When we observe people, we attempt to develop explanations for their behavior. Our perceptions and judgements will be influenced by the assumptions we make about the person’s internal state. Attribution theory asserts that when we observe behavior, we classify it as either internally or externally motivated. We believe that internally caused behaviors are under an individual’s control; externally caused behaviors are motivated by outside forces. How we determine the source of behavior is determined by three factors: distinctiveness, consensus, and consistency. Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays different behavior in different situations. If everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way, we can say the behavior shows consensus. Finally, an observer looks for consistency in a person’s actions. The figure above summarizes the key elements in attribution theory. Managers should remember that errors and biases can distort attributions. For instance, fundamental attribution error is underestimating the influence of external factors and overestimating the influence of internal factors. Also, attributing success to internal factors and failure to external factors is called self-serving bias.
Perception and learning
“A process by which we give meaning to our environment
by organizing and interpreting sensory impressions.”
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE
In social psychology,
attribution is the process by
which individuals explain the
causes of behavior and events.
Attribution theory is the study
of models to explain those
Our perceptions of people differ from our perceptions of inanimate
objects( Robots, computers etc).
Attribution theory suggests that when we observe an individual’s
behavior , we attempt to determine whether it was internally caused
or externally caused.
Theory that states that we all have basic need to understand and
explain the causes of other’s people behavior.
Those we believe the
to be under the
personal control of
What we imagine the
situation forced the
individual to do .
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ATTRIBUTION
DISTINCTIVENESS: The consideration given to how consistent a
person’s behavior is across different situation .
CONSENSUS: Refers to the likelihood that all those facing the
same situation will have similar response .
CONSISTENCY: Refers to the measure of whether an individual
responds the same way across time.
FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR:
The tendency to underestimate the influence of external
factors and overestimate the influence of internal or
personal factors when making judgments about the
behavior of others.
SELF SERVING BIAS:
The tendency for individual to attribute their own success
to internal factors while putting the blame for failure on
SHORTCUTS USED IN JUDGING OTHERS
Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occur
as a result of experience.
THEORIES OF LEARNING
Social learning theory
1.OPERANT CONDITIONING THEORY
A method of learning that occur through reward and
punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning,
an association is made between a behavior and a
consequences for that behavior.
Children completing homework to earn a reward from
teacher and parent.
Employee completing project to receive promotion.
COMPONENTS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING
A kind of stimulus that aim to increase the strength in
behavior due to its consequences.
Any event that cause a decrease in the behavior.
TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT
Favorable events that’s are presented after the behavior. (
A response or behavior strengthened by stopping, removing or
avoiding a negative outcome.
When positive reinforcement most
When it is occur immediately after the behavior.
When the reinforcement is presented frequently.
When is negative reinforcement most
It is effective when reinforces are presented immediately
following a behavior.
You leave your house early to avoid being late.
You clean up your mess in the kitchen to avoid in a fight
with your roommate.
2.Social learning theory
“The theory that people can learn through observation and
This theory is an extension of operant conditioning but it
also acknowledge the existence of observational learning
and the importance of perception.
People learn from watching models- parents, teacher,
television, bosses etc.
Four processes that determine the influence
of model on individual:
Motor reproduction processes