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Chapter 1 “ Introduction to Chemistry”
Section 1.1 Chemistry <ul><li>OBJECTIVES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify  five traditional areas  of study in chemistry. <...
What is Chemistry? <ul><li>Chemistry is the study of the composition of “matter” its composition, properties, and the chan...
Chemistry  is the study of the  composition ,  structure , and  properties  of matter and the  changes  it undergoes – suc...
5 Major Areas of Chemistry <ul><li>Analytical Chemistry -  concerned with the composition of substances. </li></ul><ul><li...
 
What is Chemistry? <ul><li>Pure chemistry-   gathers knowledge for the  sake of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Chemis...
Why Study Chemistry? <ul><li>Everyone and everything around us involves chemistry – explains our world </li></ul><ul><li>W...
Why Study Chemistry? <ul><li>With a partner… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give examples in your daily life that  involve use of c...
Section 1.2 Chemistry Far and Wide <ul><li>OBJECTIVES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify some  areas of research  affected by...
Section 1.2 Chemistry Far and Wide <ul><li>OBJECTIVES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguish between  macroscopic  and  micros...
Chemistry Far and Wide <ul><li>Chemists design materials to fit specific needs </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) velcro, perfume, ste...
Chemistry Far and Wide <ul><li>Energy – we constantly have greater demands </li></ul><ul><li>Q: How can we meet these dema...
Chemistry Far and Wide <ul><li>Medicine and Biotechnology- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply materials doctors use to treat pat...
Chemistry Far and Wide Norman Borlaug <ul><li>Nobel Peace Prize </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Medal of freedom </li></ul>...
Chemistry Far and Wide <ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase the world’s food supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Chemistry Far and Wide <ul><li>The Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both risks and benefits involved in discoveries </li>...
- Page 16 88.2% 440,000 After lead was banned in gasoline and public water supply systems, less lead entered the environme...
Chemistry Far and Wide <ul><li>The Universe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to gather data from afar, and analyze matter brough...
Section 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist <ul><li>OBJECTIVES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe how Lavoisier transformed chemist...
Section 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist <ul><li>OBJECTIVES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain why collaboration and communicatio...
Alchemy  –  developed the  tools and techniques  for working with chemicals <ul><li>The word  chemistry  comes from  alche...
An Experimental Approach <ul><li>In the 1500s, a shift started from alchemy to science – King Charles II was a supporter o...
Lavoisier <ul><li>In the late 1700s,  Antoine Lavoisier  helped transform chemistry from a  science of  observation  to th...
The Scientific Method <ul><li>A logical approach to solving problems or answering questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Starts with...
Steps in the Scientific Method <ul><li>1.  Observations (uses your senses) </li></ul><ul><li>a)   quantitative involves  n...
Scientific Method <ul><li>“ controlled”  experiment -  designed to test the hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>only two possible...
Scientific Method <ul><li>We deal with  variables ,  or factors that can change.   Two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1)  Ma...
Outcomes over the long term… <ul><li>Theory  (Model) </li></ul><ul><li>-  A set of  well-tested  hypotheses that give an o...
Law vs. Theory <ul><li>A  law  summarizes  what  has happened. </li></ul><ul><li>A  theory  (model) is  an  attempt to exp...
- Page 22 Using your senses to obtain information Hypothesis is a proposed explanation; should be based on previous knowle...
Collaboration / Communication <ul><li>When scientists share ideas by collaboration and communication, they  increase the l...
Section 1.4 Problem Solving in Chemistry <ul><li>OBJECTIVES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify two general steps in problem s...
Problem Solving in Chemistry <ul><li>We are faced with problems each day, and not just in chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>A so...
Problem Solving in Chemistry <ul><li>Effective problem solving usually involves two general steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D...
Solving Numeric Problems <ul><li>Measurements  are an important part of chemistry; thus many of our word problems involve ...
Solving Numeric Problems <ul><li>The three steps we will use for solving a numeric word problem are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Solving Numeric Problems <ul><li>Analyze :  this is the starting point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine what are the  known...
Solving Numeric Problems <ul><li>Calculate:   perform the mathematics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If your plan is correct, this ...
Solving Numeric Problems <ul><li>Evaluate:  – the finishing step </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it reasonable?  Make sense?  Do ...
Solving Conceptual Problems <ul><li>Not all word problems in chemistry involve doing calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Nonnum...
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Chemistry - Chp 1 - Introduction To Chemistry - PowerPoint

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  1. 1. Chapter 1 “ Introduction to Chemistry”
  2. 2. Section 1.1 Chemistry <ul><li>OBJECTIVES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify five traditional areas of study in chemistry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate pure chemistry to applied chemistry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify reasons to study chemistry. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is Chemistry? <ul><li>Chemistry is the study of the composition of “matter” its composition, properties, and the changes it undergoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Matter - anything with mass and occupies space </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry has a definite affect on everyday life - taste of foods, grades of gasoline, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Living and nonliving things are made of matter. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chemistry is the study of the composition , structure , and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes – such as burning fuels. C 2 H 5 OH + 3 O 2  2 CO 2 + 3 H 2 O + Energy Reactants  Products
  5. 5. 5 Major Areas of Chemistry <ul><li>Analytical Chemistry - concerned with the composition of substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic Chemistry - primarily deals with substances without carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Organic Chemistry - essentially all substances containing carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemistry - Chemistry of living things </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Chemistry - describes the behavior of chemicals (ex. stretching); involves lots of math! </li></ul><ul><li>Boundaries not firm – they overlap and interact </li></ul>
  6. 7. What is Chemistry? <ul><li>Pure chemistry- gathers knowledge for the sake of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Chemistry- is using chemistry to attain certain goals , in fields like medicine, agriculture, and manufacturing – leads to an application * Nylon </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* Aspirin (C 9 H 8 O 4 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* Use of TECHNOLOGY </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Why Study Chemistry? <ul><li>Everyone and everything around us involves chemistry – explains our world </li></ul><ul><li>What in the world isn’t Chemistry? </li></ul><ul><li>Helps you make choices; helps make you a better informed citizen </li></ul><ul><li>A possible career for your future </li></ul><ul><li>Used to attain a specific goal </li></ul>
  8. 9. Why Study Chemistry? <ul><li>With a partner… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give examples in your daily life that involve use of chemistry , and things that do not? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Section 1.2 Chemistry Far and Wide <ul><li>OBJECTIVES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify some areas of research affected by chemistry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe some examples of research in chemistry. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Section 1.2 Chemistry Far and Wide <ul><li>OBJECTIVES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguish between macroscopic and microscopic views. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Chemistry Far and Wide <ul><li>Chemists design materials to fit specific needs </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) velcro, perfume, steel, ceramics, plastics, rubber, paints, nonstick cooking utensils, polyester fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Two different ways to look at the world: </li></ul><ul><li>Macroscopic </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopic </li></ul>
  12. 13. Chemistry Far and Wide <ul><li>Energy – we constantly have greater demands </li></ul><ul><li>Q: How can we meet these demands? </li></ul><ul><li>A: Conserve it or use it wisely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex.) fossil fuels, solar, wind, batteries (that store energy – or rechargeable), nuclear </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Chemistry Far and Wide <ul><li>Medicine and Biotechnology- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply materials doctors use to treat patients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vitamin C, penicillin, aspirin (C 9 H 8 O 4 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>materials for artery transplants and hipbones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bacteria producing insulin </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Chemistry Far and Wide Norman Borlaug <ul><li>Nobel Peace Prize </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Medal of freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Congressional Gold Medal </li></ul><ul><li>Father of the Green Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Credited with saving over 1 billion people from starvation </li></ul>Agriculture
  15. 16. Chemistry Far and Wide <ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase the world’s food supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use chemistry for better productivity – soil, water, weeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plant growth hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ways to protect crops; insecticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disease resistant plants </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Chemistry Far and Wide <ul><li>The Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both risks and benefits involved in discoveries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollutants need to be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1) identified and 2) prevented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead paint was prohibited in 1978; Leaded gasoline? Drinking water? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carbon dioxide, ozone </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. - Page 16 88.2% 440,000 After lead was banned in gasoline and public water supply systems, less lead entered the environment. Let’s examine some information from a graph.
  18. 19. Chemistry Far and Wide <ul><li>The Universe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to gather data from afar, and analyze matter brought back to Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>composition of the planets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analyze moon rocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>planet atmospheres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>life on other planets? </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Section 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist <ul><li>OBJECTIVES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe how Lavoisier transformed chemistry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify three steps in the scientific method. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Section 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist <ul><li>OBJECTIVES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain why collaboration and communication are important in science. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Alchemy – developed the tools and techniques for working with chemicals <ul><li>The word chemistry comes from alchemy – practiced in China and India since 400 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Alchemy has two sides: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical: techniques for working with metals, glass, dyes, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mystical: concepts like perfection – gold was a perfect metal </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. An Experimental Approach <ul><li>In the 1500s, a shift started from alchemy to science – King Charles II was a supporter of the sciences </li></ul><ul><li>“ Royal Society of London for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge” </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged scientists to use more experimental evidence, and not philosophical debates </li></ul>
  23. 24. Lavoisier <ul><li>In the late 1700s, Antoine Lavoisier helped transform chemistry from a science of observation to the science of measurement – still used today </li></ul><ul><li>He settled a long-standing debate about burning, which was… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen was required! </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. The Scientific Method <ul><li>A logical approach to solving problems or answering questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Starts with observation - noting and recording information and facts </li></ul><ul><li>hypothesis - a proposed explanation for the observation; must be tested by an experiment </li></ul>
  25. 26. Steps in the Scientific Method <ul><li>1. Observations (uses your senses) </li></ul><ul><li>a) quantitative involves numbers = 95 o F </li></ul><ul><li>b) qualitative is word description = hot </li></ul><ul><li>2. Formulating hypotheses (ideas) </li></ul><ul><li>- possible explanation for the observation, or “educated” guess </li></ul><ul><li>3. Performing experiments (the test) </li></ul><ul><li>- gathers new information to help decide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>whether the hypothesis is valid </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Scientific Method <ul><li>“ controlled” experiment - designed to test the hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>only two possible answers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hypothesis is right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hypothesis is wrong </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We gather data and observations by doing the experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Modify hypothesis - repeat the cycle </li></ul>
  27. 28. Scientific Method <ul><li>We deal with variables , or factors that can change. Two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Manipulated variable (or independent variable) is the one that we change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Responding variable (or dependent variable) is the one observed during the experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For results to be accepted, the experiment needs to always produce the same result </li></ul>
  28. 29. Outcomes over the long term… <ul><li>Theory (Model) </li></ul><ul><li>- A set of well-tested hypotheses that give an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon – not able to be proved </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Law (or Scientific Law) </li></ul><ul><li>- The same observation applies to many </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different systems; summarizes results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- an example would be: </li></ul><ul><li> the Law of Conservation of Mass </li></ul>
  29. 30. Law vs. Theory <ul><li>A law summarizes what has happened. </li></ul><ul><li>A theory (model) is an attempt to explain why it happened – this changes as new information is gathered. </li></ul>
  30. 31. - Page 22 Using your senses to obtain information Hypothesis is a proposed explanation; should be based on previous knowledge; an “educated” guess The procedure that is used to test the hypothesis A well-tested explanation for the observations; cannot be proven due to new discoveries Tells what happened
  31. 32. Collaboration / Communication <ul><li>When scientists share ideas by collaboration and communication, they increase the likelihood of a successful outcome </li></ul><ul><li>How is communication done? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the Internet reliable information? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.dhmo.org </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Section 1.4 Problem Solving in Chemistry <ul><li>OBJECTIVES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify two general steps in problem solving. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe three steps for solving numeric problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe two steps for solving conceptual problems. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Problem Solving in Chemistry <ul><li>We are faced with problems each day, and not just in chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>A solution (answer) needs to be found </li></ul><ul><li>Trial and Error may work sometimes? </li></ul><ul><li>But, there is a method to problem solving that works better, and these are skills that no one is born knowing – they need to be learned. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Problem Solving in Chemistry <ul><li>Effective problem solving usually involves two general steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing a plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing that plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The skills you use to solve a word problem in chemistry are NOT different from those techniques used in shopping, cooking, or planning a party. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Solving Numeric Problems <ul><li>Measurements are an important part of chemistry; thus many of our word problems involve use of mathematics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word problems are real life problems , and sometimes more information is presented than needed for a solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Following skills presented will help you become more successful </li></ul>
  36. 37. Solving Numeric Problems <ul><li>The three steps we will use for solving a numeric word problem are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A nalyze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C alculate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E valuate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The following slides tell the meaning of these three steps in detail. </li></ul>Let’s learn how to ACE these numeric word problems!
  37. 38. Solving Numeric Problems <ul><li>Analyze : this is the starting point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine what are the known factors , and write them down on your paper! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine what is the unknown . If it is a number, determine the units needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan how to relate these factors- choose an equation; use table or graph </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is the heart of successful problem solving techniques – it is the PLAN </li></ul>
  38. 39. Solving Numeric Problems <ul><li>Calculate: perform the mathematics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If your plan is correct, this is the easiest step. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculator used? Do it correctly! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May involve rearranging an equation algebraically; or, doing some conversion of units to some other units. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Solving Numeric Problems <ul><li>Evaluate: – the finishing step </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it reasonable? Make sense? Do an estimate for the answer, and check your calculations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to round off the answer? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you need scientific notation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have the correct units? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did you answer the question ? </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Solving Conceptual Problems <ul><li>Not all word problems in chemistry involve doing calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Nonnumeric problems are called conceptual problems – ask you to apply concepts to a new situation </li></ul><ul><li>Steps are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze and 2) Solve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plan needed to link known to unknown, but no checking units or calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Do Conceptual Problem 2.1 on page 46 </li></ul>
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