Lesson 9    conic sections - ellipse
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Lesson 9 conic sections - ellipse

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  • 1. CONIC SECTIONS Prepared by: Prof. Teresita P. Liwanag – ZapantaB.S.C.E., M.S.C.M., M.Ed. (Math-units), PhD-TM (on-going)
  • 2. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, the student is expected to beable to:• define ellipse• give the different properties of an ellipse with center at( 0,0)• identify the coordinates of the different properties of anellipse with center at ( 0, 0)• sketch the graph of an ellipse
  • 3. THE ELLIPSE (e < 1) An ellipse is the set of all points P in a planesuch that the sum of the distances of P from two fixedpoints F’ and F of the plane is constant. The constantsum is equal to the length of the major axis (2a). Eachof the fixed points is called a focus (plural foci).
  • 4. The following terms are important in drawing the graph of anellipse:Eccentricity measure the degree of flatness of an ellipse. Theeccentricity of an ellipse should be less than 1.Focal chord is any chord of the ellipse passing through the focus.Major axis is the segment cut by the ellipse on the line containingthe foci a segment joining the vertices of an ellipseVertices are the endpoints of the major axis and denoted by 2a.Latus rectum or latera recta in plural form is the segment cut by theellipse passing through the foci and perpendicular to the major axis.Each of the latus rectum can be determined by:
  • 5. Properties of an Ellipse:1. The curve of an ellipse intersects the major-axis at two pointscalled the vertices. It is usually denoted by V and V’.2. The length of the segment VV’ is equal to 2a where a is the lengthof the semi- major axis.3. The midpoint of the segment VV’ is called the center of an ellipsedenoted by C.4. The distance from the center to the foci is denoted by c.5. The line segments through F1 and F2 perpendicular to themajor – axis are the latera recta and each has a length of 2b2/a.
  • 6. ELLIPSE WITH CENTER AT ORIGIN C (0, 0)
  • 7. ELLIPSE WITH CENTER AT ORIGIN C (0, 0) d1 + d2 = 2aConsidering triangle F’PF d3 + d4 = 2a d3 = 2a – d4
  • 8. Equations of ellipse with center at the origin C (0, 0)
  • 9. ELLIPSE WITH CENTER AT C (h, k)
  • 10. ELLIPSE WITH CENTER AT (h, k) If the axes of an ellipse are parallel to the coordinateaxes and the center is at (h,k), we can obtain its equation byapplying translation formulas. We draw a new pair ofcoordinate axes along the axes of the ellipse. The equation ofthe ellipse referred to the new axes isThe substitutions x’ = x – h and y’ = y – k yield
  • 11. ELLIPSE WITH CENTER AT (h, k)
  • 12. Examples:1. Find the equation of the ellipse which satisfies the givenconditionsa. foci at (0, 4) and (0, -4) and a vertex at (0,6)b. center (0, 0), one vertex (0, -7), one end of minor axis (5, 0)c. foci (-5, 0), and (5, 0) length of minor axis is 8d. foci (0, -8), and (0, 8) length of major axis is 34e. vertices (-5, 0) and (5, 0), length of latus rectum is 8/5f. center (2, -2), vertex (6, -2), one end of minor axis (2, 0)g. foci (-4, 2) and (4, 2), major axis 10h. center (5, 4), major axis 16, minor axis 10
  • 13. 2. Sketch the ellipse 9x2 + 25y2 = 2253. Find the coordinates of the foci, the end of the major and minoraxes, and the ends of each latus rectum. Sketch the curve. a. b.4. Reduce the equations to standard form. Find the coordinates ofthe center, the foci, and the ends of the minor and major axes.Sketch the graph.a. x2 + 4y2 – 6x –16y – 32 = 0b. 16x2 + 25y2 – 160x – 200y + 400 = 0c. 3x2 +2y2 – 24x + 12y + 60 = 0d. 4x2 + 8y2 + 4x + 24y – 13 = 05. The arch of an underpass is a semi-ellipse 6m wide and 2mhigh. Find the clearance at the edge of a lane if the edge is 2mfrom the middle.