Veerle Van der Sluys<br />1 maart 2011<br />
http://www.playandgame.be<br />veerlevandersluys@gmail.com<br />Twitter: iveerle<br />
Agenda<br />Games & Play<br />Serious Games<br />“Game layer on top of the world”<br />Explore ideas – Explore game mechan...
Whoplays games?Which games?Ideasfor games?<br />
DEEL 1<br />Games and Play<br />
Sources<br />Reality isBroken – Jane McGonigal<br />TED Talk  « Gaming canmake a better world »<br />Art of Game Design – ...
http://gamesforchange.org/toolkitflash/<br />
Definition Play<br />« Play refers to those activities which are accompanied by a state of comparative pleasure, exhilarat...
Definition Play<br />«  We define playful interactivity as any human computer interaction that has at its core no pragmati...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lXh2n0aPyw<br />
Imitation of every day life -  imagination -  <br />Forgetting one’s surroundings<br />
Definition Game (all games)<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lpet4TJi41A<br />
Definition Game<br />« Games are an exercise of voluntary control systems, in whichthereis a contestbetweenpowers, confine...
Definition Game<br />« A gameis an interactive structure of endogenousmeaningthatrequiresplayers to struggletoward a goal ...
willfully – goals – conflict – rules - winner and loser –<br />Interactive – challenge - internal value<br />
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cSm5NCbYbCY&feature=related<br />
“Since the massivelymultiplayer online role-playing game firstlaunched in 2004,<br />Playersplayed  50 billioncollectiveho...
“Globally, the online gamercommunity – including console, PC and mobile phonegaming – counts more than4 milliongamers in t...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FcRdAfIBQJs<br />
Foldit<br />Foldit is a revolutionary<br /> new computer game enabling <br />you to contribute to important <br />scientif...
http://www.mediaweek.com/mw/content_display/special-issues/gaming-special/e3if93da65e51c14c3d550b072e2e949e16<br />http://...
Definition Game<br />“Playing a Game is the voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles”<br />Clear Goal<br />Rule...
Meaning, Play and Games<br />« The goal of succesful  game design is meaningful play »<br />« Meaningful play in a game em...
In the beginning there is the designer…<br />withseveral (!) skills<br />Anthropology<br />Animation<br />Architecture<br ...
In the beginning there is the designer…<br />wholistens to his<br />Team<br />Audience<br />Game<br />Client<br />self<br />
Lenses of Game designITunesapp<br />
The designer creates an experience<br />« A gameenables the experience, but is not the experience »<br />The lens of Essen...
The experience rises out of a game<br />The Lens of Surprise<br />The Lens of Fun<br />The lens of Curiosity<br />The lens...
The game consists of elements<br />The lens of the ElementalTetrad<br />Aesthetics<br />Story<br />Mechanics<br />Technolo...
Aesthetics<br />
Aesthetics<br />Ervaar warmte en electroshocks bij “Skindeep”<br />
Aesthetics<br />This app is a dream machine that <br />transforms the world around you into a <br />dreamworld. <br />It u...
Technology<br />1967<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=na6NVa7F074<br />
Technology<br />2010<br />
Technology<br />http://www.vimeo.com/16846162<br />
Technology<br />			The lens of technology<br />
			The lens of technology<br />Technology<br />The Innovator's Dilemma , Professor Clayton Christensen of Harvard Business...
The lens of technology<br />Magnavox Odyssey,1972<br />
The Elements support a theme<br />The lens of Unification<br />
The gamebeginswith an idea<br />The lens of infinite inspiration<br />The lens of the problem<br />statement<br />Lucero, ...
The game is made for the player<br />Demographics<br />Agedemographics<br />Cultural issues<br />Gender issues<br />
Gender issues<br />Emotion<br />Real World<br />Nurturing<br />Dialog and Verbal Puzzles<br />Learningbyexample<br />
Gender issues<br />Mastery<br />Competition<br />Destruction<br />SpatialPuzzles<br />Trial and Error<br />
The game is made for the player<br />Psychographics<br />LeBlanc’sTaxonomy of Game Pleasures<br />Bartle’sTaxonomy of Play...
LeBlancTaxonomy of game pleasure<br />Sensation<br />Game as sense-pleasure<br />
LeBlancTaxonomy of game pleasure<br />Fantasy<br />Game as make-believe<br />
LeBlancTaxonomy of game pleasure<br />Narrative<br />Game as drama<br />
LeBlancTaxonomy of game pleasure<br />Challenge<br />Game as obstacle course<br />
LeBlancTaxonomy of game pleasure<br />Fellowship<br />Game as social <br />framework<br />
LeBlancTaxonomy of game pleasure<br />Discovery<br />Game as uncharted <br />territory<br />
LeBlancTaxonomy of game pleasure<br />Expression<br />Game as self-discovery<br />
LeBlancTaxonomy of game pleasure<br />Submission<br />Game as masochism.<br />LeBlancTaxonomy is not covering all  …<br />
Bartle’sTaxonomy of Player Types<br />Challenge<br />Competition<br />http://www.gamerdna.com/quizzes/bartle-test-of-gamer...
The experience is in the Player’s mind<br />Lens of Flow<br />
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XoXlMK-VNo0<br />
The experience is in the Player’s mind<br />The lens of needs<br />
The game improves through iteration<br />The Waterfall Model<br />
The game improves through iteration<br />The Spiral Model<br />
The gameimprovesthroughiteration<br />ArtisticImpulse<br />Does the game feel right?<br />Demographics<br />Will the inten...
The game improves through iteration<br />
Some Elements are Game Mechanics<br />
Mechanic 1: Space -“Magiccircle”<br />The lens of the functionalspace<br />Mechanic 2:Objects, Attributes and States<br />...
Mechanic 3: Actions<br /><ul><li>Operativeactions
Resultantactions</li></ul>The lens of Action<br />
Mechanic 4: Rules<br /><ul><li>Operational
Constitutive
Implicit</li></li></ul><li>Lens of Rules - Lens of Goals<br />
Mechanic 5: Skills<br />
Game mechanics must be in balance<br />Fairness<br />Symmetrical versus Asymmetrical games<br />Challenge versus Success<b...
Players play games through an interface<br />The lens of control – The lens of physical interface –<br />The lens of virtu...
One kind of experience is the story<br />
One kind of experience is the story<br />The Lens of the Story<br />“GoodStories have unity”<br />“The CombinatorialExplos...
Some games are played with other players<br />“ A multiplayer online game will take four times the effort and expense<br /...
Competition<br />
Collaboration<br />
Meetup<br />
Exploring other people and ourselves<br />
Lenses of Game designusedon seriousgames<br />
DEEL 2<br />Serious Games<br />
Wat kunnen we LEREN van games?<br />“Door de speler stapje voor stapje mee te nemen in het verhaal, en tegelijkertijd de c...
Problems with edutainment today<br />Little intrinsic motivation<br />No integrated learning experience<br />Drill-and-pra...
LearningPrinciplesGee<br />JAMES PAUL GEE (2005) Learning by Design: good video games as learning machines, E-Learning and...
I.  Empowered learners <br />Co-design<br />Principle:  Good learning requires that learners feel like active agents (prod...
I.  Empowered learners <br />Customize<br />Principle:  Different styles of learning work better for different people. Peo...
II Problem Solving<br />Well–orderedproblems<br />PleasantlyFrustrating<br />Skills as Strategies<br />“People learn and p...
III Understanding<br />System Thinking<br />Principle:  <br />People learn skills, strategies, and ideas best when they se...
III Understanding<br />Meaning as action image  <br />Principle:  <br />Humans do not usually think through general defini...
Gimme Gimme Gimme a Game<br />
<ul><li>Concreet lesmateriaal</li></li></ul><li>Physical Prototype “Skin Deep”<br />
<ul><li>Play testing “Skindeep”</li></li></ul><li>http://vimeo.com/9527183<br />
DEEL 3<br />Gamification<br />
“Gamification is the use of game mechanics for non-game applications, particularly consumer-oriented web and mobile sites,...
The blueprint<br />There‘s an activity you want your users to do (like checking in). You give them points for performing t...
Game Layeron top of the world<br />Building a Game Layeron top of the world, Seth Priebatsch<br />http://www.youtube.com/w...
Game Layeron top of the world<br />Appointmentdynamic<br />“people have to do something at a certain time”<br />Influence ...
Pros and cons<br />Pawned. <br />Gamification and itsdiscontents<br />Sebastian Deterding (@dingstweets)<br />Playful 2010...
Pros and cons<br />“Playing video games is fun because it provides experiences of competence, self-efficacy, mastery. <br ...
“ The taskhe has to performoneach unit that passes in front of his station shouldtakeforty-threeseconds to perform – the s...
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Learning through Play

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Transcript of "Learning through Play"

  1. 1. Veerle Van der Sluys<br />1 maart 2011<br />
  2. 2. http://www.playandgame.be<br />veerlevandersluys@gmail.com<br />Twitter: iveerle<br />
  3. 3. Agenda<br />Games & Play<br />Serious Games<br />“Game layer on top of the world”<br />Explore ideas – Explore game mechanics<br />
  4. 4. Whoplays games?Which games?Ideasfor games?<br />
  5. 5. DEEL 1<br />Games and Play<br />
  6. 6. Sources<br />Reality isBroken – Jane McGonigal<br />TED Talk « Gaming canmake a better world »<br />Art of Game Design – Jesse Schell<br />DICE 2010 Talk « Design outside the box »<br />Talk: Visions of Gamepocalypse<br />Rules of Play – Zimmerman and Salen<br />PlayingVideoGames, Motives, Responses and Consequences- Peter Vorderer and Jennings Bryant<br />PLEX Cards: designing for playfullness<br />SCVNGR Game MechanicsFlashcards<br />
  7. 7. http://gamesforchange.org/toolkitflash/<br />
  8. 8. Definition Play<br />« Play refers to those activities which are accompanied by a state of comparative pleasure, exhilaration, power and the feeling of self-initiative » J. Barnard Gilmore<br />« Play is whatever is done spontaneously and for its own sake » George Santayana<br />« Play is free movement within a more rigid structure » Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman<br />
  9. 9. Definition Play<br />«  We define playful interactivity as any human computer interaction that has at its core no pragmatic goals- in such situations users are more interested in enjoying themselves than they are in achieving a specific task  »<br />Adding Playful Interaction to Public Spaces<br />Amnon Dekel, Yitzhak Simon, Hila Dar, Ezri Tarazi,Oren Rabinowitz,Yoav Sterman<br />
  10. 10. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lXh2n0aPyw<br />
  11. 11. Imitation of every day life - imagination - <br />Forgetting one’s surroundings<br />
  12. 12. Definition Game (all games)<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lpet4TJi41A<br />
  13. 13. Definition Game<br />« Games are an exercise of voluntary control systems, in whichthereis a contestbetweenpowers, confined by rules in order to produce a disequilibrialoutcome » Elliot Avedon and Brian Sutton-Smith<br />willfully – goals – conflict<br />rules - winner and loser<br />
  14. 14. Definition Game<br />« A gameis an interactive structure of endogenousmeaningthatrequiresplayers to struggletoward a goal » Greg Costikyan<br />Interactive – challenge - internal value<br />
  15. 15. willfully – goals – conflict – rules - winner and loser –<br />Interactive – challenge - internal value<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
  19. 19. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cSm5NCbYbCY&feature=related<br />
  20. 20. “Since the massivelymultiplayer online role-playing game firstlaunched in 2004,<br />Playersplayed 50 billioncollectivehours – or 5,93 millionyears!” Reality is broken pg 52<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dYK_Gqyf48Y<br />
  21. 21. “Globally, the online gamercommunity – including console, PC and mobile phonegaming – counts more than4 milliongamers in the Middle East, 10 millionin Russia, 105 million in India, 10 millionin Vietnam, 10 million in Mexico, 13 millionin Central and SouthAmerica, 100 millionin Europe, 200 million in China and 183 millionin the United States.” (playon average 13h/week)<br />fromreality is broken pg 3<br />
  22. 22. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FcRdAfIBQJs<br />
  23. 23.
  24. 24. Foldit<br />Foldit is a revolutionary<br /> new computer game enabling <br />you to contribute to important <br />scientific research.<br />Eterna<br />
  25. 25. http://www.mediaweek.com/mw/content_display/special-issues/gaming-special/e3if93da65e51c14c3d550b072e2e949e16<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lXgG_oAFjYk&feature=player_embedded<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Definition Game<br />“Playing a Game is the voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles”<br />Clear Goal<br />Rules<br />Feedback System<br />Voluntary<br />Reality is Broken, Jane McGonigal<br />
  30. 30. Meaning, Play and Games<br />« The goal of succesful game design is meaningful play »<br />« Meaningful play in a game emerges from the relationship between player action and system outcome. »<br />« Meaningful play is what occurs when the relationships between actions and outcomes in a game are both discernable and integrated into the larger context of the game »<br />
  31. 31. In the beginning there is the designer…<br />withseveral (!) skills<br />Anthropology<br />Animation<br />Architecture<br />Brainstorming<br />Business<br />Cinematography<br />TechnicalWriting<br />CreativeWriting<br />Mathematics<br />Communication<br />Engineering<br />Economics<br />Music<br />History<br />Sound design<br />Psychology<br />Management<br />Public Speaking<br />Visual Arts<br />
  32. 32. In the beginning there is the designer…<br />wholistens to his<br />Team<br />Audience<br />Game<br />Client<br />self<br />
  33. 33. Lenses of Game designITunesapp<br />
  34. 34. The designer creates an experience<br />« A gameenables the experience, but is not the experience »<br />The lens of Essential Experience<br />
  35. 35. The experience rises out of a game<br />The Lens of Surprise<br />The Lens of Fun<br />The lens of Curiosity<br />The lens of Endogenous value<br />The lens of Problem-solving<br />« a gameis a problem-solvingactivity, approachedwith a playful attitude »<br />
  36. 36. The game consists of elements<br />The lens of the ElementalTetrad<br />Aesthetics<br />Story<br />Mechanics<br />Technology<br />
  37. 37. Aesthetics<br />
  38. 38. Aesthetics<br />Ervaar warmte en electroshocks bij “Skindeep”<br />
  39. 39. Aesthetics<br />This app is a dream machine that <br />transforms the world around you into a <br />dreamworld. <br />It uses augmented sound to induce dreams <br />through the headset of your iPhone and <br />iPod Touch. <br />It will change your perception of reality.<br />
  40. 40. Technology<br />1967<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=na6NVa7F074<br />
  41. 41. Technology<br />2010<br />
  42. 42. Technology<br />http://www.vimeo.com/16846162<br />
  43. 43. Technology<br /> The lens of technology<br />
  44. 44. The lens of technology<br />Technology<br />The Innovator's Dilemma , Professor Clayton Christensen of Harvard Business School<br />
  45. 45. The lens of technology<br />Magnavox Odyssey,1972<br />
  46. 46. The Elements support a theme<br />The lens of Unification<br />
  47. 47. The gamebeginswith an idea<br />The lens of infinite inspiration<br />The lens of the problem<br />statement<br />Lucero, A and Arrasvuori, J 2010. PlexCards: <br />A source of inspirationwhendesigningforplayfulness.<br />
  48. 48. The game is made for the player<br />Demographics<br />Agedemographics<br />Cultural issues<br />Gender issues<br />
  49. 49. Gender issues<br />Emotion<br />Real World<br />Nurturing<br />Dialog and Verbal Puzzles<br />Learningbyexample<br />
  50. 50. Gender issues<br />Mastery<br />Competition<br />Destruction<br />SpatialPuzzles<br />Trial and Error<br />
  51. 51. The game is made for the player<br />Psychographics<br />LeBlanc’sTaxonomy of Game Pleasures<br />Bartle’sTaxonomy of Playertypes<br />Lens of the Player<br />Lens of Pleasure<br />
  52. 52. LeBlancTaxonomy of game pleasure<br />Sensation<br />Game as sense-pleasure<br />
  53. 53. LeBlancTaxonomy of game pleasure<br />Fantasy<br />Game as make-believe<br />
  54. 54. LeBlancTaxonomy of game pleasure<br />Narrative<br />Game as drama<br />
  55. 55. LeBlancTaxonomy of game pleasure<br />Challenge<br />Game as obstacle course<br />
  56. 56. LeBlancTaxonomy of game pleasure<br />Fellowship<br />Game as social <br />framework<br />
  57. 57. LeBlancTaxonomy of game pleasure<br />Discovery<br />Game as uncharted <br />territory<br />
  58. 58. LeBlancTaxonomy of game pleasure<br />Expression<br />Game as self-discovery<br />
  59. 59. LeBlancTaxonomy of game pleasure<br />Submission<br />Game as masochism.<br />LeBlancTaxonomy is not covering all …<br />
  60. 60. Bartle’sTaxonomy of Player Types<br />Challenge<br />Competition<br />http://www.gamerdna.com/quizzes/bartle-test-of-gamer-psychology<br />(Destruction)<br />Discovery<br />Fellowship<br />
  61. 61. The experience is in the Player’s mind<br />Lens of Flow<br />
  62. 62. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XoXlMK-VNo0<br />
  63. 63. The experience is in the Player’s mind<br />The lens of needs<br />
  64. 64. The game improves through iteration<br />The Waterfall Model<br />
  65. 65. The game improves through iteration<br />The Spiral Model<br />
  66. 66. The gameimprovesthroughiteration<br />ArtisticImpulse<br />Does the game feel right?<br />Demographics<br />Will the intendedaudiencelikethis game enough?<br />Experience design<br />Is this a well-designed game?<br />Innovation<br />Is this game novelenough?<br />The lens of the eightfilters<br />The lens of risk mitigation<br />The lens of the toy<br />Business and Marketing<br />Will this game sell?<br />Engineering<br />Is ittechnicallypossible to buildthis game?<br />Social/Community<br />Does this game meet oursocial and community goals?<br />Playtesting<br />Do the playtestersenjoy the game enough?<br />
  67. 67. The game improves through iteration<br />
  68. 68. Some Elements are Game Mechanics<br />
  69. 69.
  70. 70. Mechanic 1: Space -“Magiccircle”<br />The lens of the functionalspace<br />Mechanic 2:Objects, Attributes and States<br />The lens of the Dynamic state<br />
  71. 71. Mechanic 3: Actions<br /><ul><li>Operativeactions
  72. 72. Resultantactions</li></ul>The lens of Action<br />
  73. 73. Mechanic 4: Rules<br /><ul><li>Operational
  74. 74. Constitutive
  75. 75. Implicit</li></li></ul><li>Lens of Rules - Lens of Goals<br />
  76. 76. Mechanic 5: Skills<br />
  77. 77. Game mechanics must be in balance<br />Fairness<br />Symmetrical versus Asymmetrical games<br />Challenge versus Success<br />MeaningfulChoices<br />Skill versus Chance<br />Head versus Hands<br />Competion versus Coorperation<br />Rewards<br />Punishment<br />
  78. 78. Players play games through an interface<br />The lens of control – The lens of physical interface –<br />The lens of virtual interface<br />
  79. 79. One kind of experience is the story<br />
  80. 80. One kind of experience is the story<br />The Lens of the Story<br />“GoodStories have unity”<br />“The CombinatorialExplosion”<br />“Multiple endingsdisappoint”<br />
  81. 81. Some games are played with other players<br />“ A multiplayer online game will take four times the effort and expense<br />to create compared to a similar single player game”<br />
  82. 82. Competition<br />
  83. 83. Collaboration<br />
  84. 84. Meetup<br />
  85. 85. Exploring other people and ourselves<br />
  86. 86. Lenses of Game designusedon seriousgames<br />
  87. 87. DEEL 2<br />Serious Games<br />
  88. 88. Wat kunnen we LEREN van games?<br />“Door de speler stapje voor stapje mee te nemen in het verhaal, en tegelijkertijd de complexiteit rustig op te voeren doceert de game designer de kneepjes van de game.”<br />
  89. 89. Problems with edutainment today<br />Little intrinsic motivation<br />No integrated learning experience<br />Drill-and-practice learning principles<br />Simple gameplay<br />Inferior graphics and technology<br />
  90. 90. LearningPrinciplesGee<br />JAMES PAUL GEE (2005) Learning by Design: good video games as learning machines, E-Learning and Digital Media, 2(1), 5-16. <br />“How do good game designers manage to get new players to learn long, complex, and difficult games?”<br />“There are many good principles of learning built into good computer and video game.”<br />
  91. 91. I. Empowered learners <br />Co-design<br />Principle: Good learning requires that learners feel like active agents (producers) not just passive recipients (consumers). <br />Games: In good games, players feel that their actions and decisions—and not just or primarily the designers’ actions and decisions—are co-creating the world they are in.<br />
  92. 92.
  93. 93. I. Empowered learners <br />Customize<br />Principle: Different styles of learning work better for different people. People cannot be agents of their own learning if they cannot make decisions about how their learning will work. At the same time, they should be able (and encouraged) to try new styles. <br />Games: Good games achieve this goal in one (or both) of two ways. In some games, players are able to customize the game playto fit their learning and playing styles. In others, the game is designed to allow different styles of learning and playing to work. <br />
  94. 94. II Problem Solving<br />Well–orderedproblems<br />PleasantlyFrustrating<br />Skills as Strategies<br />“People learn and practice skills best when they see a set of related skills as a strategy to accomplish goals they want to accomplish. “<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8xPUdFaraoQ<br />
  95. 95. III Understanding<br />System Thinking<br />Principle: <br />People learn skills, strategies, and ideas best when they see how they fit intoan overall larger system to which they give meaning. In fact, any experience isenhanced when we understand how it fits into a larger meaningful whole.<br />Games: <br />Good games help players see and understand how each of the elements in thegame fit into the overall system of the game and its genre (type). Players get a feel forthe “rules of the game”—that is, what works and what doesn’t, how things go or don’t<br />go in this type of world. <br />
  96. 96. III Understanding<br />Meaning as action image <br />Principle: <br />Humans do not usually think through general definitions and logical principles. Rather, they think through experiences they have had.<br />Games: <br />This is, of course, the heart and soul of computer and video games. Even barely adequate games make the meanings of words and concepts clear through experiences the player has and activities the player carries out, not through lectures, talking heads, orgeneralities. <br />
  97. 97. Gimme Gimme Gimme a Game<br />
  98. 98. <ul><li>Concreet lesmateriaal</li></li></ul><li>Physical Prototype “Skin Deep”<br />
  99. 99. <ul><li>Play testing “Skindeep”</li></li></ul><li>http://vimeo.com/9527183<br />
  100. 100.
  101. 101. DEEL 3<br />Gamification<br />
  102. 102. “Gamification is the use of game mechanics for non-game applications, particularly consumer-oriented web and mobile sites, in order to encourage people to adopt the applications. It also strives to encourage users to engage in desired behaviors in connection with the applications.”<br />
  103. 103. The blueprint<br />There‘s an activity you want your users to do (like checking in). You give them points for performing the activity. For a certain amount of points or certain activities, they earn extras – badges, levels –, and you throw in a leaderboard to create competition.<br />
  104. 104. Game Layeron top of the world<br />Building a Game Layeron top of the world, Seth Priebatsch<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yn9fTc_WMbo&feature=related<br />
  105. 105. Game Layeron top of the world<br />Appointmentdynamic<br />“people have to do something at a certain time”<br />Influence and status<br />“the ability of oneplayer to modify the behavior of another’sactionthroughsocialpressure”<br />Progressiondynamic<br />“a dynamic in whichsuccess is granularlydisplayed and measuredthrough the process of itemizedtasks”<br />Communaldiscovery<br />“ a dynamicwhereinanentirecommunity is rallied to worktogether to solve a challenge”<br />
  106. 106. Pros and cons<br />Pawned. <br />Gamification and itsdiscontents<br />Sebastian Deterding (@dingstweets)<br />Playful 2010, London, 24.09.2010<br />
  107. 107. Pros and cons<br />“Playing video games is fun because it provides experiences of competence, self-efficacy, mastery. <br />Conversely, not a single serious empirical study to my knowledge mentions extrinsic rewards as a crucial motivating factor.”<br />Raph Koster<br />A Theory of Funfor Game Design (2005)<br />
  108. 108. “ The taskhe has to performoneach unit that passes in front of his station shouldtakeforty-threeseconds to perform – the same exact operationalmostsixhundredtimes in a workingday. Most peoplewouldgrowtired of suchworkverysoon. ButRico has been at this job for over fiveyears, and hestillenjoys it. The reason is thatheapproacheshistask in the samewayanOlympicathleteapproacheshisevent: Howcan I beat my record?”<br />PsychologistMihalyCsikszentmihalyi<br />

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