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SMART Materials

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Introduction to Smart Materials, Classification of Smart Materials, Different types of Smart Materials and their applications.

Published in: Engineering, Technology, Business
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SMART Materials

  1. 1. Biswajit Acharya M.Tech ,1st Year Roll: 0892010 AEIE Heritage Institute of Technology 1
  2. 2. OUTLINE…. Classification & Comparison Between Materials; Smart Materials- Introduction; Classification of Smart Materials; Different Types of Smart Materials; Their Applications; Conclusion; References…. 2
  3. 3. TYPES OF MATERIALS Wood Metals SMART MATERIALS 3
  4. 4. COMPARISON BETWEEN MATERIALS Material Conduc- tivity Stren- gth Hard- ness Tough- ness Weight Corrosi- on Resista- nce Cost Pine Very poor Medium/ low Low Low Low/ medium Poor Low MDF Very poor Low Low Low Low/ medium Poor Low Low- Carbon Steel Very good Very good Good Very good High Poor Low Stainless Steel Very good Ex- cellent Very good Very good High Good High HIPS Very poor Medium Low Good Low Very good Low Acrylic Very poor Medium Low/ medium Good Low Good Medium SMA Very good Very good Good Very good Medium Good High SMART MATERIALS 4 Courtesy:BBC-GCSE Bitesize
  5. 5. SMART MATERIALS….!!!! Smart materials are the materials that can significantly alter one or more of their inherent properties owing to the application of an external stimuli in a controlled fashion. The several external stimulus to which the SMART Materials are sensitive are : Stress; Temperature; Moisture; pH; Electric Fields; Magnetic Fields…… SMART MATERIALS 5
  6. 6. SMART MATERIALS….!!!! S M A R T RESULT-ORIENTED SIGNIFICANT MEASURABLE APPROPRIATE TIME-ORIENTED SMART MATERIALS 6
  7. 7. CLASSIFICATION OF SMART MATERIALS Type of SMART Material Input Output Piezoelectric Deformation Potential Difference Electrostrictive Potential Difference Deformation Magnetostrictive Magnetic Field Deformation Thermoelectric Temperature Potential Difference Shape Memory Alloys Temperature Deformation Photochromic Radiation Color Change Thermochromics Temperature Color Change SMART MATERIALS 7
  8. 8. PIEZO-ELECTRIC MATERIALS… Materials Used: Quartz, Rochelle Salt, Topaz, Bismuth Ferrite. The Direct Effect The Reverse Effect SMART MATERIALS 8
  9. 9. ELECTROSTRICTIVE MATERIALS If a dielectric material is subjected to an electric field, then it experiences a strain which is proportional to the strength of the electric field. Eg: Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate (PLZT). Lead Magnesium Niobate (PMN). SMART MATERIALS 9
  10. 10. MAGNETOSTRICTIVE MATERIALS Application of a magnetic field to a ferromagnetic material causes it to change its shape. This change in shape is proportional to the strength of the field applied. Eg: Cobalt, Terfenol-D. SMART MATERIALS 10
  11. 11. THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS These materials, when subjected to any temperature difference, produces proportional voltage output. The reverse effect is also true. Thermoelectric effect generally comprise of: Seebeck Effect; Peltier Effect; Thomson Effect. SMART MATERIALS 11
  12. 12. SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS Shape Memory Alloys are metal alloys which can undergo solid-to-solid phase transformation and can recover completely when heated to a specific temperature. These materials has two phases: Austenite- high temperature phase; Martensite- low temperature phase. SMART MATERIALS 12
  13. 13. MARTENSITE TO AUSTENITE TRANSFORMATION SMART MATERIALS 13
  14. 14. SHAPE MEMORY EFFECT-AN EXAMPLE SMART MATERIALS 14
  15. 15. SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS Materials commonly used are:  Cu-Al-Ni;  Fe-Mn-Si;  Cu-Zn-Al;  Ni-Ti. Major Applications:  Aircraft;  Orthopedic Surgery;  Dental Braces;  Robotics. SMART MATERIALS 15
  16. 16. CHROMOGENIC MATERIALS SMART MATERIALS 16
  17. 17. THERMOCHROMIC MATERIALS Materials which changes color with changes in temperature. General materials used are:  V2O5 ,  Cholesteryl nonanoate,  1,2,3-triazole,  Octadecylphosphonic acid. General applications:  Inks;  Dyes;  Papers;  Plastics. SMART MATERIALS 17
  18. 18. RESPONSE TO TEMPERATURE CHANGE Cold Cold Hot Hot SMART MATERIALS 18
  19. 19. PHOTOCHROMIC MATERIALS Photochromic materials change colour in response to the intensity of light. Transmittance to light varies with the intensity of the incident light. General Materials used are:  Azobenzene;  Diarylethene;  Spiropyran;  Silver Chloride. SMART MATERIALS 19
  20. 20. PHOTOCHROMIC MATERIALS Major Applications:  Lenses;  Supramolecular chemistry;  Dyes;  Paints;  Cosmetics;  Clothing. SMART MATERIALS 20
  21. 21. ELECTROCHROMIC MATERIALS These materials change their optical behavior with application of electrical voltage. Their behavior is basically characterized by the amount of light they allow to pass through them. Transparent and looks like ordinary glass Application of small voltage turns it opaque (blueish and dark) SMART MATERIALS 21
  22. 22. ELECTROCHROMIC MATERIALS General materials used are:  WO3;  NiO;  TiO2;  Polyaniline;  Polythiophene. Major applications:  Smart Glass;  Light-transmissive devices for optical information and storage;  Rear-view mirrors;  Protective eyewear. SMART MATERIALS 22
  23. 23. APPLICATIONS  Smart Fabric;  Smart Aircraft;  Sporting Goods;  Smart Dust;  Reducing vibration of helicopter blades;  Robotics;  Medical Surgeries;  Security;  And many others………………… SMART MATERIALS 23
  24. 24. CONCLUSION The research and development of smart materials has been an astounding boost to the technical sphere. As time will pass by, these materials will be more known of and be more extensively used to meet even the minute needs of the society. SMART MATERIALS 24
  25. 25. REFERENCES Smart Materials and Smart Systems for the future-Georges Akhras. New Organic Electrochromic Materials and their Applications- J Zmija, M.J Malachowski. BBC-GCSE Bitesize. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/design/electronics/ materialsrev2.shtml Canadian Military Journal, Autumn 2000. Buckley, S., “Automation Sensing Mimics Organisms”. http://chem.xmu.edu.cn/group/wtwu/Research.html http://www.osakagu.ac.jp/php/nakagawa/TRIZ/eTRIZ/eforum/ e2008Forum/eETRIATFC2008Rep/eETRIATFC2008TNRep.ht ml Wiki….. SMART MATERIALS 25
  26. 26. SMART MATERIALS 26

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