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Battle for Open - Studia Generalia Lecture Tallin Estonia, April 2015


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Presentation on Battle for Openness in Education and Learning

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Battle for Open - Studia Generalia Lecture Tallin Estonia, April 2015

  1. 1. Terry Anderson, Professor, Athabasca University Canada Dec. 2013 The Struggle for Openness Studia Generalia Lecture April 2015
  2. 2. Athabasca University, Alberta, Canada * Athabasca University 34,000 students, 700 courses 100% distance education Graduate and Undergraduate programs Master & Doctorate Distance Education Only USA Regionally Accredited University in Canada *Athabasca University
  3. 3. Values • We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the learning experience. • Student control and freedom is integral to 21st century life-long education and learning. • Continuing education opportunity is a basic human right.
  4. 4. Presentation Overview • Open Education Practices – Open Educational Resources – Open Texts – Open Data – Open Article Publishing – Open Pedagogy – Researching OE Practice
  5. 5. Definitions of Open on the Web (From Google) • affording unobstructed entrance and exit; not shut or closed; • affording free passage or access; • open to or in view of all; • accessible to all; • assailable: not defended or capable of being defended • loose: (of textures) full of small openings or gaps; • start to operate or function • not brought to a conclusion; • not sealed or having been unsealed
  6. 6. BBB Definition of Open Access By "open access" to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited.
  7. 7. Slide from Martin Weller
  8. 8. Open Scholars Create: • A new type of education work maximizing: – Social learning – Media richness – Participatory and connectivist pedagogies – Ubiquity and persistence – Transparency – Open data collection and research process – Open network Creation
  9. 9. ‘50% of Canada’s Scholarly Publications will be out of business within two years due to open access competition.’ Athabasca Pres. Frits Pannekoek, 2013
  10. 10. And an opportunity
  11. 11. • “Eckhard Höffner believes it was the chronically weak book market that caused England, the colonial power, to fritter away its head start within the span of a century, while the underdeveloped, agrarian state of Germany caught up rapidly, becoming an equally developed industrial nation by 1900.” • UK Copyright Law 1710 • Prussia - 1837 industrial-expansion-a-710976.html
  12. 12. Openness OERs Open Courses Open public ationsOpen data Open Soft- ware Open Profiles
  13. 13. Open Univ. Open Source Knowledge • Lower cost to produce • Collaboration • Near zero cost to transport
  14. 14. “He who receives an idea from me, receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he who lights his taper at mine, receives light without darkening me.” Thomas Jefferson
  15. 15. Open Educational Practice Developing and applying open/public practices in teaching, research and service. Beetham, H., Falconer, I., McGill, L. and Littlejohn, A. Open practices: briefing paper. JISC, 2012
  16. 16. ttps:// Massive Open Online Course
  17. 17. Open Scholars Use and Contribute Open Educational Resources Because it saves time!!!
  18. 18. Why Create OERs? • Students as prosumers • Teaches: – Production skills – Planning, network literacy – Collaboration – Altruism – Participatory technologies – Net presence Pedagogy, Technology and Student as Producer
  19. 19. Who Should Own Copyright on Text Books? • Faculty? • Institution? • Both – “Tragedy of the Anti-Commons” “economic value may disappear into the ‘black hole’ of resource underutilization” (Buchanan and Yoon 2000).” In recent years, economic modeling of the anticommons has become quite sophisticated. • Everyone
  20. 20. Do Students Like Open Texts? “We aggressively marketed the course as "textbook free" and designed a survey to measure the impact of this variable on student motivation to enroll and the overall engagement level. The results were telling: • 90 percent of our students found the course's digital content "more engaging" than a traditional textbook. • 25 percent said that the "no required textbook" advertising was an incentive to enroll. • 50 percent said that textbook costs had been an academic barrier in the past.” OneClick Digital and the Medrano Project: OER as Content, OER as Pedagogy
  21. 21. 2014 CALPRIG Study
  22. 22. • Finding 1: High textbook costs continue to deter students from purchasing their assigned materials – despite concern for their own grades. • In this survey, 65% of all respondents said that they had decided against buying a textbook because it was too expensive. 2014 CALPRIG Study
  23. 23. We can’t afford textbooks • Textbook prices skyrocketed 82% between 2002 and 2012, • average student budget for books and supplies has grown to $1,207 annually (USA figures). • Current Bill to support open texts across US, goal of reducing costs by 80% • Washington State program since 2010 has saved students $5.4 million versus State cost of less than $1.8 Million • All students get open text books!
  24. 24. Are commercial e-texts the answer?
  25. 25. DRM (Digital Rights Management) You CANNOT • Copy & paste, annotate, highlight • Text to speech • Format change • Move material • Print out • Move geographically • Use after expiry date • Resell Slide credit Rory McGreal
  26. 26. Publisher’s Response All resources linked to provincial learning outcomes
  27. 27. Open Educational Practice Networks Open sharing of teaching ideas and know-how
  28. 28. Components of ‘Open Pedagogy’ • Student ownership and control • Artifact Persistence • Open to participation globally • Creation and curation of open artifacts • Affordable – the educational “digital dividend” Innovating Pedagogy, 2013 Open University
  29. 29. Beetham, H., Falconer, I., McGill, L. and Littlejohn, A. Open practices: briefing paper. JISC, 2012 Use of Open Source technologies
  30. 30. If it is not licensed, it is not open. Image Nino Barbieri
  31. 31. CC Licensing Options
  32. 32. Challenges to Adoption of Open 1. Institutional impotence –“resistance manifested itself as both an active form of change blocking and in more passive forms of intransigence that become a form of institutional impotence both institutionally and at an academic and student level.” 2 Governance -“Governance itself became an activity rather than a means to implement activity” 3 Commercial social media 4 Staff engagement – no time Bryant, P., Coombs, A., Pazio, M., & Walker, S. ((2014). Disruption, destruction, construction or transformation? Open Praxis
  33. 33. Open Data • Sharing not only research results and reports, but the data that generated those results.
  34. 34. Open Scholars License, Use (and re-use ) Open Data
  35. 35. Open Data Can generate $3-5 Trillion
  36. 36. Learning Analytics • for individual learners to reflect on their achievements and patterns of behaviour in relation to others; • as predictors of students requiring extra support and attention; • to help teachers and support staff plan supporting interventions with individuals and groups; • for functional groups such as course team seeking to improve current courses or develop new curriculum offerings; and • for institutional administrators taking decisions on matters such as marketing and recruitment or efficiency and effectiveness measures.” Powell, S. &MacNeil.S. Institutional Readiness for Analytics A Briefing Paper. CETIS Analytics Series. JISC CETIS, December 2012..
  37. 37. “Big data and personal information are converging to shape the Internet’s most powerful and surprising consumer products. They’ll predict your needs, store your memories, and improve your life—if you let them.” - MIT Technology Review
  38. 38. Big Data & Education 1) Technology: maximizing computation power and algorithmic accuracy to gather, analyze, link, and compare large data sets. 2) Analysis: drawing on large data sets to identify patterns in order to make economic, social, technical, and legal claims and design interventions. 3) Mythology: the widespread belief that large data sets offer a higher form of intelligence and knowledge that can generate insights that were previously impossible, with the aura of truth, objectivity, and accuracy. Boyd, d. & Crawford, K. (2013). Critical Questions for Big Data: Provocations for a Cultural, Technological, and Scholarly Phenomenon
  39. 39. Adaptation of Course Content by Type of Learner Hermans, H., Jansse, J., Vogten, H., & Koper, R. (2015). Flexible Provisioning Adult Learners. Journal of Universal Computer Science 21(2) openness
  40. 40. Open Scholars Filter and Share With Others
  41. 41. Social Networks • Facebook, LinkedIn, • Academia, • Twitter • Blogs • Listservs • Private – NING – ELGG – Drupal, – Word Press
  42. 42. Personal Identity Professional Identity University Identity An Academic’s Open Net Identity If you don’t create your web identity, someone else will
  43. 43. Networks add diversity to learning “People who live in the intersection of social worlds are at higher risk of having good ideas” Burt, 2005, p. 90 Edge effects, estuary learning
  44. 44. Open Scholars Write and Read Open Access Books and publish in Open Access Journals Teaching in Blended Learning Environments: Creating and Sustaining Communities of Inquiry Vaughan, Cleveland-Innes, & Garrison
  45. 45. A Tale of 3 Books Open Access - 100,000 + downloads & Individual chapters Translations Over 1600 hardcopies sold @ $40 Can Commercial publisher 934 copies sold at $52.00 Buy at Amazon!! E-Learning for the 21st Century 1st Ed. Commercial Pub. 1200 sold @ $135.00 2,000 copies in Arabic Translation @ $8.
  46. 46. Predatory Open Access Journals “those that unprofessionally exploit the author-pays model of open-access publishing (Gold OA) for their own profit”. Typically, these publishers: • spam professional email lists, • broadly soliciting article submissions for the clear purpose of gaining income. • operate essentially as vanity presses, • typically have a low article acceptance threshold, • Have a false-front or non-existent peer review process. – Jeff Beall
  47. 47. Researching Open Education Practice
  48. 48. Does OER make a difference?
  49. 49. OER Policies
  50. 50. How Many Ways can a Learner Learn?
  51. 51. The Battle for Assessing and Credentialing Open Learning • “open learning models have not yet reckoned with the question of assessment and its corollary challenges of portability and recognition” Dianne Conrad, 2013 • Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) .
  52. 52. Competency Based Learning: Assessing learning – not credit hours Image Pearson -
  53. 53. Tallinn University Studia Generalia – a broader view of the world Studia Generalia is a series of lectures that consists of public lectures delivered by the teachers, researchers and visiting lecturers of Tallinn University. Anyone who enters the University building can listen to what prominent thinkers have to say on current topics that affect the society, and also participate in the discussion. Anyone from or outside of Tallinn University is welcome to participate. Students can obtain two credits upon hearing the whole series. Participation is free of charge. !
  54. 54. Is everyone (anyone) an auto-didactic? • “open processes” is proposed, involving the active engagement of learners in participation and dialogue, as well as further critical explorations of the relationships between technology and education” . Knox, J. (2013). The Limitations of Access Alone: moving towards open processes in education technology. Open Praxis, 5(1), 21-29
  55. 55. Battle for Interaction “There is a risk of assuming that all learners require, or even prefer to be part of a larger community.” Peter and Deimann, 2013 “According to constructivist theories, learning is a social advancement that involves language, real world situations, and interaction and collaboration among learners” Ozar, 2004 Constructivism in Piaget and Vygotsky
  56. 56. Engrami Moving from a Set, to a Net, to a Group
  57. 57. Boundless Opportunities for • Unanticipated consequences • Challenges of net privacy/presence • Emergent adaptation by students and teachers • Misuse and exploitation
  58. 58. Openness is a Spiral of Growth… but you have to start somewhere
  59. 59. Available for Free download Teaching Crowds: Learning and Social Media Online Distance Education: Towards a Research Agenda
  60. 60. Battle For Openness • Big business • Large profits • Deep resistance Versus • Compelling advantages • Increased Equality • Empowerment
  61. 61. Tänan teid väga!~ Terry Anderson Blog: Twitter: terguy Your comments and questions most welcomed! Slides available at
  62. 62. Walled Gardens (with windows) • Connectivist learning thrives in safe learning spaces with windows allowing randomness, external participation and public presentation