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Optimisation of Balance of System (BOS) for Solar Projects

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Balance of System (BOS) of a Solar Project has undergone a significant price reduction but continuous optimisation is making the trend continuing to go further down.

The presentation discusses on aspects around over-loading, cable optimisation, introduction of 1500 V systems and many other interesting optimisations.

Published in: Business
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Optimisation of Balance of System (BOS) for Solar Projects

  1. 1. Balance of Systems- Solar PV Project Gensol Engineering Pvt Ltd
  2. 2. Balance of Systems (BOS) • Inverters • Mounting & Racking Systems • Electrical Equipment and Installation • Cabling-AC & DC • Transformers & Breakers • Combiner Boxes • Earthing • Transmission Line, etc • Civil Work & Development • Inverter Rooms, CMCS • Roads, Boundary, Drainage, Cleaning Systems, etc • Land • Miscellaneous All components of a photovoltaic system other the photovoltaic panels “ ”
  3. 3. BOS Trends -10.00 10.00 30.00 50.00 70.00 90.00 110.00 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 Normalized Value N ormalized CERC P V Cost Cu rves Project Cost Module Cost BOS Cost 0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 Module-BOS Cost Breakup Module BOS • Module cost curve has outrun BOS cost curve • BOS optimization from 2013-14 • Module:BOS at 65:35 • Module CARR~ 9% • BOS CARR ~8%
  4. 4. Cost Breakup Head Components Trend Inverters Mounting Structures MMS, Fasteners, Installation Civil Works & Development Rooms, Roads, Boundary, Drainage, Cleaning, etc Electrical BOS Cabling, Transformers, Breakers, Combiner Boxes, Earthing, etc Land Miscellaneous CCTV, Monitoring, etc Module 65% Inverters 4% Mounting Structures 7% Civil Works & Development 7% Electrical BOS 10% Land 6% Miscellaneous 1% Solar Project Cost Breakup
  5. 5. BOS Reduction due to Module Efficiency • Efficiency of average commercial wafer based silicon module has grown from 10% to 17% in last 10 years • Best efficiency multi-crystalline module: 19.2% Source: Fraunhofer ISE, 2016
  6. 6. BOS Reduction due to Module Efficiency Impact of increase in module efficiency Item Components Saving Trend Scalable DC Cabling, Structures, SCBs, Connectors, Land Semi-Scalable Roads, Periphery, Drains, Lighting Neutral AC BOS, Evacuation, etc 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 8.0% 10.0% 12.0% 14.0% 16.0% 18.0% Efficiency DC Works Structure Ass. Civil Work Land 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 8.3% 8.0% 7.7% 6.0% 7.7% 16.7% 14.1% 16.7% 11.1% 14.2% % Cost Savings Cost Savings- Efficiency Increase 300W 325W 350W For every 5W increase in module wattage • project costs decrease by 0.27% • BOS costs reduce by 0.8%
  7. 7. BOS Reduction due to Overloading (DC:AC) Impact of increase in overloading (DC:AC) Item Components Saving Trend Neutral DC Cabling, Structures, SCBs, Connectors, Land Semi-Scalable Roads, Periphery, Drains, Lighting Scalable AC BOS, Evacuation, etc
  8. 8. BOS Reduction due to Overloading (DC:AC) 1.00 0.96 0.94 0.92 0.91 0.90 1.000 0.984 0.979 0.972 0.968 0.962 0.84 0.86 0.88 0.90 0.92 0.94 0.96 0.98 1.00 1.02 0 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% Normalization Factor Overloading(%) Effect of Overloading on Plant Costs Normalized BOS Cost/Wp Normalized Cost/Wp 1.000 1.083 1.125 1.167 1.209 1.251 1.00 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.000 1.050 1.100 1.150 1.200 1.250 1.300 0 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% NORMALIZED GAIN OVERLOADING(5) Cost Benefit Analysis Of Overloading Normalized Normaized Enegy Gain For every 10% increase in overloading • project costs decrease by 1.25% • BOS costs reduce by 3.5% Cost Benefit Analysis • Till Generation gain surpasses increase in cost
  9. 9. DC Cabling & Combiner Boxes DC side cabling costs have decreased by about 40% due to efficient design in the last few years Smart DC Block Sizing 55:45 65:35 75:25 55:35 65:35 75:25 Cost(%) 100% 115% 124% Loss(%) 100% 113% 120% Overall Cost(INR/Wp) 0.23 0.37 • Big Plant sizes allow DC block sizing optimization
  10. 10. DC Cabling & Combiner Boxes String Fusing by Y-connectors-> Solar Cable & SCB Cost reduction by around 30% String Monitoring removed, relying on inverter zone monitoring Item Saving Solar Cable 32% SCB 26% Overall 28% Leap Frogging saves 25% cable cost in the case of tracker With effective design optimization on the DC side, a reduction of 1.1% and 3.6% on project cost and BOS can be achieved“
  11. 11. Inverters & Transformers Inverters • Inverter costs have reduced by more than 70% from 2010-11 • Driven by o Scale of Production (Inverter learning rates vary from 18-20%)1 o Technological advancements: ü Material (SiC, GaN) ü Block Size ü Voltage Increase (1500V) o Localization • Inverters are predicted to see price reductions of 8-9% per annum upto 20202 Tranformers • Have shown reduction in costs in recent years due to: • Higher transformer capacities due to bigger block size • Metal Prices • Multi- winding transformer (5-winding, 7 winding) resulting in BOS optimization Source: 1. Fraunhofer ISE, 2015 2 Greentech Media, 2015.
  12. 12. Case Study: Impact of Block Size on BOS Case: 65MW Plant with 5 nos. Of 10MW and 1 no. of 15MW Block Feeder Comparison for use of various Transformer winding options (5 Nos. of 10MW Feeders & 1 No. of 15MW Feeder) S.No Parameter Case 1 Case 3 Inverter Room with 2 Inverters & 3 Winding Transformer (1No.) Inverter Room with 4 Inverters & 5 Winding Transformer (1No.) 1 Design Type 2.5MVA Block with 3-winding Xmer 5MVA Block with 5-winding Xmer 3 No. of Inverter Transformers 26 Nos. (2.5 MVA Capacity) 13 Nos. (5MVA Capacity) 4 No. of Aux. Transformers 26 Nos. (One Aux Trasf for each Inverter room) 13 Nos. (One Aux Trasf for each Inverter room) 5 No. of UPS 26 Nos. (One UPS for each Inverter room) 13 Nos. (One UPS for each Inverter room, but size of UPS will be almost twice compared to Case 1) 6 No. of VCBs 58 Nos. VCB (630A) & 3Nos. VCB (1600A) 32 Nos. VCB (630A) & 3Nos. VCB (1600A) 7 DC Power cable (SMB to Inverter Cable) 45000 Mtrs (150 Sqmm) & 70000 Mtrs (185 Sqmm) 60000 Mtrs (150 Sqmm) & 90000 Mtrs (185Sqmm) 8 HT Cable 13650 Mtrs (3Cx120 Sqmm), 3560 Mtrs (3Cx240 Sqmm), 600 Mtrs (3Cx300 sqmm) 3950 Mtrs (3Cx240Sqmm), 4320 Mtrs (3Cx300 sqmm) 9 Aux Power Cable (3Cx1.5 sqmm Cu.) 22815 Mtrs 31900 Mtrs 10 Communication Cable (RS 485) 18590 Mtrs 26050 Mtrs 11 Communication Cable (OFC) 31330 Mtrs 12560 Mtrs 12 HDPE Pipes 49950 Mtrs 38610 Mtrs 13 No. of PEB Inverter Rooms (Pre Engineered Building) 26 13 14 Size of each Inverter Room (Approx) 8.5m x 6m 14.5m x 6m 15 Transformer foundation 26 Nos. 13 Nos. 16 CCTV 32 Nos. of HD PTZ type & 7 Nos. of HD Fixed type 19 Nos. of HD PTZ type & 7 Nos. of HD Fixed type Item Savings (INR/W) 1. Tranformers +Aux.+ UPS 0.06 2. Switchgear 0.25 3. Cables (Power + Aux. + Communication) 0.08 4. Civil Work 0.06 Saving of INR 0.45/W due to Block Size Increase and use of 5-winding Transformer “ ”
  13. 13. 1500V Inverter Advantages • Higher DC and AC voltage i.e. lesser current and lesser cabling • Lesser current allows the increase in inverter block power, lesser BOS • 50% longer strings, implying lesser strings, and 33% lesser junction boxes • Lesser monitoring, and economical installation • IEC certifications are in place • Higher yield Disadvantages • Component availability limited at present, thus driving BOS costs higher • Higher inverter costs due to 1500V components
  14. 14. 1500V v/s 1000V Comparison of 1500V v/s 1000V Item Remarks Savings (%) Savings (INR/Wp) Saving Trend PV Modules 0.5 USD cents higher for 1500V -1.15% -0.34 DC Cables Quantity Saving ~30% Unit Cost considered 10% extra for 1500V 22.22% 0.16 SCB Quantity Saving ~32% Unit Cost considered 25% extra for 1500V 15.70% 0.05 AC Subsystem Inverter Trafo, LT Cable, Aux. Trafo 11.44% 0.08 Inverter 25% higher cost -25.00% -0.44 Civil & Labour Inverter Pad for 1500V, Room for 1000V. Installation Labour work reduction by 10% assumed 31.08% 0.22 Overall -0.83% -0.28
  15. 15. 1500V v/s 1000V Comparison of 1500V v/s 1000V (Alternate Optimization) • For same DC ohmic losses, a 7.5MW block can be formed in 1500V when compared to 5MW block • Bigger block size would mean optimization can be carried on AC side 1500V 7.5MW 1000V 5 MW
  16. 16. Land • The cost of land for solar projects has risen about 6-10 times as compared to 2010-11 • Not only expensive, but difficulties in acquisition • As the cost of PV modules decrease, land use optimization by decreasing the tilt, and increasing the power density (kW/sqm) East-West Mounting • For places closer to equator, i.e. latitude <10°, solar modules can be mounted in east west fashion at low tilt angles (around 3°) • High land utilization, with GCR>80% can be achieved • Wider peak • Lesser structure and foundation cost • Lesser BOS cost • Marginal drop in generation
  17. 17. East-West Mounting -11.98% -14.47% -11.55% -12.15% -11.08% -10.98% -11.12% -7.68% -4.22% -3.90% -4.31% -4.26% -3.70% -3.81% -4.81% -3.72% -2.62% -1.73% 30.16 28.59 26.84 24.97 23.76 23.07 22.31 22.36 21.32 18.52 17.38 14.66 14.29 13.14 11.87 9.9 9.36 8.36 GENERATION REDUCTION% LATITUDE East West Mounting v/s South Facing
  18. 18. Shift from Fixed to Seasonal – How numbers work • 20 X 315Wp modules in series = 6.3kWp = 1 Table • 1MWp = 160 Tables (approx.) • A team of 3 persons will take 15 minutes to change tilt of 1 table (on an average), hence, 32 tables per day. • Five such teams i.e 15 persons per day shall be able to change tilt of 1MWp installation. • At a labour rate of Rs. 350/- per day, it takes less than Rs. 6000 to change tilt of 1MWp installation. • Assuming an increment of 3T / MWp between fixed and seasonal tilt, additional capex comes out to be Rs. 2.4Lacs approx.
  19. 19. Structure Trend - Seasonal Tilt - Y 2014 – 60T S.No Description Section Size Length (m) Tot. Quantity Unit Weight (kg/m) Tot. Wt. (kg) 1) Column Post 130CU60x5 2.80 656 9.42 17302.66 2) Rafter 120CS50x18x3 3.375 656 5.74 12708.36 3) Purlin 130CS50x14x1. 5 4.97 1312 2.96 19301.09 4) Side Bracing-1 L-55x55x5 1.28 984 4.12 5189.222 5) Side Bracing-2 L-55x55x5 1.49 656 4.12 4027.053 6) Connection plate 0.265 656 1.04 682.24 6) Connection Cleat 0.167 2624 0.157 411.968 7) SQ. Washer 0.05 3936 0.0589 231.8304 Total Structural Steel Qty. (kg) 59854.42 Say 60 Ton
  20. 20. Structure Trend - Seasonal Tilt - Y 2015 – 40T Module Mounting Structural Steel Qty. Description Sectional Details Quantity /Table Grade of Steel Finish Length (m) Unit. Wt (Kg/m) Component wt. (kg) Quantity/ MW Total Wt (Kg) Column 120CU50x3.15 5 350 Mpa GAL 2.390 5.10 12.189 835 10177.82 Washer Plate PLT 50x50x5 10 250 Mpa GAL 0.050 1.96 0.098 1670 163.87 Rafter 100CU50x2 5 350 Mpa GAL 2.910 3.00 8.730 835 7289.55 Purlin (A) 70CS40x15x1.2 4 350 Mpa GAL 3.460 1.61 5.576 668 3724.63 Purlin (B) 70CS40x15x1.2 4 350 Mpa GAL 5.195 1.61 8.372 668 5592.32 Purlin (C) 70CS40x15x1.2 4 350 Mpa GAL 3.460 1.61 5.576 668 3724.63 Side Bracing-1 40CU40x2 5 350 Mpa GAL 1.270 1.75 2.223 835 1855.79 Side Bracing-2 40CU40x2 5 350 Mpa GAL 1.470 1.75 2.573 835 2148.04 Connection Plate-1 330x100x4 5 250 Mpa GAL 0.330 3.140 1.036 835 865.23 Connection Plate-2 265x100x4 5 250 Mpa GAL 0.265 3.140 0.832 835 694.80 Connection angleL PLT 70x70x3 20 250 Mpa GAL 0.110 3.23 0.355 3340 1185.23 Tie Rod 12mm dia 8 250 Mpa GAL 0.965 0.889 0.858 1336 1145.99 Total Weight Per MW 38567.89 Spare 3 % 1157.04 Say 40 Ton
  21. 21. Pre Fab rooms and Decking Sheets • Pre fab rooms offer significant time advantages in execution timelines hence bring generation gains and more efficient supplies • Instances where Pre fab buildings are not considered, decking sheets with concrete layer on top can offer same benefits. It provides both required strength, insulation and quicker installation benefits
  22. 22. Wind Shielding of Outer most structures • Recent designs leverage on the density of array yard and consider lower values of k2 factor in design calculations of structures. • Outer rows are designed with higher sections as they have more impact of wind speeds, however inner rows are designed 10-15% lighter to leverage the shielding that outer structure provides
  23. 23. The 0.8mm Galvalume! In Sub 30 T structures! One name that has echoed in procurement teams lately. It’s a fine play and tight walk on the line between Optimization and Under design Galvalume suits fixed tilt structures and can be very good for optimization Use of galvalume in seasonal tilt structures has seen many failures recently and resulted in loss of PV modules & of course generation Extra caution to be exercised while tilting galvalume based structures and must be done only using proper jacks. Manual tilting is a strict no, if not particularly addressed during Engineering
  24. 24. Cost Saving by Internal Transmission Line Site specific: If land is not highly constrained, and HT cables are running along northern boundary Pros: • Cheaper compared to HT cable (30-40% lesser at full load evacuation) • Maintenance friendly, and lesser probability of fault • Higher current carrying capacity. New age AAAC panther conductors can carry 25MW on single circuit, whereas typical 33kV cables will take around15MW Cons: • Land wastage around poles due to shadow • Land wastage can be minimized by planning TL along boundary, and suitably oriented to north direction
  25. 25. Future Trends Main Drives of BOS Cost Reduction in future • Best practices assimilation across the industry • Module efficiency • Technological developments • Incremental design improvements, such as higher overloading, mounting structure, block size, etc • Localization including streamlined logistics • Increase in market volume • Automation in production, development and installation Based on the above factors and historical trends, we foresee a BOS cost reduction of 30%-35% by 2020
  26. 26. About Gensol Gensol, found in 2007 is India’s leading Advisory and System Integrator for Solar PV Power Projects. Gensol is a channel partner to MNRE and enjoys empanelmentwith most major Lending Institutions in India. 2,500+ MW 12,000+ kW Gensol has an advisory portfolio of more than 2.5 GW with every 5th MW in India developed with our expertise. Being an MNRE Channel partner, Gensol has executed more than 12 MW of Solar Rooftop Projects across India. Gensol is based out of Ahmedabad in Gujarat but has operational solar projects across 16 Indian States. With a 130+ Employee Strength – Gensol prides itself on having the best technical talent in industry. AWARDS BusinessWorld – India’s largest weekly business magazine awarded Gensol with “Hottest Young Entrepreneur” in 2009. Economic Times – India’s largest financial daily awarded Gensol in its “Power of Ideas” series in 2010. Gensol was the only non-UK based firm to be nominated for Global Consultancy of the Year at BusinessGreen Leader Awards, London in 2014.
  27. 27. Gensol Engineering Pvt Ltd | Gensol Consultants Pvt Ltd Corporate Office 108, Pinnacle Business Park Opp Royal Arcade, Prahladnagar Ahmedabad, Gujarat India - 380015 Email: solar@gensol.in Website: www.gensol.in Phone: +91 79 40068235 Fax: +91 79 40068239 Twitter: gensol_tweets Gensol is one of the leading consultants and system integrators for Solar Power Plants. We boast of a portfolio of over 2500 MW of Solar Photovoltaic Plants. Gensol is also a channel partner to Ministry of New & Renewable Energy and installs kW scale Solar Rooftop systems on a turnkey basis with more than 15 MW of cumulative installations across the country. The information contained herein is of a general nature and is not intended to address the circumstances of any particular individual or entity.Although we endeavor to provide accurate and timely information,there can be no guarantee that such information is accurate as of the date it is received or that it will continue to be accurate in the future. No one should act on such information withoutappropriate professional advice after a thorough examination ofthe particular situation.

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