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Chemistry - Chp 1 - Introduction To Chemistry - PowerPoint
 

Chemistry - Chp 1 - Introduction To Chemistry - PowerPoint

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    Chemistry - Chp 1 - Introduction To Chemistry - PowerPoint Chemistry - Chp 1 - Introduction To Chemistry - PowerPoint Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 1 “ Introduction to Chemistry”
    • Section 1.1 Chemistry
      • OBJECTIVES:
        • Identify five traditional areas of study in chemistry.
        • Relate pure chemistry to applied chemistry.
        • Identify reasons to study chemistry.
    • What is Chemistry?
      • Chemistry is the study of the composition of “matter” its composition, properties, and the changes it undergoes.
      • Matter - anything with mass and occupies space
      • Chemistry has a definite affect on everyday life - taste of foods, grades of gasoline, etc.
      • Living and nonliving things are made of matter.
    • Chemistry is the study of the composition , structure , and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes – such as burning fuels. C 2 H 5 OH + 3 O 2  2 CO 2 + 3 H 2 O + Energy Reactants  Products
    • 5 Major Areas of Chemistry
      • Analytical Chemistry - concerned with the composition of substances.
      • Inorganic Chemistry - primarily deals with substances without carbon
      • Organic Chemistry - essentially all substances containing carbon
      • Biochemistry - Chemistry of living things
      • Physical Chemistry - describes the behavior of chemicals (ex. stretching); involves lots of math!
      • Boundaries not firm – they overlap and interact
    •  
    • What is Chemistry?
      • Pure chemistry- gathers knowledge for the sake of knowledge
      • Applied Chemistry- is using chemistry to attain certain goals , in fields like medicine, agriculture, and manufacturing – leads to an application * Nylon
          • * Aspirin (C 9 H 8 O 4 )
          • * Use of TECHNOLOGY
    • Why Study Chemistry?
      • Everyone and everything around us involves chemistry – explains our world
      • What in the world isn’t Chemistry?
      • Helps you make choices; helps make you a better informed citizen
      • A possible career for your future
      • Used to attain a specific goal
    • Why Study Chemistry?
      • With a partner…
        • Give examples in your daily life that involve use of chemistry , and things that do not?
    • Section 1.2 Chemistry Far and Wide
      • OBJECTIVES:
        • Identify some areas of research affected by chemistry.
        • Describe some examples of research in chemistry.
    • Section 1.2 Chemistry Far and Wide
      • OBJECTIVES:
        • Distinguish between macroscopic and microscopic views.
    • Chemistry Far and Wide
      • Chemists design materials to fit specific needs
      • Ex.) velcro, perfume, steel, ceramics, plastics, rubber, paints, nonstick cooking utensils, polyester fibers
      • Two different ways to look at the world:
      • Macroscopic
      • Microscopic
    • Chemistry Far and Wide
      • Energy – we constantly have greater demands
      • Q: How can we meet these demands?
      • A: Conserve it or use it wisely
        • Ex.) fossil fuels, solar, wind, batteries (that store energy – or rechargeable), nuclear
    • Chemistry Far and Wide
      • Medicine and Biotechnology-
        • Supply materials doctors use to treat patients
        • vitamin C, penicillin, aspirin (C 9 H 8 O 4 )
        • materials for artery transplants and hipbones
        • bacteria producing insulin
    • Chemistry Far and Wide Norman Borlaug
      • Nobel Peace Prize
      • Presidential Medal of freedom
      • Congressional Gold Medal
      • Father of the Green Revolution
      • Credited with saving over 1 billion people from starvation
      Agriculture
    • Chemistry Far and Wide
      • Agriculture
        • increase the world’s food supply
        • Use chemistry for better productivity – soil, water, weeds
        • plant growth hormones
        • ways to protect crops; insecticides
        • disease resistant plants
    • Chemistry Far and Wide
      • The Environment
        • both risks and benefits involved in discoveries
        • Pollutants need to be
        • 1) identified and 2) prevented
        • Lead paint was prohibited in 1978; Leaded gasoline? Drinking water?
        • carbon dioxide, ozone
    • - Page 16 88.2% 440,000 After lead was banned in gasoline and public water supply systems, less lead entered the environment. Let’s examine some information from a graph.
    • Chemistry Far and Wide
      • The Universe
        • Need to gather data from afar, and analyze matter brought back to Earth
        • composition of the planets
        • analyze moon rocks
        • planet atmospheres
        • life on other planets?
    • Section 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist
      • OBJECTIVES:
        • Describe how Lavoisier transformed chemistry.
        • Identify three steps in the scientific method.
    • Section 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist
      • OBJECTIVES:
        • Explain why collaboration and communication are important in science.
    • Alchemy – developed the tools and techniques for working with chemicals
      • The word chemistry comes from alchemy – practiced in China and India since 400 B.C.
      • Alchemy has two sides:
        • Practical: techniques for working with metals, glass, dyes, etc.
        • Mystical: concepts like perfection – gold was a perfect metal
    • An Experimental Approach
      • In the 1500s, a shift started from alchemy to science – King Charles II was a supporter of the sciences
      • “ Royal Society of London for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge”
      • Encouraged scientists to use more experimental evidence, and not philosophical debates
    • Lavoisier
      • In the late 1700s, Antoine Lavoisier helped transform chemistry from a science of observation to the science of measurement – still used today
      • He settled a long-standing debate about burning, which was…
        • Oxygen was required!
    • The Scientific Method
      • A logical approach to solving problems or answering questions.
      • Starts with observation - noting and recording information and facts
      • hypothesis - a proposed explanation for the observation; must be tested by an experiment
    • Steps in the Scientific Method
      • 1. Observations (uses your senses)
      • a) quantitative involves numbers = 95 o F
      • b) qualitative is word description = hot
      • 2. Formulating hypotheses (ideas)
      • - possible explanation for the observation, or “educated” guess
      • 3. Performing experiments (the test)
      • - gathers new information to help decide
        • whether the hypothesis is valid
    • Scientific Method
      • “ controlled” experiment - designed to test the hypothesis
      • only two possible answers:
        • hypothesis is right
        • hypothesis is wrong
      • We gather data and observations by doing the experiment
      • Modify hypothesis - repeat the cycle
    • Scientific Method
      • We deal with variables , or factors that can change. Two types:
        • 1) Manipulated variable (or independent variable) is the one that we change
        • 2) Responding variable (or dependent variable) is the one observed during the experiment
      • For results to be accepted, the experiment needs to always produce the same result
    • Outcomes over the long term…
      • Theory (Model)
      • - A set of well-tested hypotheses that give an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon – not able to be proved
      • Natural Law (or Scientific Law)
      • - The same observation applies to many
        • different systems; summarizes results
      • - an example would be:
      • the Law of Conservation of Mass
    • Law vs. Theory
      • A law summarizes what has happened.
      • A theory (model) is an attempt to explain why it happened – this changes as new information is gathered.
    • - Page 22 Using your senses to obtain information Hypothesis is a proposed explanation; should be based on previous knowledge; an “educated” guess The procedure that is used to test the hypothesis A well-tested explanation for the observations; cannot be proven due to new discoveries Tells what happened
    • Collaboration / Communication
      • When scientists share ideas by collaboration and communication, they increase the likelihood of a successful outcome
      • How is communication done?
      • Is the Internet reliable information?
        • http://www.dhmo.org
    • Section 1.4 Problem Solving in Chemistry
      • OBJECTIVES:
        • Identify two general steps in problem solving.
        • Describe three steps for solving numeric problems.
        • Describe two steps for solving conceptual problems.
    • Problem Solving in Chemistry
      • We are faced with problems each day, and not just in chemistry
      • A solution (answer) needs to be found
      • Trial and Error may work sometimes?
      • But, there is a method to problem solving that works better, and these are skills that no one is born knowing – they need to be learned.
    • Problem Solving in Chemistry
      • Effective problem solving usually involves two general steps:
        • Developing a plan
        • Implementing that plan
      • The skills you use to solve a word problem in chemistry are NOT different from those techniques used in shopping, cooking, or planning a party.
    • Solving Numeric Problems
      • Measurements are an important part of chemistry; thus many of our word problems involve use of mathematics
        • Word problems are real life problems , and sometimes more information is presented than needed for a solution
      • Following skills presented will help you become more successful
    • Solving Numeric Problems
      • The three steps we will use for solving a numeric word problem are:
        • A nalyze
        • C alculate
        • E valuate
      • The following slides tell the meaning of these three steps in detail.
      Let’s learn how to ACE these numeric word problems!
    • Solving Numeric Problems
      • Analyze : this is the starting point
        • Determine what are the known factors , and write them down on your paper!
        • Determine what is the unknown . If it is a number, determine the units needed
        • Plan how to relate these factors- choose an equation; use table or graph
      • This is the heart of successful problem solving techniques – it is the PLAN
    • Solving Numeric Problems
      • Calculate: perform the mathematics
        • If your plan is correct, this is the easiest step.
        • Calculator used? Do it correctly!
        • May involve rearranging an equation algebraically; or, doing some conversion of units to some other units.
    • Solving Numeric Problems
      • Evaluate: – the finishing step
        • Is it reasonable? Make sense? Do an estimate for the answer, and check your calculations.
        • Need to round off the answer?
        • Do you need scientific notation?
        • Do you have the correct units?
        • Did you answer the question ?
    • Solving Conceptual Problems
      • Not all word problems in chemistry involve doing calculations
      • Nonnumeric problems are called conceptual problems – ask you to apply concepts to a new situation
      • Steps are:
        • Analyze and 2) Solve
      • Plan needed to link known to unknown, but no checking units or calculations
      • Do Conceptual Problem 2.1 on page 46