Chemistry - Chp 1 - Introduction To Chemistry - PowerPoint

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  • 1. Chapter 1 “ Introduction to Chemistry”
  • 2. Section 1.1 Chemistry
    • OBJECTIVES:
      • Identify five traditional areas of study in chemistry.
      • Relate pure chemistry to applied chemistry.
      • Identify reasons to study chemistry.
  • 3. What is Chemistry?
    • Chemistry is the study of the composition of “matter” its composition, properties, and the changes it undergoes.
    • Matter - anything with mass and occupies space
    • Chemistry has a definite affect on everyday life - taste of foods, grades of gasoline, etc.
    • Living and nonliving things are made of matter.
  • 4. Chemistry is the study of the composition , structure , and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes – such as burning fuels. C 2 H 5 OH + 3 O 2  2 CO 2 + 3 H 2 O + Energy Reactants  Products
  • 5. 5 Major Areas of Chemistry
    • Analytical Chemistry - concerned with the composition of substances.
    • Inorganic Chemistry - primarily deals with substances without carbon
    • Organic Chemistry - essentially all substances containing carbon
    • Biochemistry - Chemistry of living things
    • Physical Chemistry - describes the behavior of chemicals (ex. stretching); involves lots of math!
    • Boundaries not firm – they overlap and interact
  • 6.  
  • 7. What is Chemistry?
    • Pure chemistry- gathers knowledge for the sake of knowledge
    • Applied Chemistry- is using chemistry to attain certain goals , in fields like medicine, agriculture, and manufacturing – leads to an application * Nylon
        • * Aspirin (C 9 H 8 O 4 )
        • * Use of TECHNOLOGY
  • 8. Why Study Chemistry?
    • Everyone and everything around us involves chemistry – explains our world
    • What in the world isn’t Chemistry?
    • Helps you make choices; helps make you a better informed citizen
    • A possible career for your future
    • Used to attain a specific goal
  • 9. Why Study Chemistry?
    • With a partner…
      • Give examples in your daily life that involve use of chemistry , and things that do not?
  • 10. Section 1.2 Chemistry Far and Wide
    • OBJECTIVES:
      • Identify some areas of research affected by chemistry.
      • Describe some examples of research in chemistry.
  • 11. Section 1.2 Chemistry Far and Wide
    • OBJECTIVES:
      • Distinguish between macroscopic and microscopic views.
  • 12. Chemistry Far and Wide
    • Chemists design materials to fit specific needs
    • Ex.) velcro, perfume, steel, ceramics, plastics, rubber, paints, nonstick cooking utensils, polyester fibers
    • Two different ways to look at the world:
    • Macroscopic
    • Microscopic
  • 13. Chemistry Far and Wide
    • Energy – we constantly have greater demands
    • Q: How can we meet these demands?
    • A: Conserve it or use it wisely
      • Ex.) fossil fuels, solar, wind, batteries (that store energy – or rechargeable), nuclear
  • 14. Chemistry Far and Wide
    • Medicine and Biotechnology-
      • Supply materials doctors use to treat patients
      • vitamin C, penicillin, aspirin (C 9 H 8 O 4 )
      • materials for artery transplants and hipbones
      • bacteria producing insulin
  • 15. Chemistry Far and Wide Norman Borlaug
    • Nobel Peace Prize
    • Presidential Medal of freedom
    • Congressional Gold Medal
    • Father of the Green Revolution
    • Credited with saving over 1 billion people from starvation
    Agriculture
  • 16. Chemistry Far and Wide
    • Agriculture
      • increase the world’s food supply
      • Use chemistry for better productivity – soil, water, weeds
      • plant growth hormones
      • ways to protect crops; insecticides
      • disease resistant plants
  • 17. Chemistry Far and Wide
    • The Environment
      • both risks and benefits involved in discoveries
      • Pollutants need to be
      • 1) identified and 2) prevented
      • Lead paint was prohibited in 1978; Leaded gasoline? Drinking water?
      • carbon dioxide, ozone
  • 18. - Page 16 88.2% 440,000 After lead was banned in gasoline and public water supply systems, less lead entered the environment. Let’s examine some information from a graph.
  • 19. Chemistry Far and Wide
    • The Universe
      • Need to gather data from afar, and analyze matter brought back to Earth
      • composition of the planets
      • analyze moon rocks
      • planet atmospheres
      • life on other planets?
  • 20. Section 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist
    • OBJECTIVES:
      • Describe how Lavoisier transformed chemistry.
      • Identify three steps in the scientific method.
  • 21. Section 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist
    • OBJECTIVES:
      • Explain why collaboration and communication are important in science.
  • 22. Alchemy – developed the tools and techniques for working with chemicals
    • The word chemistry comes from alchemy – practiced in China and India since 400 B.C.
    • Alchemy has two sides:
      • Practical: techniques for working with metals, glass, dyes, etc.
      • Mystical: concepts like perfection – gold was a perfect metal
  • 23. An Experimental Approach
    • In the 1500s, a shift started from alchemy to science – King Charles II was a supporter of the sciences
    • “ Royal Society of London for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge”
    • Encouraged scientists to use more experimental evidence, and not philosophical debates
  • 24. Lavoisier
    • In the late 1700s, Antoine Lavoisier helped transform chemistry from a science of observation to the science of measurement – still used today
    • He settled a long-standing debate about burning, which was…
      • Oxygen was required!
  • 25. The Scientific Method
    • A logical approach to solving problems or answering questions.
    • Starts with observation - noting and recording information and facts
    • hypothesis - a proposed explanation for the observation; must be tested by an experiment
  • 26. Steps in the Scientific Method
    • 1. Observations (uses your senses)
    • a) quantitative involves numbers = 95 o F
    • b) qualitative is word description = hot
    • 2. Formulating hypotheses (ideas)
    • - possible explanation for the observation, or “educated” guess
    • 3. Performing experiments (the test)
    • - gathers new information to help decide
      • whether the hypothesis is valid
  • 27. Scientific Method
    • “ controlled” experiment - designed to test the hypothesis
    • only two possible answers:
      • hypothesis is right
      • hypothesis is wrong
    • We gather data and observations by doing the experiment
    • Modify hypothesis - repeat the cycle
  • 28. Scientific Method
    • We deal with variables , or factors that can change. Two types:
      • 1) Manipulated variable (or independent variable) is the one that we change
      • 2) Responding variable (or dependent variable) is the one observed during the experiment
    • For results to be accepted, the experiment needs to always produce the same result
  • 29. Outcomes over the long term…
    • Theory (Model)
    • - A set of well-tested hypotheses that give an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon – not able to be proved
    • Natural Law (or Scientific Law)
    • - The same observation applies to many
      • different systems; summarizes results
    • - an example would be:
    • the Law of Conservation of Mass
  • 30. Law vs. Theory
    • A law summarizes what has happened.
    • A theory (model) is an attempt to explain why it happened – this changes as new information is gathered.
  • 31. - Page 22 Using your senses to obtain information Hypothesis is a proposed explanation; should be based on previous knowledge; an “educated” guess The procedure that is used to test the hypothesis A well-tested explanation for the observations; cannot be proven due to new discoveries Tells what happened
  • 32. Collaboration / Communication
    • When scientists share ideas by collaboration and communication, they increase the likelihood of a successful outcome
    • How is communication done?
    • Is the Internet reliable information?
      • http://www.dhmo.org
  • 33. Section 1.4 Problem Solving in Chemistry
    • OBJECTIVES:
      • Identify two general steps in problem solving.
      • Describe three steps for solving numeric problems.
      • Describe two steps for solving conceptual problems.
  • 34. Problem Solving in Chemistry
    • We are faced with problems each day, and not just in chemistry
    • A solution (answer) needs to be found
    • Trial and Error may work sometimes?
    • But, there is a method to problem solving that works better, and these are skills that no one is born knowing – they need to be learned.
  • 35. Problem Solving in Chemistry
    • Effective problem solving usually involves two general steps:
      • Developing a plan
      • Implementing that plan
    • The skills you use to solve a word problem in chemistry are NOT different from those techniques used in shopping, cooking, or planning a party.
  • 36. Solving Numeric Problems
    • Measurements are an important part of chemistry; thus many of our word problems involve use of mathematics
      • Word problems are real life problems , and sometimes more information is presented than needed for a solution
    • Following skills presented will help you become more successful
  • 37. Solving Numeric Problems
    • The three steps we will use for solving a numeric word problem are:
      • A nalyze
      • C alculate
      • E valuate
    • The following slides tell the meaning of these three steps in detail.
    Let’s learn how to ACE these numeric word problems!
  • 38. Solving Numeric Problems
    • Analyze : this is the starting point
      • Determine what are the known factors , and write them down on your paper!
      • Determine what is the unknown . If it is a number, determine the units needed
      • Plan how to relate these factors- choose an equation; use table or graph
    • This is the heart of successful problem solving techniques – it is the PLAN
  • 39. Solving Numeric Problems
    • Calculate: perform the mathematics
      • If your plan is correct, this is the easiest step.
      • Calculator used? Do it correctly!
      • May involve rearranging an equation algebraically; or, doing some conversion of units to some other units.
  • 40. Solving Numeric Problems
    • Evaluate: – the finishing step
      • Is it reasonable? Make sense? Do an estimate for the answer, and check your calculations.
      • Need to round off the answer?
      • Do you need scientific notation?
      • Do you have the correct units?
      • Did you answer the question ?
  • 41. Solving Conceptual Problems
    • Not all word problems in chemistry involve doing calculations
    • Nonnumeric problems are called conceptual problems – ask you to apply concepts to a new situation
    • Steps are:
      • Analyze and 2) Solve
    • Plan needed to link known to unknown, but no checking units or calculations
    • Do Conceptual Problem 2.1 on page 46