Technological Challenges andOpportunities of Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogies Terry Anderson, PhD and Professor
Overview• Technological Determinism in Education and Training• Generations and Technologies of Distance Training Pedagogy• Type of Knowledge appropriate to each generation• Your Comments and Questions!
Values• We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the learning experience.• Student control and freedom is integral to 21st Century life-long education and learning.• Continuous Education opportunity is a basic human right
Learning as Dance (Anderson, 2008) • Technology sets the beat and the timing. • Pedagogy defines the moves.
Traditional TechnologyGenerations of Distance Education
Social Construction of TechnologyNetworked Education is, by definition, technologically mediated and thus is influenced by technological determinism.BUT….• Interpretative Flexibility – each technological artifact has different meanings and interpretations• Relevant Social Groups – many subgroups of users with different applications• Design Flexibility – A design is only a single point in the large field of technical possibilities• Problems and Conflicts – Different interpretations often give rise to conflicts between criteria that are hard to resolve technologically • (Wikipedia, Sept, 2009)Bijker, W. (1999). Of Bicycles, Bakelites and Bulbs: Towardsa Theory of Sociotechnical Change.
Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy1. Behaviourist/Cognitive – Self Paced, Individual Study2. Constructivist – Groups3. Connectivist – Networks and Collectives
1. Behavioural/Cognitive Pedagogies• “tell ‘em what you’re gonna tell ‘em,• tell ‘em• then tell ‘em what you told ‘em”Direct Instruction
Gagne’s Events of Instruction (1965)1. Gain learners attention2. Inform learner of objectives3. Stimulate recall of previous information4. Present stimulus material5. Provide learner guidance6. Elicit performance7. Provide Feedback8. Assess performance9. Enhance transfer opportunities Basis of Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
Enhanced by the “cognitive revolution”• Chunking• Cognitive Load• Working Memory• Multiple Representations• Split-attention effect• Variability Effect• Multi-media effect – (Sorden, 2005) “learning as acquiring and using conceptual and cognitive structures” Greeno, Collins and Resnick, 1996
Behaviourist/Cognitive Knowledge Is:• Logically coherent, existing independent of perspective• Largely context free• Capable of being transmitted• Assumes closed systems with discoverable relationships between inputs and outputs• Readily defined through learning objectives
LMS as primary B/C Teaching Tool• Secure – hackers, vandals• Robust• Custom designed for teaching• Simple, consistent and adopted• Supported and Integrated with other institutional systems• Tracking and recoding• Sophisticated (branching, printing, permissions)
New Developments in Behavioural/Cognitive Systems• Reflection Amplifiers• Social Indicators – Global feedback – Digital footprints – Archives – Competition and games• Multiple Representations• Student modeling and adaptation - analytics
Adaptivity in ubiquitous learning Extensive modelling of learner’s actions, interactions, “mood”, trends of preferences, skill & knowledge levels, implicit and explicit changes in skill & knowledge levels Real-time monitoring of learner’s location, technology use, and change of situational aspectsSlide 16
Open Student Models• “the learner model now plays a new role – not only can the learner contribute information to help increase the accuracy and therefore the utility of their learner model for adaptation purposes, but the model can also become a learning resource for the student in its own right. “ Susan Bull et al. 2007• removing the blindness that has to date prevented educators from viewing and learning directly from learner behaviours
1st International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge 2011 Learning Analytics• Unlike traditional adaptive hypermedia and intelligent tutoring systems that work on a known closed corpus of material,• Learning analytics is used across multiple, unknown activities and interactions across the net, mining information about patterns of behaviour in order to extract useful information about learning which can then be applied to improve the experience.
Open Open Content and Open Educational ResourcesBecause it saves time and money!!!
Are you More than Your Content?• lack of motivation for distance education content developers to use OERs ??• Many DE developers and Faculty define themselves by the production of quality content – not by the consumption and customization of content created by others.
Technology in use to Create C/B contenDyck and Carey ID Model: specialized expertise team work division of labour
CB teams demand• Effective Project Management• Synchronous and asynchronous distributed communications• Archiving, and version control• Interoperability• Reuse• Distributed
Many ways that technologiesenhance production and learning of 1st generationCognitive/behaviourist pedagogy.
Constructivist Learning Pedagogy• New knowledge is built upon the foundation of previous learning• The importance of context• Errors and contradictions are useful• Learning as an active rather than passive process,• The importance of language and other social tools in constructing knowledge• Focus on negotiation, meta-cognition and evaluation as a means to develop learners’ capacity to assess their own learning• The importance of multiple perspectives - groups• Need for knowledge to be subject to validation and application in real world contexts – (from Honebein, 1996; Jonassen, 1991; Kanuka& Anderson, 1999)
Constructivist Knowledge is:• Learning is located in contexts and relationships rather than merely in the minds of individuals. Greenhow, Robelia & Hughes (2009), Kathy Sierra http://www.speedofcreativity.org/
Constructivist learning is Group Learning Providing -• Motivation• Feedback• Alternate and conflicting viewpoints
Why Groups?• “Students who learn in small groups generally demonstrate greater academic achievement, express more favorable attitudes toward learning, and persist …• small-group learning may have particularly large effects on the academic achievement of members of underrepresented groups and the learning-related attitudes of women…” • Springer; Stanne, & Donovan, (1999) P.42
Impact (Mean effect size) ofCooperative versus Individualistic Learning contexts Dependent Variable Achievement .64 -88 Interpersonal Attraction .67-82 Social Support .62-.83 Self-esteem .58- .67 Time on task .76 Attitudes towards task .57 Quality of reasoning .93 Perspective taking .61From Johnson and Johnson (1989).Cooperation and competition. Theory and research
Advances in Constructivist Learning Tools• Collaborative tools – Document creation, management, versioning – Time lines, calendars, – Strong notifications• Security, trust – hosting on institutional space? – Behind firewalls, away from search engines• Decision making and project management tools• Synchronous and asynchronous conversations/meetings
User Model & Adaptation for Groups:TRAC system “extract patterns and other information from the group logs and present it together with desired patterns to the people involved, so that they can interpret it, making use of their own knowledge of the group tasks and activities” (Perera, 2009).
Problems with Groups• Restrictions in time, space, pace, & relationship - NOT OPEN• Often overly confined by leader expectation and institutional curriculum control• Usually Isolated from the authentic world of practice• “low tolerance of internal difference, sexist and ethicized regulation, high demand for obedience to its norms and exclusionary practices.” Cousin & Deepwell 2005• “Pathological politeness” and fear of debate• Group think (Baron, 2005)• Poor preparation for Lifelong Learning beyond the course
Constructivist learning in Groups is necessary,but not sufficient for advanced forms oflearning.
3rd Generation - Networked Learning using Connectivist Pedagogy• Learning is building networks of information, contacts and resources that are applied to real problems.
Connectivist Learning Principles George Siemens, 2004• Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.• Learning may reside in non-human appliances.• Capacity to know is more critical than what is currently known.• Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.• Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.• Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge)is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.
Networks add diversity to learning“People who live in the intersection of social worlds are at higher risk of having good ideas” Burt, 2005, p. 90
Connectivist Learning is Emergent• the very uncertainty and lack of predictability of learning outcomes will be the key factor that adds value to a learning community• emergent systems will provide the necessary triggers to enhance knowledge and understanding• emergent learning will be one of the critical triggers to unleash individual creativity (Kays& Sims, 2006,p. 411)
Connectivist Learning designs Connection forming Selection FilteringAwareness and Contribution and Receptivity Involvement Reflection and Metacognition Pettenati, M. (2007).
Special Issue of IRRODL onConnectivism coming Feb. 2011Free Subscriptions at www.irrodl.org
Networks Communities of Practice• Distributed• Share common interest• Mostly self organizing• Open – Learning beyond the course• No expectation of meeting or even knowing all members of the Network• Little expectation of direct reciprocity• Contribute for social capital building, altruism and a sense of improving the world/practice through contribution.• Increases exposure to the adjacent possible (Brown and Duguid, 2001)
Transparency, Persistence• “shared awareness allows otherwise uncoordinated groups to begin to work together more quickly and more effectively (forming networks)” Clay Shirky 2008 p. 162• “adjacent possibilities” Stuart Kaufman – ideas sufficiently close geographically or conceptually to propel adoption
How do we Build Networks of Practice ?• Motivation – learning plans, self and net efficacy, net-presence, modeling and exposure• Structural support – Exposure and training – Transparent systems – Wireless access, mobile computing• Cognitive skills – content + procedural, disclosure control• Social connections, reciprocity – Creating and sustaining a spiral of social capital building • Nahapiet&Ghoshal (1998)
What does the Research literature have to say about Networked Learning? • Most reports by early adopters and innovators with potential bias • As always in education, too few studies and especially too few focusing on learning outcomes. • Tremendous variation in learning context • “The question on whether the use of wikis can improve learners outcome such as writing ability is unresolved” Hew & Cheung, 2009
Challenges of Connectivist Learning Models• Privacy• Control• Dealing with disruptive change• Institutional Support• Sustaining motivation and commitment
Connectivism Connects Formal and Informal• Selwyn, 2009 examined the log activity of over 900 UK undergraduates to identify their use of Facebook appears to – a space where the role conflict that students experience in their relationships with university work, teaching staff, academic conventions and expectations can be worked through in a relatively closed backstage area. – So rather than enhancing directly participation in formal learning, the social networking services to help learners develop, reflect upon and share their identify grow and conflicts.• “positive relationships between intensity of Facebook use and students life satisfaction, social trust, civic engagement, and political participation” Ellison Steinfield&Lampe 2007.
2010 Survey of 125 US learning and training leaders - CARA
Recommendations for teachers• Be as fearless as your students.• Seek out or create opportunities to collaborate with and learn from your peers.• Develop your own personal learning system• Explore, experiment and have fun
Conclusion• Behavioural/Cognitive models are useful for memory and conceptual knowledge acquisition.• Constructivist models develop group skills and trust.• Connectivist models introduce networked learning and are foundational for lifelong learning in complex contexts• 21 Century Literacys and skills demand effective use of all three pedagogiesAnderson & Dron (in press) 3 generations of DE Pedagogy. InternationalReview of Research in Distance and Open Learning (IRRODL)
Slides available at http://www.slideshare.net/terrya/iodl-icem-2010Your comments and questions most welcomed! Terry Anderson email@example.com Blog: terrya.edublogs.org
Wiki Research• Shifts in the students’ perspectives regarding learning processes from more traditional individualism to collective knowledge construction and ownership. – Lund, 2008 – high school• Turget (2009) – 1) improvement in the students’ writing skills; – 2) improvement in the students’ sharing of ideas, critical feedback, and confidence; and – 3) greater motivation to participate in the activities.
• Greenhow,(2008) University of Minnesota College of Education survey study.• "Students using networking systems are: – developing a positive attitude towards using technology systems, – editing and customizing content and thinking about online design and layout. – sharing creative original work like poetry and film and – practicing safe and responsible use of information and technology. – ……the Web sites offer tremendous educational potential.”
Social Networking benefits outside of the classroom• Qualitative study of low income US students• “Our findings reveal that SNSs – facilitated emotional support, relational maintenance and – provided a platform for self-presentation where students could “be more relaxed” , “mess around,” and perform on their own terms with the social, cultural, and technical tools at their disposal. – Students used their online social network to fulfill essential social learning functions, meeting a range of interpersonal needs, including validation and appreciation of creative endeavors, peer support from current and former classmates, and targeted help with school-related tasks. Greenhow, & Robelia (2009) Old Communication, New Literacies: Social Network Sites as Social Learning Resources. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 14(4)
Should you ‘Friend’ your Students on• “Any teacher who links to a student on MySpace or Facebook is an ABSOLUTE FOOL!!!!!” see discussion at Doug Johnson’s blog”• “This is how students communicate today and if were not Tweeting, texting, emailing, commenting, then were not communicating with our students” Principal Chris Lehman• “The School Principal just Friended me” blog by 11 year old Ador Svitak
Importance of this issue• Educational challenges are not met through evangelism, threats or technologies alone.• Change happens when teachers, administrators and learners make it happen – Perceived benefits – Personal – Readiness - Organizational – Pressure – Inter-organizational • Chwelos; Benbasat; Dexter, 2001)• Each of us is an agent of change
"He who asks a question is a fool for five minutes; he who does not ask a question remains a fool forever.” Chinese ProverbYour comments and questions most welcomed! Terry Anderson firstname.lastname@example.org Blog: terrya.edublogs.org