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Gamification: Future Tools

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Are play and work opposites? In this invited keynote at the Control Systems 2016 conference in Stockholm, I argue that we hold three common misconceptions about work, play, and motivation that have us misjudge how work may be made more playful.

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Gamification: Future Tools

  1. 1. Gamification future tools? Sebastian Deterding (@dingstweets) Control Systems 2016 27 April 2016, Stockholm c b
  2. 2. <0> we are all game designers
  3. 3. Story Rules, Challenge Safe free space Shared toys Goals, Variety Feedback
  4. 4. can we apply that to work?
  5. 5. gamification The use of game design elements in non-game contexts
  6. 6. Gartner Hype Curve http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1763814
  7. 7. business
  8. 8. health & fitness
  9. 9. Education
  10. 10. engagement moves your needle Towers Perrin Global Workforce Study (2011)
  11. 11. three misconceptions
  12. 12. 1. “Work is the opposite of play” 2. “people need pushing” 3. “fun is an additive”
  13. 13. <1> “Work is the opposite of play”
  14. 14. some things are inherently fun …
  15. 15. … and some things aren’t.
  16. 16. … and some things aren’t.
  17. 17. “optimal experience”
  18. 18. »a sense that one’s skills are adequate to cope with the challenges at hand, in a goal-directed, rule-bound action system that provides clear clues as to how well one is performing. Concentration is so intense that there is no attention left... to worry about problems. Self- consciousness disappears, and the sense of time becomes distorted. An activity that produces such experiences is so gratifying that people are willing to do it for its own sake« flow (1990: 1542) Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
  19. 19. Question have you had moments where you were so engaged in work, you forgot time and yourself?
  20. 20. Question have you had moments where you enjoyed work?
  21. 21. Question have you had moments at work where you’d say in hindsight, you would do it even if you didn’t get paid?
  22. 22. 0 15 30 45 60 Work Leisure 17 54 frequency of flow experiences in %
  23. 23. »I need to be very routinized; I mustn’t let myself drift.« »I hammer it through.« »Often, you have to force yourself to do it.« »You’re under real pressure.« »It’s extremely exhausting.« »It wears you out.« »My friends usually cannot comprehend how stressful this is.«
  24. 24. »Sometimes, you have to play, you have to get further – and then, play is work.«
  25. 25. Good work is play: something we enjoy doing for its own sake.
  26. 26. <2> “people need pushing”
  27. 27. theory X theory Y
  28. 28. http://www.flickr.com/photos/diego_rivera/4261964210 extrinsic motivation
  29. 29. Earn 1,000,000,000,000 points Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!)
  30. 30. intrinsic motivation http://www.flickr.com/photos/areyoumyrik/308908967
  31. 31. Raph Koster »Fun is just another word for learning.« a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  32. 32. »Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out of comprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makes games fun. With games, learning is the drug.« Raph Koster a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  33. 33. Teresa M. Amabile »This pattern is what we call the progress principle: of all the positive events that influence inner work life, the single most powerful is progress in meaningful work.« the progress principle (2012: 76)
  34. 34. »Truly effective video game designers know how to create a sense of progress for players within all stages of the game. Truly effective managers know how to do the same for their subordinates.« Teresa M. Amabile the progress principle (2012: 88)
  35. 35. Edward Deci, Richard Ryan »An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.« the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
  36. 36. Question when you enjoyed work, did you feel you accomplished some thing, mastered something that requires skill, achieved change in the world?
  37. 37. Question when you enjoyed work, did you feel you were in tune with your self, choosing and embracing what you did?
  38. 38. Question when you enjoyed work, did you feel connected to others?
  39. 39. in work and play, we actively seek out and enjoy experiences of Autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
  40. 40. <3> “fun is an additive”
  41. 41. some things are inherently fun …
  42. 42. … and some things aren’t.
  43. 43. so: add funstuff to nonfunstuff for more fun
  44. 44. “Just a spoonful of badges …”
  45. 45. aka 1990’s edutainment
  46. 46. a resounding failure
  47. 47. »Mowing the lawn or waiting in a dentist’s office can become enjoyable provided one restructures the activity by providing goals, rules, and the other elements of enjoyment to be reviewed below.« flow (1990: 51) Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
  48. 48. 1 competence
  49. 49. Raph Koster »Fun is just another word for learning.« through well-formed challenges a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  50. 50. goals …
  51. 51. + RULES ...
  52. 52. = interesting challenges
  53. 53. + clear informative Feedback ... http://www.flickr.com/photos/bodgerbrooks/1315419080
  54. 54. = experiences of competence
  55. 55. Earn 1,000,000,000,000 points Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!) feedback without challenge
  56. 56. core game loop motivation rule system goal success! / failure! action/resource feedback challenge
  57. 57. stand in people’s way Danger
  58. 58. Ticket For ticket, drag red dot through labyrinth
  59. 59. Level 2 Ticket For ticket, drag red dot through labyrinth
  60. 60. find the inherent challenge
  61. 61. juicy feedback
  62. 62. Autonomy2
  63. 63. Danger
  64. 64. Edward Deci, Richard Ryan »An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.« the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
  65. 65. Johan Huizinga »First and foremost, all play is a voluntary activity.« homo ludens (1938/1950: 7)
  66. 66. Fun Voluntary Voluntary Fun
  67. 67. safety from consequence
  68. 68. … vs. Quality and Variety
  69. 69. meaningful choice http://ascottallison.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/p1030286.jpg
  70. 70. relatedness3
  71. 71. http://www.rasmusen.org/x/images/pd.jpg
  72. 72. http://www.rasmusen.org/x/images/pd.jpg recognising team contributions
  73. 73. http://www.rasmusen.org/x/images/pd.jpg joint accomplishments
  74. 74. http://www.rasmusen.org/x/images/pd.jpg getting into rhythm
  75. 75. game design can help restructure work to be intrinsically motivating.
  76. 76. <4> summary
  77. 77. <1> “Work is the opposite of play”
  78. 78. good work is play: something we enjoy doing for its own sake.
  79. 79. <2> “people need pushing”
  80. 80. in work and play, we actively seek out and enjoy experiences of Autonomy, competence, relatedness.
  81. 81. <3> “fun is an additive”
  82. 82. game design can help restructure work to be intrinsically motivating.
  83. 83. sebastian@codingconduct.cc @dingstweets codingconduct.cc thank you.

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