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3 generations of online pedagogy for EDEN - Lisbon 2020

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3 generations of online pedagogy for EDEN - Lisbon 2020

  1. 1. Interaction & Empowerment Through Three Generations of Online Learning Terry Anderson Professor Emeritus Athabasca University
  2. 2. Values • We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the learning experience. • Student empowerment and freedom is integral to life-long education and learning. • Continuing education opportunity is a basic human right.
  3. 3. Is this your first virtual conference? What is your most significant: personal learning? professional learning? institutional learning?
  4. 4. Be it resolved, “the Covid-19 Pandemic will have no lasting impact on EDEN’s and my own professional development.”
  5. 5. 1992 First Online Conference ICDE, Anderson, T., & Mason, R. (1993). International computer conferencing for professional development: The Bangkok Project. American Journal of Distance Education, 7(2), 5-18.
  6. 6. Online learning sucks I love online learning Online learning is boring Online teaching used to be better What is the Pedagogy??
  7. 7. • I kind of got better at teaching online when I started asking better questions: “what pedagogic principles drive what I normally do?” and “what online platforms and technology can help me appropriate these into an online learning space?”. • Samantha Elizabeth McMahon - Sydney
  8. 8. It’s all about Interaction, Empowerment and Engagement “Learning is experience, everything else is just information”. Albert Einstein
  9. 9. Interaction Through Three Generations of Online Learning Pedagogy 1. Behaviourist/Cognitive – 2. Social Constructivist – 3. Connectivist Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2011). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. IRRODL, 12(3), 80-97
  10. 10. Gagne’s Events of Instruction (1965) 1. Gain learners' attention 2. Inform learner of objectives 3. Stimulate recall of previous information 4. Present stimulus material 5. Provide learner guidance 6. Elicit performance 7. Provide Feedback 8. Assess performance 9. Enhance transfer opportunities Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
  11. 11. Enhanced by the “cognitive revolution” • Chunking • Cognitive Load • Working Memory • Multiple Representations • Split-attention effect • Variability Effect • Multi-media effect – (Sorden, 2005) “learning as acquiring and using conceptual and cognitive structures” Greeno, Collins and Resnick, 1996
  12. 12. Learning Alone • Maximizes Freedom: – Space, time, pace, • Allows and promotes individualization • Freedom from “group think” • Power of auto-didacticism • Freedom from groups
  13. 13. Nature of Knowledge Cognitive Behavioural 1st Gen. • Knowledge is logically coherent, existing independent of perspective • Context free • Capable of being transmitted • Assumes closed systems with discoverable relationships between inputs and outputs
  14. 14. Technologies in 1st generation • OERs, simulations, text books, One way Lectures - with advancements??
  15. 15. Asynchronous text, video & audio Interaction
  16. 16. Customer - AI Interaction Student
  17. 17. Carroll says. “There’s a humanistic connection through a chatbot that I would never have expected. Students are almost more comfortable sharing those fears with a chatbot.” Got Coronavirus Questions? Your College Chatbot May Have Answers.
  18. 18. MOOCs 2019
  19. 19. Open Educational Resources Because it saves time!!! OPEN Education Practice
  20. 20. Read alouds, asynchronous teacher-student, auto grading, timing
  21. 21. Learning Analytics - Dashboard
  22. 22. • are rarely grounded in learning theory • cannot be suggested to support metacognition, • do not offer any information about effective learning tactics and strategies, • have significant limitations in how their evaluation is conducted and reported. Matcha, Uzir, Gašević and Pardo. (2020) A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies on Learning Analytics Dashboards: A Self-Regulated Learning Perspective. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, vol. 13, no. 2 Learning Analytics Dashboards
  23. 23. Surveillance Capitalism In Education • Danger of cloud computing owning and selling our data. • Privacy Issues • Need for schools to own their own social media
  24. 24. Maximizes Delegation • We turn over much of the learning experience, as consumers, to the responsibility of the teacher and learning institution.
  25. 25. Researching Cognitive/Behavioural Pedgaogy? • Often focuses on empirical data • Do the new technologies really add value – less the known and unknown side effects?? • How does enhanced use of tech, effect those with less technological and economic flexibility? • How does this pedagogy move beyond high stakes testing?
  26. 26. 1st Generation Conclusion • Interaction is mostly one on one • Large and important role of student- content interaction • Significant assessment and privacy issues • Scalable • OERs, MOOCs and analytics promise to reduce costs and increase efficiency of interactions
  27. 27. 30 2nd Generation Constructivist Pedagogy • Group Orientated, paced • Membership and exclusion, closed • Classrooms - at a distance or on campus • Hierarchies of control • Focus on collaboration and shared purpose group “Creating a successful online community is dependent on knowing what works in the face- to-face environment and implementing effective parallels online” (Cuthbertson & Falcone, 2014)
  28. 28. Constructivist Knowledge is: • Socially constructed • Arrived at through dialogic encounters (Bakhtin) • “Dialogic as an epistemological framework supports an account of education as the discursive construction of shared knowledge” – Wegerif, R.
  29. 29. The Power of Synchronous Learning in Groups • Immediacy • Pacing • Social Modeling • Comfort level for student and teachers
  30. 30. Immersion ??
  31. 31. OERs at work!
  32. 32. Social Constructivist Social Form • Group based • Limited in size – Dunbar’s Max ~150 for a tribe – Max. 50 persons/section in post secondary • Mutual awareness of each other • Teacher domination and dependency? • Not scalable, Max student/teacher ratio 50/1
  33. 33. Tools to Support Constructivist Online Teaching Online ABC LD in Excel From Laurillard, D. (2012) Teaching as a Design Science. Building Pedagogical Patterns for Learning and Technology,
  34. 34. Group Management Enhancements • Tools to allow groups to work effectively and efficiently to build trust, collaboration and work effectively at a distance. Messaging, file spaces, videoconference, collaborative editing
  35. 35. Research Constructivist 2nd Generation • Focuses on “lived” experience of participants • Answers why or how? – not how many or how much. • Constructivism in practice – more than talk? • Interviews and focus groups – now with voice transcription and machine qualitative analysis • How much interaction is enough??? • What inhibits/supports group collaboration?
  36. 36. 2nd Generation Social Constructivist Pedagogy Summary • Not scalable, expensive in terms of time and money • New group tools enhance efficiency • Focuses on human development – student-student and student-teacher • Easiest pedagogy for teachers and learners transitioning to online learning
  37. 37. 3rd Generation Connective Pedagogies • Connectivism - Siemens and Downes • Heutagogy – Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2000). From Andragogy to Heutagogy. • Chaos Theory • Rhizomatic Learning “The community is the curriculum” Dave Cormier • Communities of Practice – Etienne Wagner • Activity Theory & Actor Network Theory (ANT) – “systemic interactions of people and the objects that they use in their interactions.”
  38. 38. Connectivist Knowledge • Is created by linking to appropriate people and objects • May be created and stored in non human devices • Is as much about capacity as current competence • Assumes the ubiquitous Internet • Is emergent George Siemens
  39. 39. Connectivist Learning Persistence Accessibility Network Effects “Connectivying” your course
  40. 40. NOT Learning in a Bubble
  41. 41. Disruptions of Connectivism • Demands high levels of net literacy and presence of students and teachers • Openness is scary • New roles for teachers and students • Issues of artifact ownership, persistence & privacy • Too manic for some
  42. 42. Dron and Anderson, Teaching Crowds (2014) Connectivist freedoms • Location where? • Subject what? • Time when? • Approach how (pedagogy, process)? • Pace how fast? • Sociability with whom (if anyone)? • Technology using what (medium/tools)? • Delegability choosing to choose setnet group
  43. 43. Researching 3rd Connectivist Generation – Wang et al (2016) – innovating; sensemaking; wayfinding; operating – Examining and archiving of learning artifacts produced – Types and diversity of student’s net presence – Need for design-based studies that can adapt to ongoing change in tech affordances
  44. 44. 3rd Generation Connectivist Learning Summary • Born on the Net • Locus of control shifts to students with focus on student responsibility for their own learning and building of their own learning nets and sets • Is emergent and disruptive • For advanced learners only??
  45. 45. The Social Aggregations of 3 Generations Pedagogies • Individuals • Groups • Networks • Sets 3rd Gen. Connectivist 2nd Gen. Social Constructivist 1st Gen C/B
  46. 46. Conclusions • Students deserve the experience and the skill development associated with all three generations: – Learning structured content by oneself (1st) – Learning in groups and developing (2nd) interpersonal skills – Developing networks and network literacies (3rd) • There is no one pedagogical model, context, depth, intensity or aggregation that supports learning for everyone • Multiple types of research needed.
  47. 47. slides available on Slideshare Terry Anderson Skype: @terguy Your comments and questions most welcomed!
  48. 48. The Social Aggregation makes a Difference to Interaction • Available from AUPress – CC license