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Video: http://goo.gl/oKMFm // Are points and badges mere indulgences for the faithful looking for redemption in loyalty programs? In nine (and a half) theses, this talk will walk you through the history, definition, and issues of “gamification,” and point out what is worth salvaging for designers and researchers.

Video: http://goo.gl/oKMFm // Are points and badges mere indulgences for the faithful looking for redemption in loyalty programs? In nine (and a half) theses, this talk will walk you through the history, definition, and issues of “gamification,” and point out what is worth salvaging for designers and researchers.

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9,5 Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Gamification

  1. 9.5 Theses on the power and efficacy of gamification Sebastian Deterding (@dingstweets) Hans Bredow Institute for Media Research, Hamburg University October 2012 cb
  2. Education
  3. Sustainability
  4. Activism
  5. Life
  6. Everywhere
  7. points badges leaderboards incentives Tracking, Feedback Goals, surprise Competition Rewards The blueprint (still)
  8. success stories sensors & analytics practices & discourses The Enablers
  9. 1 Gamification is nothing new.
  10. »One purpose of this book is to explore ways in which even routine activities can be transformed into personally meaningful games that provide optimal experiences.« Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi flow (1990: 51)
  11. Precursors and parallels Serious Digital Alternate Reality/ Ludification Games Serious Games Pervasive Games of culture (1960+) (2001+) (2001+) (2006+) Precursors Repurposings UX Playfulness (1980+) (2001+) (2002+) (2005+) Hedonic attributes Ludic design Persuasive Tech (2002+) (2006+)
  12. Precursors
  13. User Experience
  14. Playfulness
  15. Ludic Design
  16. Persuasive Technology
  17. Serious Games
  18. Pervasive Games
  19. Alternate Reality Games
  20. Ludification of Culture
  21. 2 Gamification is the use of game design elements in non-game contexts.
  22. Gamification: The use of game design elements in non-game contexts
  23. Gamification: The use of game design elements in non-game contexts
  24. Paidia Ludus play game improvisation skill, effort exploration strategizing tumultuous ordered immoderate rule-bound Roger Caillois man, play, and games (1958)
  25. Gaming Playing Gaming, not playing
  26. Systems Elements Elements, not whole systems
  27. Game-based Controllers, AI, 3D technology engines, ... Game-based practices Serious Gaming Game-based design Gamification Game Design Elements
  28. Non-Game Contexts
  29. Gaming (serious) games gamification Elements System (serious) toys playful design Playing
  30. 3 Gamification is an inadvertent con.
  31. »Gamification is an inadvertent con. It tricks people into believing that there’s a simple way to imbue their thing ... with the psychological, emotional and social power of a great game.« Margaret Robertson can’t play, won’t play (2009)
  32. si on fu 1 Con #
  33. »Ninety percent of everything is crud.« Theodore Sturgeon sturgeon‘s revelation (1958)
  34. Con(fusion) #1 Games are not fun because they are games, but when they are well-designed.
  35. si on fu 2 Con #
  36. Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!) Earn 1,000,000,000,000 points
  37. Level: 1 (You rock!) Drop all loot!
  38. Score: 400 princesses (You rock!) Get princess!
  39. »Fun is just another word for learning.« Raph Koster a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  40. »Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out of comprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makes games fun. With games, learning is the drug.« Raph Koster a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  41. Extrinsic motivation http://www.flickr.com/photos/diego_rivera/4261964210
  42. Intrinsic motivation http://www.flickr.com/photos/areyoumyrik/308908967
  43. »An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.« Edward Deci, Richard Ryan the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
  44. Con(fusion) #2 The fun in playing games chiefly arises from intrinsic enjoyment, not extrinsic incentives.
  45. si on fu 3 Con # http://www.flickr.com/photos/apartmentlife/6559123353/
  46. »Mowing the lawn or waiting in a dentist’s office can become enjoyable provided one restructures the activity by providing goals, rules, and the other elements of enjoyment to be reviewed below.« Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi flow (1990: 51)
  47. Con(fusion) #3 »Gaminess« is not a feature you can add.
  48. 4 Motivational design is a promising proposition.
  49. How might we ... restructure a system to support intrinsic enjoyment, using game design as a lens?
  50. Put differently If this were a game – in what ways is it broken?
  51. Game Atoms model/skill goal action rule system success! / failure! challenge feedback immediate/progress
  52. Games in class > Class as game
  53. Games in school > School as game
  54. Games in Undergrad > You get the idea ...
  55. Feedback Accuracy, speed, friendliness in comparison, w/ recommendations Goals Daily, weekly, monthly, annually w/ progress Challenge Training, job rotation, job enrichment Reality Check
  56. http://www.flickr.com/photos/dpstyles/4141140976/sizes/o/in/faves-7834371@N04/
  57. 5 Gamification is thinking inside the box.
  58. Game The Box A designed artifact Playing A frame of engagement
  59. »Even though we are involved in a game, we are not always playing … Even though we are playing, we are not always involved in a game ... Playing a game is a special condition of both play and games.« Bernie de Koven the well-played game (1978/2002: 7)
  60. debugging playtesting/reviewing presenting gameplay making a machinima a scientific study learning (serious games) sports (e-sports) work (goldfarming)
  61. So ... What about this frame called playing?
  62. »I need to be very routinized; I mustn’t let myself drift.« »I hammer it through.« »Often, you have to force yourself to do it.« »You’re under real pressure.« »It’s extremely exhausting.« »It wears you out.« »My friends usually cannot comprehend how stressful this is.«
  63. »Sometimes, you have to play, you have to get further – and then, play is work.«
  64. e nt Elem #1 »First and foremost, all play is a voluntary activity.« Johan Huizinga homo ludens (1938/1950: 7)
  65. »The key element of an optimal experience is that it is an end in itself.« Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi flow (1990: 67)
  66. »An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.« Edward Deci, Richard Ryan the what and why of goal pursuits (2000)
  67. Fun Voluntary Voluntary Fun
  68. e nt Elem#2 A vs. Quality …safe space and Variety
  69. »Psychosocial moratorium principle: Learners can take risks in a space where real-world consequences are lowered.« James Paul Gee what video games have to teach us... (2003: 67)
  70. e nt Elem # 3 Attunement http://www.flickr.com/photos/wondermonkey2k/6188527275
  71. »When mother and child have fun together, … they are establishing ... the convention that they take precedence over the fun. When the child cries, the mother stops having fun.« Bernie de Koven the well-played game (1978: 18)
  72. http://www.flickr.com/photos/iboy/5709372593
  73. http://www.flickr.com/photos/iboy/5709372593
  74. »It is the nature of a fun community to care more about the players than about the game. ... We are having fun. We are caring. We are safe with each other. This is what we want.« Bernie de Koven the well-played game (1978: 19-20)
  75. e nt em 4 El # Shared focus & attitude of exploring ... http://www.flickr.com/photos/docentjoyce/3138887652
  76. … mastery, ... http://www.flickr.com/photos/paulgorman/1392988135
  77. … benign transgression, ...
  78. … and most importantly, fun http://www.flickr.com/photos/bixentro/540642579
  79. e nt Elem#5 I won‘t let you fall. I‘ll know and say when it‘s too much. Trust http://www.flickr.com/photos/lucianvenutian/439410200
  80. »An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.« Edward Deci, Richard Ryan the what and why of goal pursuits (2000)
  81. er ng 1 da # Rewarded or mandatory games ... http://albanyny.bitsbytesbots.com/after-school-enrichment
  82. … curbs autonomy through control
  83. … detrains autonomous regulation http://www.flickr.com/photos/courosa/4955407599/sizes/l/in/photostream/
  84. er ng 2 da # the rule of irrelevance
  85. Framing as strategic instrumental action http://www.rasmusen.org/x/images/pd.jpg
  86. … crowds out communal ethics, ...
  87. »It is through a community of people who care more about fun than winning that the Well-Played game happens.« Bernie de Koven the well-played game (1978: 5)
  88. … fixates thinking inside the system and ... http://www.rasmusen.org/x/images/pd.jpg
  89. … encourages gaming the system http://www.flickr.com/photos/5tein/2347819903
  90. In short: a ludic mindset Paidia Ludus play game improvisation skill, effort exploration strategizing tumultuous ordered immoderate rule-bound Roger Caillois man, play, and games (1958)
  91. er ng 3 da # Utopia lost in amusement
  92. »The unreality of games gives notice that reality is not yet real. Unconsciously they rehearse the right life.« Theodor W. Adorno minima moralia (1951)
  93. »Simply because the child deprives the things with which he plays of their mediated usefulness, he seeks to rescue in them what is benign towards men and not what subserves the exchange relation that equally deforms men and things.« Theodor W. Adorno minima moralia (1951)
  94. a thing enjoyed for its own sake is a moment of life well-lived
  95. »Amusement is the extension of work in late capitalism. It is sought out by him who wants to escape the mechanised process of work only to become fit for it anew.« Theodor W. Adorno dialectics of enlightenment (1969)
  96. 6 Playful reframing is a promising proposition.
  97. Play
  98. What we usually design http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrlerone/405730185/sizes/o/
  99. Who decides whether this is play (or playing is allowed)
  100. ip le nc 1 ri # P Support autonomy http://ascottallison.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/p1030286.jpg
  101. ip le nc 2 ri # P Create a safe space http://www.flickr.com/photos/charamelody/4613804703
  102. ip le nc 3 ri # P Metacommunicate: »This is play!«
  103. Make a bow http://www.flickr.com/photos/mccun934/3604759449 http://www.flickr.com/photos/amrufm/2593920251/sizes/z/in/photostream/
  104. Disrupt standing frames
  105. Use cues and associations http://www.flickr.com/photos/webatelier/5929298899
  106. ip le nc 4 ri # P … vs. Quality and Variety Model attitude and behaviors
  107. ip le nc 5 ri # P Offer generative tools/toys
  108. Small pieces, loosely joined
  109. »So when designing tools for play, underspecify!« Kars Alfrink a playful stance (2008)
  110. (Obligatory Minecraft slide)
  111. FarmVille
  112. MySpace!
  113. ip le nc 6 ri # P Provide invitations http://www.flickr.com/photos/purplemattfish/3205907410/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  114. Autonomy Choice in goals & strategies, concordant w/ values & needs Safe space Culture of trust, forgiveness, mutual care, zero blame Shared attitude Lived focus on exploring, mastery, benign transgression, shared joy Generative tools/toys Inviting openings for exploration and redesign
  115. 7 Gamification is materializing morality.
  116. ue iss #1 Evil mind control?
  117. »If you use the power of games to give people an opportunity to do something they want to do, then you’re doing good. If you’re using the power of games to get people to do something you want them to do, then you’re doing evil.« Jane McGonigal digital ethics symposium (2011)
  118. Technologies of power
  119. Get your friends to shop more
  120. Technologies of the self
  121. Help me meditate
  122. … are technologies of control
  123. Regularthe game.at the gym. Get outin exercize associate employees. Not drinking too Move Moremore Happier. Fitter. with your much. on. Stay productive.
  124. Stay in the game. Move on.
  125. ue iss #2 Implicit values, virtues, normality
  126. »Products ... are vivid arguments about how we should lead our lives.« Richard Buchanan design and the new rhetoric (2001) http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/philosophy_and_rhetoric/v034/34.3buchanan.html
  127. The Good Life http://www.flickr.com/photos/amanky/1722371602
  128. Compare. Compete. Be on top.
  129. What vision of The Good Life do your designs convey?
  130. ue iss #3 “Extended willpower” Implicit theory of social change
  131. When discipline is reinforced, revolution cannot fail!
  132. »Commentators blithely assure us that it is ‘all about who wants it the most’, as though sporting podiums are arranged exactly according to the amount of willpower that went into the struggle. Bronze: considerable self-belief; silver: still stronger self-belief; gold: self-belief on an epic scale. … Our own age has indulged a pseudoscientific cult of willpower: the deification of determination.« Ed Smith the voodoo cult of positive thinking (2012) http://www.newstatesman.com/culture/books/2012/09/voodoo-cult-positive-thinking
  133. http://www.guardian.co.uk/sustainable- business/small-painless-behaviour-change
  134. What theory of social change do your designs convey?
  135. 8 Gamification is worth researching.
  136. ic op 1 T # Motivational Design Marrying the psychology of motivation with the practice of design.
  137. The Gameful Classroom
  138. ic op 2 T # Rule Design Studies The holistic study and design of rule systems.
  139. Law Sociology Governance Social order Public Policy Institutionalization Interpretation Scripts (STS) computer Economics science Game Theory Algorithms Incentives Modeling, abstraction, Business processes Game Studies automation, simulation Design Dynamics & Aesthetics Semiotics
  140. ic op 3 T # Playing Studies Understanding and designing for playful and gameful reframing.
  141. Are you “playing” or “using” it?
  142. Mandatory or optional?
  143. How to counteract a gaming mindset? http://www.flickr.com/photos/5tein/2347819903
  144. 9 “Gamification” is a terrible word to use.
  145. ue ss 1 I # »Gamification is bullshit.« Ian Bogost gamification is bullshit (2011) http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/4294/persuasive_games_shell_games.php
  146. »This is why gamification is such an effective term. It keeps the term game and puts it right up in front, drawing attention to the form’s mysterious power. But the kicker comes at the end: the -ify suffix makes applying that medium to any given purpose seem facile and automatic.« Ian Bogost exploitationware (2010)
  147. ue ss 2 I # What is a “game element”?* * Most game definitions have multiple necessary conditions
  148. Game Atoms model/skill goal action rule system success! / failure! challenge feedback immediate/progress
  149. Rules Avatars not game-specific Quantitative feedback Goals Story gamification Notifications Comments not game-related Analytics Redeemable rewards Commitment
  150. ue ss 3 I # Encourgaing “add-on” thinking
  151. Remember “Playfulness”?
  152. Gamefulness!
  153. Paidia Ludus play game improvisation skill, effort tumultuous ordered immoderate rule-bound Roger Caillois man, play, and games (1958)
  154. Gaming (serious) games gamification Gameful Design System/Artefact Quality/mode Elements (serious) toys playful design Playing
  155. 1 Gamification is nothing new. 2 Gamification is the use of game design elements in non-game contexts. 3 Gamification is an inadvertent con. 4 Motivational design is a promising proposition. 5 Gamification is thinking inside the box. 6 Playful reframing is a promising proposition. 7 Gamification is materializing morality. 8 Gamification is worth researching 9 »Gamification« is a terrible word to use.
  156. 9.5 Ceterum Censeo You should all read The Well-Played Game
  157. »Inscribed in gold in our flag is the motto If you can’t play it, change it, and woven into our banner are the words If it helps, cheat.« Bernie de Koven the well-played game (1978/2002)
  158. Thank You. @dingstweets sebastian@codingconduct.cc codingconduct.cc

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