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Interaction and 3 generations for italian instit. for ed tech genoa 2017


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A slightly updated version of Interaction across three generations of Distance Education pedagogy

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Interaction and 3 generations for italian instit. for ed tech genoa 2017

  1. 1. Interaction, Learning and Teaching Terry Anderson Professor Emeritus, Centre for Distance Education
  2. 2. * Athabasca University 34,000 students, 700 courses 100% distance education Graduate and Undergraduate programs Master & Doctorate Distance Education
  3. 3. “Back to the land farmer and woodworker” 1971- 86
  4. 4. The Tuft of Flowers Robert Frost (1874–1963). I went to turn the grass once after one Who mowed it in the dew before the sun. The dew was gone that made his blade so keen Before I came to view the leveled scene. I looked for him behind an isle of trees; I listened for his whetstone on the breeze. But he had gone his way, the grass all mown, And I must be, as he had been, -alone, ‘As all must be,’ I said within my heart, ‘Whether they work together or apart.’
  5. 5. I thought of questions that have no reply, And would have turned to toss the grass to dry; But turned first, and led my eye to look At a tall tuft of flowers beside a brook, A leaping tongue of bloom the scythe had spared Beside a reedy brook the scythe had bared.
  6. 6. The mower in the dew had loved them thus, By leaving them to flourish, not for us, Nor yet to draw one thought of ours to him. But from sheer morning gladness at the brim. The butterfly and I had lit upon, Nevertheless, a message from the dawn, That made me hear the wakening birds around, And hear his long scythe whispering to the ground,
  7. 7. And felt a sprit kindred to my own; So that henceforth I worked no more alone; But glad with him, I worked as with his aid, And weary, sought at noon with him the shade; And dreaming, as it were, held brotherly speech With one whose thought I had not hoped to reach. ‘Men work together,’ I told him from the heart, ‘Whether they work together or apart’ Robert Frost (1874–1963).
  8. 8. Values • We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the learning experience. • Student control and freedom is integral to 21st century life-long education and learning. • Continuing education opportunity is a basic human right.
  9. 9. Learning as Dance (Anderson, 2008) • Technology sets the beat and the timing. • Pedagogy defines the moves.
  10. 10. What’s the Big Deal About Interaction? “Learning is experience, everything else is just information”. Albert Einstein
  11. 11. Defining Interaction “Reciprocal events that require at least two objects and two actions. Interactions occur when these objects and events mutually influence one another” (Wagner 1994,p. 8).
  12. 12. Value of Interaction • At heart of engagement and active learning • 5 of 7 principles for good practice in undergraduate education (Chickering & Gamson, 1987) • Associated with retention and integration (Tinto 1987, Schertzer & Schertzer, 2004 • Associated with higher achievement (many correlation studies)
  13. 13. Functions of interaction in educational contexts: • pacing • elaboration • confirmation • navigation • inquiry Hannafin (1989)
  15. 15. (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000)
  16. 16. Comparison Moore (1989) Anderson and Garrison (1998) learner–content student–content learner–instructor student–teacher learner–learner student–student teacher–teacher teacher–content content–content Distance Teaching & Learning Conference 2011, Madison, Wisconsin 18 Others: Learner-Interface (Hillman et al, 1994) Learner-Environment (Burnham and Walden, 1997) Vicarious Interaction (Sutton, 2000) Learner’s view point Multi-agents’ view points, including nonhuman agents
  17. 17. The Interaction Equivalency Theorem Anderson (2003) • Thesis 1. Deep and meaningful formal learning is supported as long as one of the three forms of interaction (student– teacher; student–student; student–content) is at a high level. The other two may be offered at minimal levels, or even eliminated, without degrading the educational experience. • Thesis 2. High levels of more than one of these three modes will likely provide a more satisfying educational experience, although these experiences may not be as cost- or time effective as less interactive learning sequences. Distance Teaching & Learning Conference 2011, Madison, Wisconsin 19
  18. 18. Interaction Through Three Generations of Online Learning Pedagogy 1. Behaviourist/Cognitive – 2. Social Constructivist – 3. Connectivist Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2011). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. IRRODL, 12(3), 80-97
  19. 19. 1. Behavioural/Cognitive Pedagogies • “tell ‘em what you’re gonna tell ‘em, • tell ‘em • then tell ‘em what you told ‘em” Direct Instruction
  20. 20. Gagne’s Events of Instruction (1965) 1. Gain learners' attention 2. Inform learner of objectives 3. Stimulate recall of previous information 4. Present stimulus material 5. Provide learner guidance 6. Elicit performance 7. Provide Feedback 8. Assess performance 9. Enhance transfer opportunities Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
  21. 21. Enhanced by the “cognitive revolution” • Chunking • Cognitive Load • Working Memory • Multiple Representations • Split-attention effect • Variability Effect • Multi-media effect – (Sorden, 2005) “learning as acquiring and using conceptual and cognitive structures” Greeno, Collins and Resnick, 1996
  22. 22. Focus is on the Content and the Individual Learner
  23. 23. Learning Alone • Maximizes Freedom: – Space, time, pace, • Allows and promotes individualization • Freedom from “group think” • Power of auto-didacticism • Freedom from groups
  24. 24. Nature of Knowledge • Knowledge is logically coherent, existing independent of perspective • Context free • Capable of being transmitted • Assumes closed systems with discoverable relationships between inputs and outputs
  25. 25. Interaction with Technologies in 1st generation • CAI, text books, One way Lectures, Video and audio broadcasts and webcasts with advancements??
  26. 26. Open Educational Resources Because it saves time!!!
  27. 27. Oregon Students Demanding OER Participation
  28. 28. Publisher’s Response to OERs All resources linked to national learning outcomes
  29. 29. POERUP Map of OER Initiatives
  30. 30. Open Online Course Canto a Tenore!
  31. 31. Learning Analytics - Dashboard
  32. 32. Big Data & Education 1) Technology: maximizing computation power and algorithmic accuracy to gather, analyze, link, and compare large data sets. 2) Analysis: drawing on large data sets to identify patterns in order to make economic, social, technical, and legal claims and design interventions. 3) Mythology: the widespread belief that large data sets offer a higher form of intelligence and knowledge that can generate insights that were previously impossible, with the aura of truth, objectivity, and accuracy. Boyd, d. & Crawford, K. (2013). Critical Questions for Big Data: Provocations for a Cultural, Technological, and Scholarly Phenomenon
  33. 33. 1st Generation Conclusion • Interaction is mostly one on one • Large and important role of student- content interaction • OERs and analytics promise to reduce costs and increase efficiency of interactions
  34. 34. 36 2nd Generation Constructivist Pedagogy • Group Orientated • Membership and exclusion, closed • Not scalable - max 50 students/course • Classrooms - at a distance or on campus • Hierarchies of control • Focus on collaboration and shared purpose group “Creating a successful online community is dependent on knowing what works in the face- to-face environment and implementing effective parallels online” “Cuthbertson & Falcone, 2014)
  35. 35. Constructivist Knowledge is: • Socially constructed • Arrived at through dialogic encounters (Bakhtin,) • “Dialogic as an epistemological framework supports an account of education as the discursive construction of shared knowledge” – Wegerif, R.
  36. 36. • “Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?” • 'Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?’ Confucius Analects translated by Legge:
  37. 37. • Increase in learning outcomes, social skills, positive attitudes to learning BUT • “the need for cooperative teams to mature implies that cooperative learning does not yield an immediate improvement …need for patience and persistence… students experienced in cooperative learning” Hsiung, C.-M. (2012). The Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning. Journal of Engineering Education, 101(1), 119-137. Social Constructivist Learning
  38. 38. The Power of Synchronous Learning in Groups • Immediacy • Pacing • Social Modeling • Comfort level for student and teachers, but DON’T fall into classroom lectures.
  39. 39. Immersion ??
  40. 40.
  41. 41. Group Management • Need good tools to allow group to work effectively and efficiently to build trust and work effectively at a distance
  42. 42. gy.html OERs at work!
  43. 43. Social Constructivist Social Form • Group based • Limited in size – Dunbar’s Max ~150 for a tribe – Max. 50 persons/section in post secondary • Mutual awareness of each other • Teacher domination and dependency?
  44. 44. Social Constructivism and Moocs – Swinnerton et al. 2017 Swinnerton, B., Hotchkiss, S., & Morris, N. (2017). Comments in MOOCs: who is doing the talking and does it help? Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 33(1), 51-64.
  45. 45. Social Constructivism and Moocs – Swinnerton et al. 2017 Swinnerton, B., Hotchkiss, S., & Morris, N. (2017). Comments in MOOCs: who is doing the talking and does it help? Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 33(1), 51-64. • Those who comment tend to complete • Some learners complete without social interaction • Instructional design (reuqest for comment etc) increase participation • Commentors more likely older, more educated and have more time
  46. 46. 2nd Generation Social Constructivist Pedagogy Summary • Not scalable, Expensive in terms of time and money • New group tools enhance efficiency • Helps teachers and learners transition to online learning
  47. 47. 3rd Generation Connective Pedagogies • Heutagogy – Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2000). From Andragogy to Heutagogy. • Chaos Theory • Rhizomatic Learning “The community is the Curriculum” Dave Cormier • Activity Theory & Actor Network Theory (ANT) – “systemic interactions of people and the objects that they use in their interactions.”
  48. 48. Connectivist Knowledge • Is created by linking to appropriate people and objects • May be created and stored in non human devices • Is as much about capacity as current competence • Assumes the ubiquitous Internet • Is emergent George Siemens
  49. 49. Connectivist Learning Persistence Accessibility Network Effects “Connectivying” your course
  50. 50. NOT Learning in a Bubble
  51. 51. Disruptions of Connectivism • Demands net literacy and net presence of students and teachers • Openness is scary • New roles for teachers and students • Artifact ownership, persistence and privacy • Too manic for some
  52. 52. “experience is the outcome of some sort of interaction of the individual with the environment. Moreover, this interaction cannot be separated from the environment (or surroundings) in which it occurs”. – Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and Education
  53. 53. The Social Aggregation makes a Difference to Interaction • Available from AUPress – CC
  54. 54. The Social Aggregations of Generation 3 Connective Pedagogies • Individuals • Groups • Networks • Sets 3rd Gen. Connectivist 2nd Gen. Social Constructivist 1st Gen C/B
  55. 55. Social Forms of Connectivism Networks and Sets
  56. 56. Social Networks • Facebook, LinkedIn, • Academia, • Twitter • Blogs • Listservs • Private – NING – ELGG – Drupal, – Word Press
  57. 57. Set Model of social aggregation • Aggregation of all people/things sharing a particular interest, commonality. • Examples: Set of all graduates of X, all psychology resources, all physics teachers • Often set members curat resources with social involvement limited to votes, comments, links • Sets MAY develop into networks or groups.
  58. 58. Most Common Set Tool Tag Cloud or Twitter Hash Tag
  59. 59. Classic Set: Those editing (or reading) a Wikipedia article
  60. 60. Digital Citizenship
  61. 61. Slide from Catherine Cronin Slide from Catherine Cronin
  62. 62. Moocs- Set of all people with content Interest
  63. 63. Set Tools:, Google Collections
  64. 64. Engrami Moving from a Set, to a Net, to a Group
  65. 65. 68 Connectivist freedoms • Location where? • Subject what? • Time when? • Approach how (pedagogy, process)? • Pace how fast? • Sociability with whom (if anyone)? • Technology using what (medium/tools)? • Delegability choosing to choose setnet group notional levels of choice once a typical ‘course’ is in progress
  66. 66. Connectivist Learning Summary • Born on the Net • Focuses on student responsibility for their own learning and building of their own learning nets and sets • Is emergent and can be disruptive • For advanced learners only??
  67. 67. Future of Institutional Educational Systems 1. who has control, 2. who has ownership of the data and the technology 3. how well are the technologies integrated with other toolsets and the experiences of learners, 4. what is the nature of the learning structure in terms of centralization and decentralization Siemens; Gašević &Dawson (2015) Future Technology Infrastructures for Learning
  68. 68. Conclusions • Interaction is complicated • Interaction critical for learning • There is no one model, context, depth, intensity or aggregation that supports interaction for everyone • The Net not only sustains an abundance of information/content but also a wealth of interaction opportunities
  69. 69. slides available on Slideshare Terry Anderson Skype: @terguy Your comments and questions most welcomed!