withdrawal") occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of a favorable stimulus, such as taking away a childs toy following an undesired behavior, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.
Two Types of Reinforcers and Punishers.• The difference occurs due to whether you add or remove something.• If you add something following a response = positive• If you remove something following a response = negative• Positive does not mean good:• Negative does not mean bad.
Schedules of Reinforcement• Continuous: reinforcement occurs after every response – Produces rapid acquisition and is subject to rapid extinction• Partial: reinforcement occurs after some, but not all, responses – Responding on a partial reinforcement schedule is more resistant to extinction
Partial Reinforcement Schedules• Ratio: every nth response is reinforced – Fixed: every nth response – Variable: on average, every nth response• Interval: first response after some interval results in reinforcement – Fixed: interval is x in length (e.g. 1 min) – Variable: the average interval is x
Shaping• Shaping – rewarding successive approximations towards the final goal –Used often in phobias… –E.G. fear of snakes…
Thorndikes law of effect• Operant conditioning, sometimes called instrumental conditioning or instrumental learning, was first extensively studied by Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949).• In his Law of Effect, Thorndike theorized that successful responses, those producing satisfying consequences, were "stamped in" by the experience and thus occurred more frequently. Unsuccessful responses, those producing annoying consequences, were stamped out and subsequently occurred less frequently.• In short, some consequences strengthened behavior and some consequences weakened behavior.
Classical Conditioning Applied John B. Watsons Little Albert • John B. Watson proposed that emotions (such as fear) can be conditioned in humans. • To study this, Watson conditioned an nine month old child, Albert, to fear various neutral objects (including a rabbit, a dog and some wool) by repetitively pairing their presence with a loud noise.• Watsons experiment was successful and resulted in little Albert displaying severe fear responses to the previously unfeared objects.• The goal of Watsons experiment had been to prove that behaviour is learned, in contrast to the then- prevalent, Freudian belief that behaviour came from the unconscious.
Types of learningSimple non-associative learning• HabituationIn psychology, habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition of a stimulus.An animal first responds to a stimulus, but if it is neither rewarding nor harmful the animal reduces subsequent responses.
Types of learningSimple non-associative learning• Habituation is stimulus specific. It does not cause a general decline in responsiveness.• Habituation is also commonly found in the case of odors. For example, one may not be able to smell ones own bad breath while being able to smell anothers.• Dishabituation is when a second stimulus is used, which briefly increases habituated response, it has been shown that this is a different mechanism from sensitization.
Types of learningSimple non-associative learning• SensitizationSensitization is an example of non- associative learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus.
Types of learningSimple non-associative learning• A different type of sensitization is that of kindling, where repeated stimulation of hippocampal or amygdaloid neurons in the limbic system eventually leads to seizures in laboratory animals.
Imprinting• Konrad Z. Lorenz being followed by his imprinted geese• Imprinting is the term used in psychology and ethology to describe any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior.• It was first used to describe situations in which an animal or person learns the characteristics of some stimulus, which is therefore said to be "imprinted" onto the subject.
Observational learning (social learning or modeling)• It is learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and, in the case of imitation learning, replicating novel behavior executed by others.• It is most associated with the work of psychologist Albert Bandura, who implemented some of the seminal studies in the area and initiated social learning theory.• It involves the process of learning to copy or model the action of another through observing another doing it.
Observational learning (social learning or modeling)• Many mistake observational learning with imitation.• The two terms are different in the sense that observational learning leads to a change in behavior due to observing a model.• This does not mean that the behavior exhibited by the model is duplicated.
Learning by trail and error• Primitive• Young children and animals• Less time with repetition
Learning by insight• Planning• Mental level before hand• Adults• Experiment of chimpanzee and banana• Foresight
Electronic learningElectronic learning or E-learning is a general term used to refer to computer- enhanced learning.
Learning helps our neurons GROW.The more we learn, the more connections they make.
Factors affecting Learning• Personal Factors - Intelligence - Previous Knowledge - Acquired habits - Physical state - Psychological state - Motivation
Factors affecting Learning• Objective external Factors: - Learned material - Method of learning
Behavioral Therapies Based on Classical Condition
Psychotherapy Goals• Psychotherapy can provide relief to a client for issues relating to:Eclectic Approach – combining techniques from various theories tofind the most appropriate treatment
Behavior Therapies• Learning techniques are used to alter behaviors; these techniques include: –Classical conditioning •Aversion therapy… •Systematic desensitization…
Aversion therapy• This is a form of psychological therapy that is designed to eliminate, for example, sexual behaviour by associating an aversive stimulus such as nausea with sex.• Because the aversive stimulus performs as a US and produces a UR, the association between the stimulus and behaviour leads to the same consequences each time.• If the treatment has worked, the patient will not have a compulsion to engage in such behaviours again.• This sort of treatment has been used to treat alcoholism as well as drug addiction.
Systematic desensitization• Patients might learn that the object of their phobias or fears are not so fearful if they can safely relive the feared stimulus.• However, anxiety often obstructs such recovery. This obstruction is overcome by reintroducing the fear- producing object gradually by a process known as reciprocal inhibitions.• A person constructs a hierarchy of events leading to the feared situation.• This hierarchy is approached step by step and anxiety is relieved at every level.• The fear is eventually removed if the therapy is performed correctly.
Behavior Therapies–Operant conditioning •Shaping – focus on target behavior •Modeling – observe and imitate behaviors of others
MCQLearning is the acquisition of :a- memoriesb- behaviorsc- knowledged- all of the above
MCQThe following factors affect learning:a- Intelligenceb- Previous Knowledgec- Motivationd- all of the above
Hani Hamed Dessoki, MD Psychiatry Associate Prof. of Psychiatry Acting Head, Psychiatry Department Faculty of Medicine - Beni Suif University APA membership Mob: +20106071194 +20108833248 Telephone, clinic: 02 – 37603192Mailing address: 42 El- Dokki St. Cairo, Egypt Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.hanipsych.comClinic : 24 Gameet El- Dowal El- Arabia St. El- Mohandiseen, Cairo. Beni Suef, Islam St.