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Designing for Learning in a
Networked World:
Pedagogies and Social Contexts
Terry Anderson
Values
• We can (and must) continuously improve the
quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time
efficiency of the learni...
Learning as Dance
(Anderson, 2008)

• Technology
sets the
beat and
the timing.
• Pedagogy
defines the
moves.
Outline
• Generations of Online Education Pedagogy
• Social Forms to Match Pedagogies
• Beyond the LMS
– Athabasca Landing...
• McLuhan “We shape our tools and thereafter
our tools shape us”
• “When physical spaces for learning go online
(distribut...
Three Generations of
Online Learning Pedagogy
1. Behaviourist/Cognitive –
2. Social Constructivist –
3. Connectivist
Ander...
1. Behavioural/Cognitive Pedagogies
• “tell ‘em what you’re
gonna tell ‘em,
• tell ‘em
• then tell ‘em what you
told ‘em”
...
Gagne’s Events of Instruction (1965)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Gain learners' attention
Inform learner of objectives
Sti...
Enhanced by the “cognitive
revolution”
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Chunking
Cognitive Load
Working Memory
Multiple Representations
Spli...
Technologies of Ist generation
• CAI, text books, One way Lectures, Video and
audio broadcasts and webcasts with
advanceme...
Social Focus of Ist generation Individual Learner
Cognitive Behaviourist Ontology
• Knowledge is logically coherent, existing
independent of perspective
• Context free
• Ca...
Behavioural/Cognitive Developments
Self Directed or Self Paced learning
• Learner sets start date and the time to
completion
• Continuous assessment
• Maximi...
MOOCs – Now beyond the US
Everyone can own a MOOC
Open Educational Resources

Because it saves time!!!
Learning Analytics - Dashboard
Big Data &Education
1) Technology: maximizing computation power and
algorithmic accuracy to gather, analyze, link, and
com...
Khan Academy Offers Student
Tracking/Analytics
New Forms of Accrediting

Challenge Exams for Credit
1st Generation,
Cognitive Behavioural Pedagogy
Summary

• Scalable
• Few requirements, or opportunities, for social
learni...
2nd Generation
Constructivist Pedagogy
•
•
•
•
•
•

Group Orientated
Membership and exclusion, closed
Not scalable - max 5...
Constructivist Knowledge is:
• Knowledge is constructed, not transmitted
• Arrived at through dialogic encounters
(Bakhtin...
2nd Generation - Constructivist
• Online Learning Current model – continued
strong growth in US and globally
• Canada - “S...
Constructivist Learning in Groups
• Long history of research
and study
• Established sets of tools
– Classrooms
– Learning...
The Power of Synchronous
• Immediacy
• Pacing
• Comfort level for student and teachers, but
DON’T fall into classroom lect...
Immersion ??
Social Constructivist Social forms
• Group
• Limited in size
– Dunbar’s Max ~150 for a tribe

• Mutual awareness of each o...
Group Management
• Need good tools to allow group to work
effectively and build trust at a distance
• Use Face-to-face (bl...
http://www.collaborativelearning.org/scien
iology.html
2nd Generation
Social Constructivist Pedagogy
Summary
• Not scalable, Expensive in terms of time and
money
• New group too...
Generation 3
Connective pedagogies

• Stephen Downes
3rd generation Connective
Pedagogies
• Heutagogy– Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2000).
From Andragogy to Heutagogy.
• Chaos Theo...
Connectivist Knowledge
• Is created by linking to appropriate people and
objects
• May be created and stored in non human ...
Connectivism
• “connectivism is the thesis that knowledge is
distributed across a network of
connections, and therefore th...
Connectivist Learning

Network
Effects

Persistence

Accessibility

“Connectivying” your course
http://terrya.edublogs.org...
NOT Learning in a Bubble
Disruptions of Connectivism
• Demands net literacy and net
presence of students and
teachers
• Openness is scary
• New rol...
The Social Aggregation makes a
Difference

• Available open access
Spring 2014
The Social Aggregations of
Generation 3 Connective Pedagogies
• Individuals
• Groups
• Networks
• Sets

1st
Gen
C/B

2nd G...
Social Forms of Connectivism

Networks and Sets
Social Networks
•
•
•
•
•
•

Facebook, LinkedIn,
Academia,
Twitter
Blogs
Listservs
Private
–
–
–
–

NING
ELGG
Drupal,
Word...
An Academic’s Net+ Identity
Personal
Identity

University
Identity

Professional
Identity
• “If Google cannot find a faculty scholar's work
or the work of the scholar's colleagues,
department, or institution, the...
Applying Social Network Analysis to High School Students
2012 The Network Roundtable LLC
https://webmaker.org/standard - Mozilla
Sets
• Aggregation of all people/things sharing a
particular interest, commonality.
• Example: Set of all graduates of X, ...
Classic Set: Those editing
(or reading) a Wikipedia
article
Pintere.st
Sets (Example)
Connectivist Learning Summary
• Born on the Net
• Focuses on students being responsible for
their own learning
• Is emerge...
Conclusion:
• the best part of Online Learning– is eclectic
allowing student exploration of their own
learning needs and g...
Shameless Plug
and Giveaways!
Issues in Distance
Education Series
http://aupress.ca
• Anderson, T. &Dron, J. (2011). Three generations of
distance education pedagogy. International Review of
Research on Dis...
Your comments&
questions
most welcomed!
Terry Anderson terrya@athabascau.ca
Blog: terrya.edublogs.org
If Time Allows
The Athabasca Story

Low learner control

• LMS – Moodle

Hard

• E-Portfolio- Mahara

• Social Networking - Elgg
High lea...
Case Study : Athabasca Landing
landing.athabascau.ca
Landing Stats (Sept. 2013)
Individual Control (PLE)
Privacy Control
Groups
Group Example
Nets
Sets
Student view
• "I have managed to gain more useful
knowledge through one course conducted
here on Landing than from all th...
Opportunities

Challenges

• Sharing resources
• modeling of product
and pacing
• “amplified” feedback.
• part of a social...
Edutec 2013 Costa Rica
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  1. 1. Designing for Learning in a Networked World: Pedagogies and Social Contexts Terry Anderson
  2. 2. Values • We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the learning experience. • Student control and freedom is integral to 21st century life-long education and learning. • Continuing education opportunity is a basic human right.
  3. 3. Learning as Dance (Anderson, 2008) • Technology sets the beat and the timing. • Pedagogy defines the moves.
  4. 4. Outline • Generations of Online Education Pedagogy • Social Forms to Match Pedagogies • Beyond the LMS – Athabasca Landing boutique social network
  5. 5. • McLuhan “We shape our tools and thereafter our tools shape us” • “When physical spaces for learning go online (distributed, non-hierarchical, networked, digital), new, more effective pedagogies emerge”. George Siemens
  6. 6. Three Generations of Online Learning Pedagogy 1. Behaviourist/Cognitive – 2. Social Constructivist – 3. Connectivist Anderson, T., &Dron, J. (2011). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. IRRODL, 12(3), 80-97
  7. 7. 1. Behavioural/Cognitive Pedagogies • “tell ‘em what you’re gonna tell ‘em, • tell ‘em • then tell ‘em what you told ‘em” Direct Instruction
  8. 8. Gagne’s Events of Instruction (1965) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Gain learners' attention Inform learner of objectives Stimulate recall of previous information Present stimulus material Provide learner guidance Elicit performance Provide Feedback Assess performance Enhance transfer opportunities Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
  9. 9. Enhanced by the “cognitive revolution” • • • • • • • Chunking Cognitive Load Working Memory Multiple Representations Split-attention effect Variability Effect Multi-media effect – (Sorden, 2005) “learning as acquiring and using conceptual and cognitive structures” Greeno, Collins and Resnick, 1996
  10. 10. Technologies of Ist generation • CAI, text books, One way Lectures, Video and audio broadcasts and webcasts with advancements??
  11. 11. Social Focus of Ist generation Individual Learner
  12. 12. Cognitive Behaviourist Ontology • Knowledge is logically coherent, existing independent of perspective • Context free • Capable of being transmitted • Assumes closed systems with discoverable relationships between inputs and outputs
  13. 13. Behavioural/Cognitive Developments
  14. 14. Self Directed or Self Paced learning • Learner sets start date and the time to completion • Continuous assessment • Maximizes learner control • Higher drop out • Ted Talks, Khan Academy, OERU • Only one of the Major MOOCs (Udacity) providers offers this option
  15. 15. MOOCs – Now beyond the US
  16. 16. Everyone can own a MOOC
  17. 17. Open Educational Resources Because it saves time!!!
  18. 18. Learning Analytics - Dashboard
  19. 19. Big Data &Education 1) Technology: maximizing computation power and algorithmic accuracy to gather, analyze, link, and compare large data sets. 2) Analysis: drawing on large data sets to identify patterns in order to make economic, social, technical, and legal claims and design interventions. 3) Mythology: the widespread belief that large data sets offer a higher form of intelligence and knowledge that can generate insights that were previously impossible, with the aura of truth, objectivity, and accuracy. Boyd, d. & Crawford, K. (2013). Critical Questions for Big Data: Provocations for a Cultural, Technological, and Scholarly Phenomenon
  20. 20. Khan Academy Offers Student Tracking/Analytics
  21. 21. New Forms of Accrediting Challenge Exams for Credit
  22. 22. 1st Generation, Cognitive Behavioural Pedagogy Summary • Scalable • Few requirements, or opportunities, for social learning • Works most efficiently with individual learning models • Effective and efficient for some types of learning • Have we really taught learners to succeed with this type of learning?
  23. 23. 2nd Generation Constructivist Pedagogy • • • • • • Group Orientated Membership and exclusion, closed Not scalable - max 50 students/course Classrooms - at a distance or on campus Hierarchies of control Focus on collaboration and shared purpose 24 group
  24. 24. Constructivist Knowledge is: • Knowledge is constructed, not transmitted • Arrived at through dialogic encounters (Bakhtin,) - the presence of others adds motivation, conflicting ideas, social validation • Teacher as group facilitator “Dialogic as an epistemological framework supports an account of education as the discursive construction of shared knowledge” Wegerif, R.
  25. 25. 2nd Generation - Constructivist • Online Learning Current model – continued strong growth in US and globally • Canada - “Student registrations jumped another 18.4% in Winter 2013” • Major employer of adjuncts 32% of US higher education students now take at least one course
  26. 26. Constructivist Learning in Groups • Long history of research and study • Established sets of tools – Classrooms – Learning Management Systems (LMS) – Synchronous (chat, video & net conferencing) – Email, wikis, blogs • Need to develop face to face, mediated and blended group learning skills Garrison, R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical thinking in text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2), 87-105.
  27. 27. The Power of Synchronous • Immediacy • Pacing • Comfort level for student and teachers, but DON’T fall into classroom lectures • Social Modeling
  28. 28. Immersion ??
  29. 29. Social Constructivist Social forms • Group • Limited in size – Dunbar’s Max ~150 for a tribe • Mutual awareness of each other
  30. 30. Group Management • Need good tools to allow group to work effectively and build trust at a distance • Use Face-to-face (blended) time to do this.
  31. 31. http://www.collaborativelearning.org/scien iology.html
  32. 32. 2nd Generation Social Constructivist Pedagogy Summary • Not scalable, Expensive in terms of time and money • New group tools enhance efficiency • Helps teachers and learners transition to online learning
  33. 33. Generation 3 Connective pedagogies • Stephen Downes
  34. 34. 3rd generation Connective Pedagogies • Heutagogy– Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2000). From Andragogy to Heutagogy. • Chaos Theory • Activity Theory &Actor Network Theory (ANT) – “systemic interactions of people and the objects that they use in their interactions.”
  35. 35. Connectivist Knowledge • Is created by linking to appropriate people and objects • May be created and stored in non human devices • Is as much about capacity as current competence • Assumes the ubiquitous Internet • Is emergent George Siemens
  36. 36. Connectivism • “connectivism is the thesis that knowledge is distributed across a network of connections, and therefore that learning consists of the ability to construct and traverse those networks.” Stephen Downes 2007 See special issue of IRRODL.org
  37. 37. Connectivist Learning Network Effects Persistence Accessibility “Connectivying” your course http://terrya.edublogs.org/2012/12/18/connectivy-your-course/
  38. 38. NOT Learning in a Bubble
  39. 39. Disruptions of Connectivism • Demands net literacy and net presence of students and teachers • Openness is scary • New roles for teachers and students • Artifact ownership, persistence and privacy • Too manic for some
  40. 40. The Social Aggregation makes a Difference • Available open access Spring 2014
  41. 41. The Social Aggregations of Generation 3 Connective Pedagogies • Individuals • Groups • Networks • Sets 1st Gen C/B 2nd Gen. Social Constructivist 3rd Gen. Connectivist
  42. 42. Social Forms of Connectivism Networks and Sets
  43. 43. Social Networks • • • • • • Facebook, LinkedIn, Academia, Twitter Blogs Listservs Private – – – – NING ELGG Drupal, Word Press
  44. 44. An Academic’s Net+ Identity Personal Identity University Identity Professional Identity
  45. 45. • “If Google cannot find a faculty scholar's work or the work of the scholar's colleagues, department, or institution, then it is essentially irrelevant — even nonexistent — because people will not find, read, apply, or build on the work if they cannot locate it via a quick Google searchLowenthal & Dunlap (2012) Lowenthal, P., & Dunlap, J. (2012). Intentional Web Presence: 10 SEO Strategies Every Academic Needs to Know. Educause. http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/intentional-web-presence-10seo-strategies-every-academic-needs-know.
  46. 46. Applying Social Network Analysis to High School Students 2012 The Network Roundtable LLC
  47. 47. https://webmaker.org/standard - Mozilla
  48. 48. Sets • Aggregation of all people/things sharing a particular interest, commonality. • Example: Set of all graduates of X, all psychology resources • Can be curated resources with social involvement limited to votes, comments, links • Sets MAY develop into networks or groups.
  49. 49. Classic Set: Those editing (or reading) a Wikipedia article
  50. 50. Pintere.st
  51. 51. Sets (Example)
  52. 52. Connectivist Learning Summary • Born on the Net • Focuses on students being responsible for their own learning • Is emergent and can be disruptive • For advanced learners only??
  53. 53. Conclusion: • the best part of Online Learning– is eclectic allowing student exploration of their own learning needs and gifts. • Need to matching pedagogy, technology, social forms and learning outcomes • Empowerment, lifelong learning and smart (not more) work for teachers
  54. 54. Shameless Plug and Giveaways! Issues in Distance Education Series http://aupress.ca
  55. 55. • Anderson, T. &Dron, J. (2011). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. International Review of Research on Distance and Open Learning, 12(3), 80-97. http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/890/1 826. • Anderson, T. &Dron, J. (2012). Learning technology through three generations of technology enhanced distance education pedagogy. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 2012/2. Retrieved from http://www.eurodl.org/?p=current&article=523. • Dron, J. & Anderson, T. (in press). Teaching crowds: the role of social media in distance learning Edmonton, Canada: Athabasca University Press.
  56. 56. Your comments& questions most welcomed! Terry Anderson terrya@athabascau.ca Blog: terrya.edublogs.org
  57. 57. If Time Allows
  58. 58. The Athabasca Story Low learner control • LMS – Moodle Hard • E-Portfolio- Mahara • Social Networking - Elgg High learner control Soft
  59. 59. Case Study : Athabasca Landing landing.athabascau.ca
  60. 60. Landing Stats (Sept. 2013)
  61. 61. Individual Control (PLE)
  62. 62. Privacy Control
  63. 63. Groups
  64. 64. Group Example
  65. 65. Nets
  66. 66. Sets
  67. 67. Student view • "I have managed to gain more useful knowledge through one course conducted here on Landing than from all the others combined. ”
  68. 68. Opportunities Challenges • Sharing resources • modeling of product and pacing • “amplified” feedback. • part of a social structure • Confusion and learning curve • Information overload – filtering problems • instrumental learners • Privacy and sharing • Institutional inertia

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