Edutec 2013 Costa Rica


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  • A learning technology, by definition, is an orchestration of technologies, necessarily including pedagogies, whether implicit or explicit.
  • Transmission model, often augmented with some tutor interaction
  • B adges: . A “digital badge” is an online recordof achievements, tracking the recipient’s communities of interaction that issued the badge andthe work completed to get it.
  • Edutec 2013 Costa Rica

    1. 1. Designing for Learning in a Networked World: Pedagogies and Social Contexts Terry Anderson
    2. 2. Values • We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the learning experience. • Student control and freedom is integral to 21st century life-long education and learning. • Continuing education opportunity is a basic human right.
    3. 3. Learning as Dance (Anderson, 2008) • Technology sets the beat and the timing. • Pedagogy defines the moves.
    4. 4. Outline • Generations of Online Education Pedagogy • Social Forms to Match Pedagogies • Beyond the LMS – Athabasca Landing boutique social network
    5. 5. • McLuhan “We shape our tools and thereafter our tools shape us” • “When physical spaces for learning go online (distributed, non-hierarchical, networked, digital), new, more effective pedagogies emerge”. George Siemens
    6. 6. Three Generations of Online Learning Pedagogy 1. Behaviourist/Cognitive – 2. Social Constructivist – 3. Connectivist Anderson, T., &Dron, J. (2011). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. IRRODL, 12(3), 80-97
    7. 7. 1. Behavioural/Cognitive Pedagogies • “tell ‘em what you’re gonna tell ‘em, • tell ‘em • then tell ‘em what you told ‘em” Direct Instruction
    8. 8. Gagne’s Events of Instruction (1965) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Gain learners' attention Inform learner of objectives Stimulate recall of previous information Present stimulus material Provide learner guidance Elicit performance Provide Feedback Assess performance Enhance transfer opportunities Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
    9. 9. Enhanced by the “cognitive revolution” • • • • • • • Chunking Cognitive Load Working Memory Multiple Representations Split-attention effect Variability Effect Multi-media effect – (Sorden, 2005) “learning as acquiring and using conceptual and cognitive structures” Greeno, Collins and Resnick, 1996
    10. 10. Technologies of Ist generation • CAI, text books, One way Lectures, Video and audio broadcasts and webcasts with advancements??
    11. 11. Social Focus of Ist generation Individual Learner
    12. 12. Cognitive Behaviourist Ontology • Knowledge is logically coherent, existing independent of perspective • Context free • Capable of being transmitted • Assumes closed systems with discoverable relationships between inputs and outputs
    13. 13. Behavioural/Cognitive Developments
    14. 14. Self Directed or Self Paced learning • Learner sets start date and the time to completion • Continuous assessment • Maximizes learner control • Higher drop out • Ted Talks, Khan Academy, OERU • Only one of the Major MOOCs (Udacity) providers offers this option
    15. 15. MOOCs – Now beyond the US
    16. 16. Everyone can own a MOOC
    17. 17. Open Educational Resources Because it saves time!!!
    18. 18. Learning Analytics - Dashboard
    19. 19. Big Data &Education 1) Technology: maximizing computation power and algorithmic accuracy to gather, analyze, link, and compare large data sets. 2) Analysis: drawing on large data sets to identify patterns in order to make economic, social, technical, and legal claims and design interventions. 3) Mythology: the widespread belief that large data sets offer a higher form of intelligence and knowledge that can generate insights that were previously impossible, with the aura of truth, objectivity, and accuracy. Boyd, d. & Crawford, K. (2013). Critical Questions for Big Data: Provocations for a Cultural, Technological, and Scholarly Phenomenon
    20. 20. Khan Academy Offers Student Tracking/Analytics
    21. 21. New Forms of Accrediting Challenge Exams for Credit
    22. 22. 1st Generation, Cognitive Behavioural Pedagogy Summary • Scalable • Few requirements, or opportunities, for social learning • Works most efficiently with individual learning models • Effective and efficient for some types of learning • Have we really taught learners to succeed with this type of learning?
    23. 23. 2nd Generation Constructivist Pedagogy • • • • • • Group Orientated Membership and exclusion, closed Not scalable - max 50 students/course Classrooms - at a distance or on campus Hierarchies of control Focus on collaboration and shared purpose 24 group
    24. 24. Constructivist Knowledge is: • Knowledge is constructed, not transmitted • Arrived at through dialogic encounters (Bakhtin,) - the presence of others adds motivation, conflicting ideas, social validation • Teacher as group facilitator “Dialogic as an epistemological framework supports an account of education as the discursive construction of shared knowledge” Wegerif, R.
    25. 25. 2nd Generation - Constructivist • Online Learning Current model – continued strong growth in US and globally • Canada - “Student registrations jumped another 18.4% in Winter 2013” • Major employer of adjuncts 32% of US higher education students now take at least one course
    26. 26. Constructivist Learning in Groups • Long history of research and study • Established sets of tools – Classrooms – Learning Management Systems (LMS) – Synchronous (chat, video & net conferencing) – Email, wikis, blogs • Need to develop face to face, mediated and blended group learning skills Garrison, R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical thinking in text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2), 87-105.
    27. 27. The Power of Synchronous • Immediacy • Pacing • Comfort level for student and teachers, but DON’T fall into classroom lectures • Social Modeling
    28. 28. Immersion ??
    29. 29. Social Constructivist Social forms • Group • Limited in size – Dunbar’s Max ~150 for a tribe • Mutual awareness of each other
    30. 30. Group Management • Need good tools to allow group to work effectively and build trust at a distance • Use Face-to-face (blended) time to do this.
    31. 31. iology.html
    32. 32. 2nd Generation Social Constructivist Pedagogy Summary • Not scalable, Expensive in terms of time and money • New group tools enhance efficiency • Helps teachers and learners transition to online learning
    33. 33. Generation 3 Connective pedagogies • Stephen Downes
    34. 34. 3rd generation Connective Pedagogies • Heutagogy– Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2000). From Andragogy to Heutagogy. • Chaos Theory • Activity Theory &Actor Network Theory (ANT) – “systemic interactions of people and the objects that they use in their interactions.”
    35. 35. Connectivist Knowledge • Is created by linking to appropriate people and objects • May be created and stored in non human devices • Is as much about capacity as current competence • Assumes the ubiquitous Internet • Is emergent George Siemens
    36. 36. Connectivism • “connectivism is the thesis that knowledge is distributed across a network of connections, and therefore that learning consists of the ability to construct and traverse those networks.” Stephen Downes 2007 See special issue of
    37. 37. Connectivist Learning Network Effects Persistence Accessibility “Connectivying” your course
    38. 38. NOT Learning in a Bubble
    39. 39. Disruptions of Connectivism • Demands net literacy and net presence of students and teachers • Openness is scary • New roles for teachers and students • Artifact ownership, persistence and privacy • Too manic for some
    40. 40. The Social Aggregation makes a Difference • Available open access Spring 2014
    41. 41. The Social Aggregations of Generation 3 Connective Pedagogies • Individuals • Groups • Networks • Sets 1st Gen C/B 2nd Gen. Social Constructivist 3rd Gen. Connectivist
    42. 42. Social Forms of Connectivism Networks and Sets
    43. 43. Social Networks • • • • • • Facebook, LinkedIn, Academia, Twitter Blogs Listservs Private – – – – NING ELGG Drupal, Word Press
    44. 44. An Academic’s Net+ Identity Personal Identity University Identity Professional Identity
    45. 45. • “If Google cannot find a faculty scholar's work or the work of the scholar's colleagues, department, or institution, then it is essentially irrelevant — even nonexistent — because people will not find, read, apply, or build on the work if they cannot locate it via a quick Google searchLowenthal & Dunlap (2012) Lowenthal, P., & Dunlap, J. (2012). Intentional Web Presence: 10 SEO Strategies Every Academic Needs to Know. Educause.
    46. 46. Applying Social Network Analysis to High School Students 2012 The Network Roundtable LLC
    47. 47. - Mozilla
    48. 48. Sets • Aggregation of all people/things sharing a particular interest, commonality. • Example: Set of all graduates of X, all psychology resources • Can be curated resources with social involvement limited to votes, comments, links • Sets MAY develop into networks or groups.
    49. 49. Classic Set: Those editing (or reading) a Wikipedia article
    50. 50.
    51. 51. Sets (Example)
    52. 52. Connectivist Learning Summary • Born on the Net • Focuses on students being responsible for their own learning • Is emergent and can be disruptive • For advanced learners only??
    53. 53. Conclusion: • the best part of Online Learning– is eclectic allowing student exploration of their own learning needs and gifts. • Need to matching pedagogy, technology, social forms and learning outcomes • Empowerment, lifelong learning and smart (not more) work for teachers
    54. 54. Shameless Plug and Giveaways! Issues in Distance Education Series
    55. 55. • Anderson, T. &Dron, J. (2011). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. International Review of Research on Distance and Open Learning, 12(3), 80-97. 826. • Anderson, T. &Dron, J. (2012). Learning technology through three generations of technology enhanced distance education pedagogy. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 2012/2. Retrieved from • Dron, J. & Anderson, T. (in press). Teaching crowds: the role of social media in distance learning Edmonton, Canada: Athabasca University Press.
    56. 56. Your comments& questions most welcomed! Terry Anderson Blog:
    57. 57. If Time Allows
    58. 58. The Athabasca Story Low learner control • LMS – Moodle Hard • E-Portfolio- Mahara • Social Networking - Elgg High learner control Soft
    59. 59. Case Study : Athabasca Landing
    60. 60. Landing Stats (Sept. 2013)
    61. 61. Individual Control (PLE)
    62. 62. Privacy Control
    63. 63. Groups
    64. 64. Group Example
    65. 65. Nets
    66. 66. Sets
    67. 67. Student view • "I have managed to gain more useful knowledge through one course conducted here on Landing than from all the others combined. ”
    68. 68. Opportunities Challenges • Sharing resources • modeling of product and pacing • “amplified” feedback. • part of a social structure • Confusion and learning curve • Information overload – filtering problems • instrumental learners • Privacy and sharing • Institutional inertia
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