M.Sc. (N) PREVIOUS
P. G. COLLEGE OF
JAN VIKAS NYAS
A popular term of the continuous maintenance of low
temperature required for biologicals from the time of
manufacture to shipping, warehousing, and storing
The maintenance of refrigeration of items from the point of
their origin at the manufacturer, through their
transportation, unloading, distribution, and cold
storage at the site where they will be used.
WHY IMMUNIZATION ?
Key strategy to child survival.
Protecting infants from diseases.
Lower morbidity and mortality rates
Indicator of a strong primary health
IMMUNIZATION: COMMON TERMS
Process Of inducing immunity by stimulating
immune system through antigens.
The fact or process of becoming, as against a
Resistance of a host to a specific agent
Immunity means exemption or resistance
Any preparation of a weakened or killed
bacteria or viruses introduced into the body
to prevent a disease by stimulating
antibodies against it.
Administration of antigenic material(the
vaccine) to produce immunity to a disease.
Beneficiary child(12-23 months) -3 doses of DPT
and OPV each, 1 dose of BCG & measles each.
Mother- two dose or 1 booster dose of tetanus
toxoid during her pregnancy.
Child-missed any vaccine or one or more dose
Mother- received just one dose of primary tetanus
toxoid during last pregnancy
Child and/or mother –not received a single dose of
Vaccination of people in close contact with an
isolated infected patient
When the final pockets of polio virus transmission
have been identified standard surveillance, door
to door immunization in high-risk districts.
CATCH UP ROUND
Additional effort besides routine immunization
to cover left outs.
Resistance to spread of infectious disease in a
group because of few susceptible members,
making transmission unlikely.
The immunological status of a population,
determined by the ratio of resistant to
susceptible members and their distribution.
MILESTONES IN IMMUNIZATION IN INDIA
1985: UIP, measles vaccine added
1986: Technology mission
1990: Vitamin A
1995: Polio National Immunization days
2005: RCH-II and NRHM
Sr. No. Time Vaccine Dose Route
1 At Birth BCG, single dose(m)
OPV, 0 dose(m)
HPV, single dose(o) (Only for girls)
2 6 week
3 10 week
4 14 week OPV 3rd
5 6 months Hep-B booster(m)
Rotavirus single dose(o)
6 9 months Measles (m) 0.5ml S/C
7 12 month(one year) Varicella (m) 0.5ml I/M
8 15 months
(1 year 3 months)
9 16-24 months Vitamin-A (m) 1 spoon PO
10 18 months(1 rear 6 months) OPV booster 1st
DPT booster (m)
11 2 year Typhoid (m)
Hep-A, single dose
12 24-30 months Vitamin-A 1 spoon PO
13 30-36 months Vitamin-A 1 spoon PO
14 48 months(4 year) MMR (m) 0.5ml I/M
15 60 months(5 year) OPV booster 2nd
16 adult vaccines
Influvac once every year for
adult of any age
Influenza/flu Vaccine 0.5ml I/M
17 one booter dose every 10
DPT 0.5ml I/M
HPV VACCINE for women aged 19 to 26 who did not get vaccinated with HPV during childhood.
HPV also prevent throat cancer often caused by oral sex.
BARRIERS TO IMMUNIZATION
REASONS FOR LOW IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE
FAILURE TO PROVIDE IMMUNIZATION
Improper logistics management
WHAT SHOULD NOT HOLD ROUTINE
Minor illnesses such as upper respiratory
infections or diarrhoea, mild fever(>38.5 c)
Prematurity, underweight newborn child
Child being breastfed
Family history of convulsions
Treatment with antibiotics
Chronic disease of heart, lung, kidney and liver
History of jaundice after birth
A system of transporting and storing
vaccines at recommended
temperature from the point of
manufacture to the point of use.