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Perception and learning


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Presentation on Perception and Learning.

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Perception and learning

  1. 1. “A process by which we give meaning to our environment by organizing and interpreting sensory impressions.” PERCERTION
  2. 2. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PERCEPTION INTERNAL FACTORS:  Needs  Personality  Experience EXTERNAL FACTORS:  Size  Frequency  Status  Contrast
  3. 3. ATTRIBUTION In social psychology, attribution is the process by which individuals explain the causes of behavior and events. Attribution theory is the study of models to explain those processes
  4. 4. ATTRIBUTION THEORY  Our perceptions of people differ from our perceptions of inanimate objects( Robots, computers etc).  Attribution theory suggests that when we observe an individual’s behavior , we attempt to determine whether it was internally caused or externally caused.  Theory that states that we all have basic need to understand and explain the causes of other’s people behavior.
  5. 5. INTERNALLY CAUSE BEHAVIOUR  Those we believe the to be under the personal control of individual. EXTERNALLY CAUSEDBEHAVIOUR  What we imagine the situation forced the individual to do .
  6. 6. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ATTRIBUTION  DISTINCTIVENESS: The consideration given to how consistent a person’s behavior is across different situation .  CONSENSUS: Refers to the likelihood that all those facing the same situation will have similar response .  CONSISTENCY: Refers to the measure of whether an individual responds the same way across time.
  7. 7. Attribution Theory and Individual Behavior External External Internal Internal Internal External Attribution of Cause Distinctiveness Consensus Consistency High Low High Low High Low Interpretation Observation
  8. 8. Errors that distort Attributions:
  9. 9. FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR: The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.
  10. 10. SELF SERVING BIAS: The tendency for individual to attribute their own success to internal factors while putting the blame for failure on external factors.
  11. 11. SHORTCUTS USED IN JUDGING OTHERS  Selectivity  Assumed Similarity  Stereotyping  Halo Effect  Self-fulfilling prophecy
  12. 12. LEARNING Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occur as a result of experience. THEORIES OF LEARNING  Operant conditioning  Social learning theory
  13. 13. 1.OPERANT CONDITIONING THEORY A method of learning that occur through reward and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequences for that behavior. EXAMPLE:  Children completing homework to earn a reward from teacher and parent.  Employee completing project to receive promotion.
  14. 14. COMPONENTS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING  REINFORCEMENT: A kind of stimulus that aim to increase the strength in behavior due to its consequences.  PUNISHMENT Any event that cause a decrease in the behavior.
  15. 15. TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT  POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT: Favorable events that’s are presented after the behavior. ( Reward learning)  NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT: A response or behavior strengthened by stopping, removing or avoiding a negative outcome.
  16. 16. When positive reinforcement most effective?  When it is occur immediately after the behavior.  When the reinforcement is presented frequently.
  17. 17. When is negative reinforcement most effective?  It is effective when reinforces are presented immediately following a behavior. EXAMPLES:  You leave your house early to avoid being late.  You clean up your mess in the kitchen to avoid in a fight with your roommate.
  18. 18. 2.Social learning theory “The theory that people can learn through observation and direct experience.”  This theory is an extension of operant conditioning but it also acknowledge the existence of observational learning and the importance of perception.  People learn from watching models- parents, teacher, television, bosses etc.
  19. 19. Four processes that determine the influence of model on individual:  Attention processes  Retention process  Motor reproduction processes  Reinforcement processes