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9.5 Theses
on the power and efficacy
of gamification
Sebastian Deterding (@dingstweets)
Hans Bredow Institute for Media Research, Hamburg University
October 2012

cb
Education
Sustainability
Activism
Life
Everywhere
points             badges           leaderboards    incentives
Tracking, Feedback   Goals, surprise     Competition     Rewards




 The blueprint (still)
success stories




sensors & analytics              practices & discourses


The Enablers
1   Gamification is
    nothing new.
»One purpose of this book is to explore
ways in which even routine activities can
be transformed into personally
meaningful games that provide optimal
experiences.«



    Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
    flow (1990: 51)
Precursors and parallels
Serious                    Digital   Alternate Reality/       Ludification
Games                  Serious Games Pervasive Games           of culture
(1960+)                    (2001+)          (2001+)                (2006+)




          Precursors    Repurposings          UX              Playfulness
            (1980+)         (2001+)        (2002+)                 (2005+)
                                       Hedonic attributes




                                                      Ludic design Persuasive Tech
                                                         (2002+)             (2006+)
Precursors
User Experience
Playfulness
Ludic Design
Persuasive Technology
Serious Games
Pervasive Games
Alternate Reality Games
Ludification of Culture
2
    Gamification is
    the use of game design
    elements in non-game
    contexts.
Gamification:
The use of
game design elements
in non-game contexts
Gamification:
The use of
game design elements
in non-game contexts
Paidia                 Ludus
       play                   game
  improvisation            skill, effort
    exploration           strategizing
    tumultuous              ordered
   immoderate             rule-bound




Roger Caillois
man, play, and games (1958)
Gaming




               Playing


Gaming, not playing
Systems                      Elements




Elements, not whole systems
Game-based             Controllers, AI, 3D
technology             engines, ...

Game-based practices   Serious Gaming

Game-based design      Gamification



Game Design Elements
Non-Game Contexts
Gaming




         (serious) games             gamification




                                                      Elements
System




         (serious) toys              playful design




                           Playing
3   Gamification is
    an inadvertent con.
»Gamification is an inadvertent con. It
tricks people into believing that there’s a
simple way to imbue their thing ... with the
psychological, emotional and social power
of a great game.«




    Margaret Robertson
    can’t play, won’t play (2009)
si on
   fu 1
Con #
»Ninety percent
of everything is crud.«



Theodore Sturgeon
sturgeon‘s revelation (1958)
Con(fusion) #1
Games are not fun because
they are games, but when
they are well-designed.
si on
   fu 2
Con #
Score: 964,000,000,000,000
                                (You rock!)




Earn 1,000,000,000,000 points
Level: 1
                   (You rock!)




Drop all loot!
Score: 400 princesses
                     (You rock!)




Get princess!
»Fun is just another word
      for learning.«



 Raph Koster
 a theory of fun for game design (2005)
»Fun from games arises out of mastery. It
arises out of comprehension. It is the act
of solving puzzles that makes games fun.
With games, learning is the drug.«




     Raph Koster
     a theory of fun for game design (2005)
Extrinsic motivation
                       http://www.flickr.com/photos/diego_rivera/4261964210
Intrinsic motivation
                       http://www.flickr.com/photos/areyoumyrik/308908967
»An understanding of human motivation
requires a consideration of innate
psychological needs for competence,
autonomy, and relatedness.«




     Edward Deci, Richard Ryan
     the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
Con(fusion) #2
The fun in playing games
chiefly arises from
intrinsic enjoyment, not
extrinsic incentives.
si on
   fu 3
Con #




             http://www.flickr.com/photos/apartmentlife/6559123353/
»Mowing the lawn or waiting in a
dentist’s office can become enjoyable
provided one restructures the activity by
providing goals, rules, and the other
elements of enjoyment to be reviewed
below.«



    Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
    flow (1990: 51)
Con(fusion) #3
»Gaminess« is not a
feature you can add.
4   Motivational design
    is a promising
    proposition.
How might we ...
restructure a system to support
intrinsic enjoyment, using
game design as a lens?
Put differently
If this were a game –
in what ways is it broken?
Game Atoms

    model/skill   goal




                            action
                                                  rule system


                                              success! / failure!
                         challenge

                          feedback
                         immediate/progress
Games in class > Class as game
Games in school > School as game
Games in Undergrad > You get the idea ...
Feedback
Accuracy, speed, friendliness in
comparison, w/ recommendations


Goals
Daily, weekly, monthly,
annually w/ progress


Challenge
Training, job rotation,
job enrichment




Reality Check
http://www.flickr.com/photos/dpstyles/4141140976/sizes/o/in/faves-7834371@N04/
5   Gamification is
    thinking inside the box.
Game
                        The Box
                        A designed artifact




    Playing
A frame of engagement
»Even though we are involved in a
game, we are not always playing …
Even though we are playing, we are
not always involved in a game ...
Playing a game is a special condition
of both play and games.«


   Bernie de Koven
   the well-played game (1978/2002: 7)
debugging
playtesting/reviewing
presenting gameplay
making a machinima
a scientific study
learning (serious games)
sports (e-sports)
work (goldfarming)
So ...
What about this
frame called playing?
»I need to be very routinized;
I mustn’t let myself drift.«
»I hammer it through.«
»Often, you have to force yourself to do it.«
»You’re under real pressure.«
»It’s extremely exhausting.«
»It wears you out.«
»My friends usually cannot comprehend how
stressful this is.«
»Sometimes, you have to
play, you have to get further –
and then, play is work.«
e nt
Elem #1

           »First and foremost,
           all play is a voluntary
           activity.«


              Johan Huizinga
              homo ludens (1938/1950: 7)
»The key element of an
optimal experience is that
it is an end in itself.«


   Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
   flow (1990: 67)
»An understanding of human motivation
requires a consideration of innate
psychological needs for competence,
autonomy, and relatedness.«




     Edward Deci, Richard Ryan
     the what and why of goal pursuits (2000)
Fun         Voluntary

Voluntary        Fun
e nt
Elem#2




  A vs. Quality
  …safe space and Variety
»Psychosocial moratorium principle:
Learners can take risks in a space
where real-world consequences are
lowered.«



     James Paul Gee
     what video games have to teach us... (2003: 67)
e nt
Elem # 3




  Attunement
               http://www.flickr.com/photos/wondermonkey2k/6188527275
»When mother and child have fun
together, … they are establishing ... the
convention that they take precedence
over the fun. When the child cries, the
mother stops having fun.«




     Bernie de Koven
     the well-played game (1978: 18)
http://www.flickr.com/photos/iboy/5709372593
http://www.flickr.com/photos/iboy/5709372593
»It is the nature of a fun community to care
more about the players than about the
game. ... We are having fun. We are caring.
We are safe with each other. This is what
we want.«




     Bernie de Koven
     the well-played game (1978: 19-20)
e nt
  em 4
El #




  Shared focus & attitude of exploring ...
                                  http://www.flickr.com/photos/docentjoyce/3138887652
… mastery, ...
                 http://www.flickr.com/photos/paulgorman/1392988135
… benign transgression, ...
… and most importantly, fun
                              http://www.flickr.com/photos/bixentro/540642579
e nt
Elem#5
                                 I won‘t let you fall.



            I‘ll know and say
           when it‘s too much.




  Trust
                                                         http://www.flickr.com/photos/lucianvenutian/439410200
»An understanding of human motivation
requires a consideration of innate
psychological needs for competence,
autonomy, and relatedness.«




     Edward Deci, Richard Ryan
     the what and why of goal pursuits (2000)
er
  ng 1
da #




 Rewarded or mandatory games ...
                           http://albanyny.bitsbytesbots.com/after-school-enrichment
… curbs autonomy through control
… detrains autonomous regulation
                         http://www.flickr.com/photos/courosa/4955407599/sizes/l/in/photostream/
er
  ng 2
da #




          the rule of
         irrelevance
Framing as strategic instrumental action

                                     http://www.rasmusen.org/x/images/pd.jpg
… crowds out communal ethics, ...
»It is through a community of people
who care more about fun than winning
that the Well-Played game happens.«




    Bernie de Koven
    the well-played game (1978: 5)
… fixates thinking inside the system and ...

                                      http://www.rasmusen.org/x/images/pd.jpg
… encourages gaming the system
                                 http://www.flickr.com/photos/5tein/2347819903
In short: a ludic mindset

        Paidia                 Ludus
            play                   game
       improvisation            skill, effort
         exploration           strategizing
         tumultuous              ordered
        immoderate             rule-bound




     Roger Caillois
     man, play, and games (1958)
er
  ng 3
da #




 Utopia lost in amusement
»The unreality of games gives
notice that reality is not yet
real. Unconsciously they
rehearse the right life.«


   Theodor W. Adorno
   minima moralia (1951)
»Simply because the child deprives the
things with which he plays of their
mediated usefulness, he seeks to rescue
in them what is benign towards men and
not what subserves the exchange relation
that equally deforms men and things.«



     Theodor W. Adorno
     minima moralia (1951)
a thing enjoyed for its own sake
is a moment of life well-lived
»Amusement is the extension of
work in late capitalism. It is sought
out by him who wants to escape
the mechanised process of work
only to become fit for it anew.«


    Theodor W. Adorno
    dialectics of enlightenment (1969)
6
    Playful reframing
    is a promising
    proposition.
Play
What we usually design



http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrlerone/405730185/sizes/o/
Who decides whether this is play




                         (or playing is allowed)
ip le
    nc 1
  ri #
P




   Support autonomy
                      http://ascottallison.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/p1030286.jpg
ip le
       nc 2
     ri #
   P




            Create a safe space
http://www.flickr.com/photos/charamelody/4613804703
ip le
    nc 3
  ri #
P




   Metacommunicate: »This is play!«
Make a bow
             http://www.flickr.com/photos/mccun934/3604759449




              http://www.flickr.com/photos/amrufm/2593920251/sizes/z/in/photostream/
Disrupt standing frames
Use cues and associations
                            http://www.flickr.com/photos/webatelier/5929298899
ip le
    nc 4
  ri #
P




   … vs. Quality and Variety
   Model attitude and behaviors
ip le
    nc 5
  ri #
P




   Offer generative tools/toys
Small pieces, loosely joined
»So when designing tools
for play, underspecify!«



   Kars Alfrink
   a playful stance (2008)
(Obligatory Minecraft slide)
FarmVille
MySpace!
ip le
    nc 6
  ri #
P




   Provide invitations
                         http://www.flickr.com/photos/purplemattfish/3205907410/sizes/o/in/photostream/
Autonomy
Choice in goals & strategies,
concordant w/ values & needs


Safe space
Culture of trust, forgiveness,
mutual care, zero blame


Shared attitude
Lived focus on exploring, mastery,
benign transgression, shared joy


Generative tools/toys
Inviting openings for exploration
and redesign
7   Gamification is
    materializing morality.
ue
 iss
#1




   Evil mind control?
»If you use the power of games to give
people an opportunity to do something
they want to do, then you’re doing good. If
you’re using the power of games to get
people to do something you want them to
do, then you’re doing evil.«



     Jane McGonigal
     digital ethics symposium (2011)
Technologies of power
Get your friends to shop more
Technologies of the self
Help me meditate
… are technologies of control
Regularthe game.at the gym.
Get outin exercize associate employees.
Not drinking too Move
Moremore
Happier.
Fitter. with your much. on.
Stay productive.
Stay in the game. Move on.
ue
 iss
#2




   Implicit values, virtues, normality
»Products ... are vivid
arguments about how we
should lead our lives.«


  Richard Buchanan
  design and the new rhetoric (2001)
                                       http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/philosophy_and_rhetoric/v034/34.3buchanan.html
The Good Life
                http://www.flickr.com/photos/amanky/1722371602
Compare. Compete. Be on top.
What vision of
The Good Life
do your designs convey?
ue
 iss
#3




   “Extended willpower”
   Implicit theory of social change
When discipline is reinforced,
  revolution cannot fail!
»Commentators blithely assure us that it is ‘all about
who wants it the most’, as though sporting podiums
are arranged exactly according to the amount of
willpower that went into the struggle. Bronze:
considerable self-belief; silver: still stronger self-belief;
gold: self-belief on an epic scale. … Our own age has
indulged a pseudoscientific cult of willpower: the
deification of determination.«




         Ed Smith
         the voodoo cult of positive thinking (2012)
                                              http://www.newstatesman.com/culture/books/2012/09/voodoo-cult-positive-thinking
http://www.guardian.co.uk/sustainable-
business/small-painless-behaviour-change
What theory of
social change
do your designs convey?
8   Gamification is
    worth researching.
ic
 op 1
T #



    Motivational Design
    Marrying the psychology
    of motivation with the
    practice of design.
The Gameful Classroom
ic
 op 2
T #




        Rule Design Studies
        The holistic study and
        design of rule systems.
Law                                       Sociology

 Governance                                  Social order
 Public Policy                               Institutionalization
 Interpretation                              Scripts (STS)




                                                computer
  Economics
                                                 science
Game Theory                                  Algorithms
Incentives                                   Modeling, abstraction,
Business processes     Game Studies          automation, simulation


                     Design
                     Dynamics & Aesthetics
                     Semiotics
ic
 op 3
T #



        Playing Studies
        Understanding and
        designing for playful and
        gameful reframing.
Are you “playing” or “using” it?
Mandatory or optional?
How to counteract a gaming mindset?
                                http://www.flickr.com/photos/5tein/2347819903
9   “Gamification” is
    a terrible word to use.
ue
 ss 1
I #



        »Gamification
        is bullshit.«
          Ian Bogost
          gamification is bullshit (2011)
                                            http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/4294/persuasive_games_shell_games.php
»This is why gamification is such an
effective term. It keeps the term game and
puts it right up in front, drawing attention
to the form’s mysterious power. But the
kicker comes at the end: the -ify suffix
makes applying that medium to any given
purpose seem facile and automatic.«



      Ian Bogost
      exploitationware (2010)
ue
 ss 2
I #




 What is a “game element”?*
* Most game definitions have multiple necessary conditions
Game Atoms

    model/skill   goal




                            action
                                                  rule system


                                              success! / failure!
                         challenge

                          feedback
                         immediate/progress
Rules              Avatars
 not game-specific
    Quantitative feedback

      Goals          Story



 gamification
          Notifications
                             Comments
 not game-related
                              Analytics
Redeemable rewards

            Commitment
ue
 ss 3
I #




 Encourgaing “add-on” thinking
Remember “Playfulness”?
Gamefulness!
Paidia                 Ludus
      play                   game
 improvisation            skill, effort
   tumultuous               ordered
  immoderate              rule-bound




Roger Caillois
man, play, and games (1958)
Gaming




                  (serious) games             gamification
                                              Gameful Design
System/Artefact




                                                                          Quality/mode
                                                               Elements
                  (serious) toys              playful design




                                    Playing
1 Gamification is nothing new.
2 Gamification is the use of game design
  elements in non-game contexts.
3 Gamification is an inadvertent con.
4 Motivational design is a promising proposition.
5 Gamification is thinking inside the box.
6 Playful reframing is a promising proposition.
7 Gamification is materializing morality.
8 Gamification is worth researching
9 »Gamification« is a terrible word to use.
9.5   Ceterum Censeo
      You should all read
      The Well-Played Game
»Inscribed in gold in our flag is the
motto If you can’t play it, change it,
and woven into our banner are the
words If it helps, cheat.«



    Bernie de Koven
    the well-played game (1978/2002)
Thank You.
 @dingstweets

 sebastian@codingconduct.cc

 codingconduct.cc

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9,5 Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Gamification

  • 1. 9.5 Theses on the power and efficacy of gamification Sebastian Deterding (@dingstweets) Hans Bredow Institute for Media Research, Hamburg University October 2012 cb
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 10. points badges leaderboards incentives Tracking, Feedback Goals, surprise Competition Rewards The blueprint (still)
  • 11. success stories sensors & analytics practices & discourses The Enablers
  • 12. 1 Gamification is nothing new.
  • 13. »One purpose of this book is to explore ways in which even routine activities can be transformed into personally meaningful games that provide optimal experiences.« Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi flow (1990: 51)
  • 14. Precursors and parallels Serious Digital Alternate Reality/ Ludification Games Serious Games Pervasive Games of culture (1960+) (2001+) (2001+) (2006+) Precursors Repurposings UX Playfulness (1980+) (2001+) (2002+) (2005+) Hedonic attributes Ludic design Persuasive Tech (2002+) (2006+)
  • 24. 2 Gamification is the use of game design elements in non-game contexts.
  • 25. Gamification: The use of game design elements in non-game contexts
  • 26. Gamification: The use of game design elements in non-game contexts
  • 27. Paidia Ludus play game improvisation skill, effort exploration strategizing tumultuous ordered immoderate rule-bound Roger Caillois man, play, and games (1958)
  • 28. Gaming Playing Gaming, not playing
  • 29. Systems Elements Elements, not whole systems
  • 30. Game-based Controllers, AI, 3D technology engines, ... Game-based practices Serious Gaming Game-based design Gamification Game Design Elements
  • 32. Gaming (serious) games gamification Elements System (serious) toys playful design Playing
  • 33. 3 Gamification is an inadvertent con.
  • 34. »Gamification is an inadvertent con. It tricks people into believing that there’s a simple way to imbue their thing ... with the psychological, emotional and social power of a great game.« Margaret Robertson can’t play, won’t play (2009)
  • 35. si on fu 1 Con #
  • 36.
  • 37. »Ninety percent of everything is crud.« Theodore Sturgeon sturgeon‘s revelation (1958)
  • 38. Con(fusion) #1 Games are not fun because they are games, but when they are well-designed.
  • 39. si on fu 2 Con #
  • 40.
  • 41. Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!) Earn 1,000,000,000,000 points
  • 42. Level: 1 (You rock!) Drop all loot!
  • 43. Score: 400 princesses (You rock!) Get princess!
  • 44. »Fun is just another word for learning.« Raph Koster a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  • 45. »Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out of comprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makes games fun. With games, learning is the drug.« Raph Koster a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  • 46.
  • 47.
  • 48. Extrinsic motivation http://www.flickr.com/photos/diego_rivera/4261964210
  • 49. Intrinsic motivation http://www.flickr.com/photos/areyoumyrik/308908967
  • 50. »An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.« Edward Deci, Richard Ryan the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
  • 51. Con(fusion) #2 The fun in playing games chiefly arises from intrinsic enjoyment, not extrinsic incentives.
  • 52. si on fu 3 Con # http://www.flickr.com/photos/apartmentlife/6559123353/
  • 53.
  • 54.
  • 55.
  • 56. »Mowing the lawn or waiting in a dentist’s office can become enjoyable provided one restructures the activity by providing goals, rules, and the other elements of enjoyment to be reviewed below.« Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi flow (1990: 51)
  • 57. Con(fusion) #3 »Gaminess« is not a feature you can add.
  • 58. 4 Motivational design is a promising proposition.
  • 59. How might we ... restructure a system to support intrinsic enjoyment, using game design as a lens?
  • 60. Put differently If this were a game – in what ways is it broken?
  • 61. Game Atoms model/skill goal action rule system success! / failure! challenge feedback immediate/progress
  • 62.
  • 63.
  • 64.
  • 65. Games in class > Class as game
  • 66. Games in school > School as game
  • 67. Games in Undergrad > You get the idea ...
  • 68. Feedback Accuracy, speed, friendliness in comparison, w/ recommendations Goals Daily, weekly, monthly, annually w/ progress Challenge Training, job rotation, job enrichment Reality Check
  • 70.
  • 71.
  • 72. 5 Gamification is thinking inside the box.
  • 73. Game The Box A designed artifact Playing A frame of engagement
  • 74. »Even though we are involved in a game, we are not always playing … Even though we are playing, we are not always involved in a game ... Playing a game is a special condition of both play and games.« Bernie de Koven the well-played game (1978/2002: 7)
  • 75.
  • 76. debugging playtesting/reviewing presenting gameplay making a machinima a scientific study learning (serious games) sports (e-sports) work (goldfarming)
  • 77. So ... What about this frame called playing?
  • 78. »I need to be very routinized; I mustn’t let myself drift.« »I hammer it through.« »Often, you have to force yourself to do it.« »You’re under real pressure.« »It’s extremely exhausting.« »It wears you out.« »My friends usually cannot comprehend how stressful this is.«
  • 79. »Sometimes, you have to play, you have to get further – and then, play is work.«
  • 80. e nt Elem #1 »First and foremost, all play is a voluntary activity.« Johan Huizinga homo ludens (1938/1950: 7)
  • 81. »The key element of an optimal experience is that it is an end in itself.« Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi flow (1990: 67)
  • 82. »An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.« Edward Deci, Richard Ryan the what and why of goal pursuits (2000)
  • 83. Fun Voluntary Voluntary Fun
  • 84. e nt Elem#2 A vs. Quality …safe space and Variety
  • 85. »Psychosocial moratorium principle: Learners can take risks in a space where real-world consequences are lowered.« James Paul Gee what video games have to teach us... (2003: 67)
  • 86. e nt Elem # 3 Attunement http://www.flickr.com/photos/wondermonkey2k/6188527275
  • 87. »When mother and child have fun together, … they are establishing ... the convention that they take precedence over the fun. When the child cries, the mother stops having fun.« Bernie de Koven the well-played game (1978: 18)
  • 90. »It is the nature of a fun community to care more about the players than about the game. ... We are having fun. We are caring. We are safe with each other. This is what we want.« Bernie de Koven the well-played game (1978: 19-20)
  • 91. e nt em 4 El # Shared focus & attitude of exploring ... http://www.flickr.com/photos/docentjoyce/3138887652
  • 92. … mastery, ... http://www.flickr.com/photos/paulgorman/1392988135
  • 94. … and most importantly, fun http://www.flickr.com/photos/bixentro/540642579
  • 95. e nt Elem#5 I won‘t let you fall. I‘ll know and say when it‘s too much. Trust http://www.flickr.com/photos/lucianvenutian/439410200
  • 96. »An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.« Edward Deci, Richard Ryan the what and why of goal pursuits (2000)
  • 97. er ng 1 da # Rewarded or mandatory games ... http://albanyny.bitsbytesbots.com/after-school-enrichment
  • 98. … curbs autonomy through control
  • 99. … detrains autonomous regulation http://www.flickr.com/photos/courosa/4955407599/sizes/l/in/photostream/
  • 100. er ng 2 da # the rule of irrelevance
  • 101. Framing as strategic instrumental action http://www.rasmusen.org/x/images/pd.jpg
  • 102. … crowds out communal ethics, ...
  • 103. »It is through a community of people who care more about fun than winning that the Well-Played game happens.« Bernie de Koven the well-played game (1978: 5)
  • 104. … fixates thinking inside the system and ... http://www.rasmusen.org/x/images/pd.jpg
  • 105. … encourages gaming the system http://www.flickr.com/photos/5tein/2347819903
  • 106. In short: a ludic mindset Paidia Ludus play game improvisation skill, effort exploration strategizing tumultuous ordered immoderate rule-bound Roger Caillois man, play, and games (1958)
  • 107. er ng 3 da # Utopia lost in amusement
  • 108. »The unreality of games gives notice that reality is not yet real. Unconsciously they rehearse the right life.« Theodor W. Adorno minima moralia (1951)
  • 109. »Simply because the child deprives the things with which he plays of their mediated usefulness, he seeks to rescue in them what is benign towards men and not what subserves the exchange relation that equally deforms men and things.« Theodor W. Adorno minima moralia (1951)
  • 110. a thing enjoyed for its own sake is a moment of life well-lived
  • 111. »Amusement is the extension of work in late capitalism. It is sought out by him who wants to escape the mechanised process of work only to become fit for it anew.« Theodor W. Adorno dialectics of enlightenment (1969)
  • 112. 6 Playful reframing is a promising proposition.
  • 113. Play
  • 114. What we usually design http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrlerone/405730185/sizes/o/
  • 115. Who decides whether this is play (or playing is allowed)
  • 116. ip le nc 1 ri # P Support autonomy http://ascottallison.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/p1030286.jpg
  • 117. ip le nc 2 ri # P Create a safe space http://www.flickr.com/photos/charamelody/4613804703
  • 118. ip le nc 3 ri # P Metacommunicate: »This is play!«
  • 119. Make a bow http://www.flickr.com/photos/mccun934/3604759449 http://www.flickr.com/photos/amrufm/2593920251/sizes/z/in/photostream/
  • 121. Use cues and associations http://www.flickr.com/photos/webatelier/5929298899
  • 122. ip le nc 4 ri # P … vs. Quality and Variety Model attitude and behaviors
  • 123. ip le nc 5 ri # P Offer generative tools/toys
  • 124.
  • 126. »So when designing tools for play, underspecify!« Kars Alfrink a playful stance (2008)
  • 130. ip le nc 6 ri # P Provide invitations http://www.flickr.com/photos/purplemattfish/3205907410/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  • 131. Autonomy Choice in goals & strategies, concordant w/ values & needs Safe space Culture of trust, forgiveness, mutual care, zero blame Shared attitude Lived focus on exploring, mastery, benign transgression, shared joy Generative tools/toys Inviting openings for exploration and redesign
  • 132. 7 Gamification is materializing morality.
  • 133. ue iss #1 Evil mind control?
  • 134. »If you use the power of games to give people an opportunity to do something they want to do, then you’re doing good. If you’re using the power of games to get people to do something you want them to do, then you’re doing evil.« Jane McGonigal digital ethics symposium (2011)
  • 136. Get your friends to shop more
  • 139. … are technologies of control
  • 140. Regularthe game.at the gym. Get outin exercize associate employees. Not drinking too Move Moremore Happier. Fitter. with your much. on. Stay productive.
  • 141. Stay in the game. Move on.
  • 142. ue iss #2 Implicit values, virtues, normality
  • 143. »Products ... are vivid arguments about how we should lead our lives.« Richard Buchanan design and the new rhetoric (2001) http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/philosophy_and_rhetoric/v034/34.3buchanan.html
  • 144. The Good Life http://www.flickr.com/photos/amanky/1722371602
  • 146. What vision of The Good Life do your designs convey?
  • 147. ue iss #3 “Extended willpower” Implicit theory of social change
  • 148.
  • 149. When discipline is reinforced, revolution cannot fail!
  • 150. »Commentators blithely assure us that it is ‘all about who wants it the most’, as though sporting podiums are arranged exactly according to the amount of willpower that went into the struggle. Bronze: considerable self-belief; silver: still stronger self-belief; gold: self-belief on an epic scale. … Our own age has indulged a pseudoscientific cult of willpower: the deification of determination.« Ed Smith the voodoo cult of positive thinking (2012) http://www.newstatesman.com/culture/books/2012/09/voodoo-cult-positive-thinking
  • 152. What theory of social change do your designs convey?
  • 153. 8 Gamification is worth researching.
  • 154. ic op 1 T # Motivational Design Marrying the psychology of motivation with the practice of design.
  • 155.
  • 157. ic op 2 T # Rule Design Studies The holistic study and design of rule systems.
  • 158. Law Sociology Governance Social order Public Policy Institutionalization Interpretation Scripts (STS) computer Economics science Game Theory Algorithms Incentives Modeling, abstraction, Business processes Game Studies automation, simulation Design Dynamics & Aesthetics Semiotics
  • 159. ic op 3 T # Playing Studies Understanding and designing for playful and gameful reframing.
  • 160. Are you “playing” or “using” it?
  • 162.
  • 163. How to counteract a gaming mindset? http://www.flickr.com/photos/5tein/2347819903
  • 164. 9 “Gamification” is a terrible word to use.
  • 165. ue ss 1 I # »Gamification is bullshit.« Ian Bogost gamification is bullshit (2011) http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/4294/persuasive_games_shell_games.php
  • 166. »This is why gamification is such an effective term. It keeps the term game and puts it right up in front, drawing attention to the form’s mysterious power. But the kicker comes at the end: the -ify suffix makes applying that medium to any given purpose seem facile and automatic.« Ian Bogost exploitationware (2010)
  • 167. ue ss 2 I # What is a “game element”?* * Most game definitions have multiple necessary conditions
  • 168. Game Atoms model/skill goal action rule system success! / failure! challenge feedback immediate/progress
  • 169. Rules Avatars not game-specific Quantitative feedback Goals Story gamification Notifications Comments not game-related Analytics Redeemable rewards Commitment
  • 170. ue ss 3 I # Encourgaing “add-on” thinking
  • 173. Paidia Ludus play game improvisation skill, effort tumultuous ordered immoderate rule-bound Roger Caillois man, play, and games (1958)
  • 174. Gaming (serious) games gamification Gameful Design System/Artefact Quality/mode Elements (serious) toys playful design Playing
  • 175. 1 Gamification is nothing new. 2 Gamification is the use of game design elements in non-game contexts. 3 Gamification is an inadvertent con. 4 Motivational design is a promising proposition. 5 Gamification is thinking inside the box. 6 Playful reframing is a promising proposition. 7 Gamification is materializing morality. 8 Gamification is worth researching 9 »Gamification« is a terrible word to use.
  • 176. 9.5 Ceterum Censeo You should all read The Well-Played Game
  • 177.
  • 178. »Inscribed in gold in our flag is the motto If you can’t play it, change it, and woven into our banner are the words If it helps, cheat.« Bernie de Koven the well-played game (1978/2002)
  • 179. Thank You. @dingstweets sebastian@codingconduct.cc codingconduct.cc