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Sources Reality isBroken – Jane McGonigal TED Talk « Gaming canmake a better world » Art of Game Design – Jesse Schell DICE 2010 Talk « Design outside the box » Talk: Visions of Gamepocalypse Rules of Play – Zimmerman and Salen PlayingVideoGames, Motives, Responses and Consequences- Peter Vorderer and Jennings Bryant PLEX Cards: designing for playfullness SCVNGR Game MechanicsFlashcards
Definition Play « Play refers to those activities which are accompanied by a state of comparative pleasure, exhilaration, power and the feeling of self-initiative » J. Barnard Gilmore « Play is whatever is done spontaneously and for its own sake » George Santayana « Play is free movement within a more rigid structure » Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman
Definition Play « We define playful interactivity as any human computer interaction that has at its core no pragmatic goals- in such situations users are more interested in enjoying themselves than they are in achieving a specific task » Adding Playful Interaction to Public Spaces Amnon Dekel, Yitzhak Simon, Hila Dar, Ezri Tarazi,Oren Rabinowitz,Yoav Sterman
Imitation of every day life - imagination - Forgetting one’s surroundings
Definition Game (all games) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lpet4TJi41A
Definition Game « Games are an exercise of voluntary control systems, in whichthereis a contestbetweenpowers, confined by rules in order to produce a disequilibrialoutcome » Elliot Avedon and Brian Sutton-Smith willfully – goals – conflict rules - winner and loser
Definition Game « A gameis an interactive structure of endogenousmeaningthatrequiresplayers to struggletoward a goal » Greg Costikyan Interactive – challenge - internal value
willfully – goals – conflict – rules - winner and loser – Interactive – challenge - internal value
“Since the massivelymultiplayer online role-playing game firstlaunched in 2004, Playersplayed 50 billioncollectivehours – or 5,93 millionyears!” Reality is broken pg 52 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dYK_Gqyf48Y
“Globally, the online gamercommunity – including console, PC and mobile phonegaming – counts more than4 milliongamers in the Middle East, 10 millionin Russia, 105 million in India, 10 millionin Vietnam, 10 million in Mexico, 13 millionin Central and SouthAmerica, 100 millionin Europe, 200 million in China and 183 millionin the United States.” (playon average 13h/week) fromreality is broken pg 3
Definition Game “Playing a Game is the voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles” Clear Goal Rules Feedback System Voluntary Reality is Broken, Jane McGonigal
Meaning, Play and Games « The goal of succesful game design is meaningful play » « Meaningful play in a game emerges from the relationship between player action and system outcome. » « Meaningful play is what occurs when the relationships between actions and outcomes in a game are both discernable and integrated into the larger context of the game »
In the beginning there is the designer… withseveral (!) skills Anthropology Animation Architecture Brainstorming Business Cinematography TechnicalWriting CreativeWriting Mathematics Communication Engineering Economics Music History Sound design Psychology Management Public Speaking Visual Arts
In the beginning there is the designer… wholistens to his Team Audience Game Client self
The designer creates an experience « A gameenables the experience, but is not the experience » The lens of Essential Experience
The experience rises out of a game The Lens of Surprise The Lens of Fun The lens of Curiosity The lens of Endogenous value The lens of Problem-solving « a gameis a problem-solvingactivity, approachedwith a playful attitude »
The game consists of elements The lens of the ElementalTetrad Aesthetics Story Mechanics Technology
Aesthetics Ervaar warmte en electroshocks bij “Skindeep”
Aesthetics This app is a dream machine that transforms the world around you into a dreamworld. It uses augmented sound to induce dreams through the headset of your iPhone and iPod Touch. It will change your perception of reality.
The experience is in the Player’s mind The lens of needs
The game improves through iteration The Waterfall Model
The game improves through iteration The Spiral Model
The gameimprovesthroughiteration ArtisticImpulse Does the game feel right? Demographics Will the intendedaudiencelikethis game enough? Experience design Is this a well-designed game? Innovation Is this game novelenough? The lens of the eightfilters The lens of risk mitigation The lens of the toy Business and Marketing Will this game sell? Engineering Is ittechnicallypossible to buildthis game? Social/Community Does this game meet oursocial and community goals? Playtesting Do the playtestersenjoy the game enough?
Game mechanics must be in balance Fairness Symmetrical versus Asymmetrical games Challenge versus Success MeaningfulChoices Skill versus Chance Head versus Hands Competion versus Coorperation Rewards Punishment
Players play games through an interface The lens of control – The lens of physical interface – The lens of virtual interface
Wat kunnen we LEREN van games? “Door de speler stapje voor stapje mee te nemen in het verhaal, en tegelijkertijd de complexiteit rustig op te voeren doceert de game designer de kneepjes van de game.”
Problems with edutainment today Little intrinsic motivation No integrated learning experience Drill-and-practice learning principles Simple gameplay Inferior graphics and technology
LearningPrinciplesGee JAMES PAUL GEE (2005) Learning by Design: good video games as learning machines, E-Learning and Digital Media, 2(1), 5-16. “How do good game designers manage to get new players to learn long, complex, and difficult games?” “There are many good principles of learning built into good computer and video game.”
I. Empowered learners Co-design Principle: Good learning requires that learners feel like active agents (producers) not just passive recipients (consumers). Games: In good games, players feel that their actions and decisions—and not just or primarily the designers’ actions and decisions—are co-creating the world they are in.
I. Empowered learners Customize Principle: Different styles of learning work better for different people. People cannot be agents of their own learning if they cannot make decisions about how their learning will work. At the same time, they should be able (and encouraged) to try new styles. Games: Good games achieve this goal in one (or both) of two ways. In some games, players are able to customize the game playto fit their learning and playing styles. In others, the game is designed to allow different styles of learning and playing to work.
II Problem Solving Well–orderedproblems PleasantlyFrustrating Skills as Strategies “People learn and practice skills best when they see a set of related skills as a strategy to accomplish goals they want to accomplish. “ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8xPUdFaraoQ
III Understanding System Thinking Principle: People learn skills, strategies, and ideas best when they see how they fit intoan overall larger system to which they give meaning. In fact, any experience isenhanced when we understand how it fits into a larger meaningful whole. Games: Good games help players see and understand how each of the elements in thegame fit into the overall system of the game and its genre (type). Players get a feel forthe “rules of the game”—that is, what works and what doesn’t, how things go or don’t go in this type of world.
III Understanding Meaning as action image Principle: Humans do not usually think through general definitions and logical principles. Rather, they think through experiences they have had. Games: This is, of course, the heart and soul of computer and video games. Even barely adequate games make the meanings of words and concepts clear through experiences the player has and activities the player carries out, not through lectures, talking heads, orgeneralities.
“Gamification is the use of game mechanics for non-game applications, particularly consumer-oriented web and mobile sites, in order to encourage people to adopt the applications. It also strives to encourage users to engage in desired behaviors in connection with the applications.”
The blueprint There‘s an activity you want your users to do (like checking in). You give them points for performing the activity. For a certain amount of points or certain activities, they earn extras – badges, levels –, and you throw in a leaderboard to create competition.
Game Layeron top of the world Building a Game Layeron top of the world, Seth Priebatsch http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yn9fTc_WMbo&feature=related
Game Layeron top of the world Appointmentdynamic “people have to do something at a certain time” Influence and status “the ability of oneplayer to modify the behavior of another’sactionthroughsocialpressure” Progressiondynamic “a dynamic in whichsuccess is granularlydisplayed and measuredthrough the process of itemizedtasks” Communaldiscovery “ a dynamicwhereinanentirecommunity is rallied to worktogether to solve a challenge”
Pros and cons Pawned. Gamification and itsdiscontents Sebastian Deterding (@dingstweets) Playful 2010, London, 24.09.2010
Pros and cons “Playing video games is fun because it provides experiences of competence, self-efficacy, mastery. Conversely, not a single serious empirical study to my knowledge mentions extrinsic rewards as a crucial motivating factor.” Raph Koster A Theory of Funfor Game Design (2005)
“ The taskhe has to performoneach unit that passes in front of his station shouldtakeforty-threeseconds to perform – the same exact operationalmostsixhundredtimes in a workingday. Most peoplewouldgrowtired of suchworkverysoon. ButRico has been at this job for over fiveyears, and hestillenjoys it. The reason is thatheapproacheshistask in the samewayanOlympicathleteapproacheshisevent: Howcan I beat my record?” PsychologistMihalyCsikszentmihalyi