Using Open Scholarship to Leapfrog Traditional Educational Barriers


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Mostly re-used slides for my keynote at African Council for Distance Education in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe.

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Using Open Scholarship to Leapfrog Traditional Educational Barriers

  1. 1. Terry Anderson, Professor, Athabasca University Canada Dec. 2013 Using Open Scholarship to Leapfrog Traditional Educational Barriers
  2. 2. Republic of South Africa (2013) White paper for Post-School Education and Training - creating a post-school distance education landscape based on open learning principles. • It will consist of a network of education providers supported by learning support centres and/or connectivity for students. • Such a network will make available a wide range of learning opportunities to potential students that are closer to their homes and at times appropriate to their contexts. • well-researched, high-quality national learning resources (made available as open education resources [OER]), • collaborative development of learning resources, • more efficient use of existing infrastructure, and • an increasing emphasis on independent study as preparation for subsequent lifelong learning
  3. 3. Presentation Overview • Open Education Practices – Open Educational Resources – Open Texts – Open Data – Open Article Publishing – Open Pedagogy – Researching OE Practice
  4. 4. Definitions of Open on the Web (From Google) • affording unobstructed entrance and exit; not shut or closed; • affording free passage or access; • open to or in view of all; • accessible to all; • assailable: not defended or capable of being defended • loose: (of textures) full of small openings or gaps; • start to operate or function • not brought to a conclusion; • not sealed or having been unsealed
  5. 5. Open Scholars Create: • A new type of education work maximizing: – Social learning – Media richness – Participatory and connectivist pedagogies – Ubiquity and persistence – Transparency – Open data collection and research process – Open network Creation
  6. 6. ‘50% of Canada’s Scholarly Publications will be out of business within two years due to open access competition.’ Athabasca Pres. Frits Pannekoek, 2013
  7. 7. Open Educational Practice Open learning and gaining access to open learning opportunities Beetham, H., Falconer, I., McGill, L. and Littlejohn, A. Open practices: briefing paper. JISC, 2012
  8. 8. Open Educational Practice Developing and applying open/public practices in teaching, research and service practice Beetham, H., Falconer, I., McGill, L. and Littlejohn, A. Open practices: briefing paper. JISC, 2012
  9. 9. Open Educational Practice Production, management, use and reuse of open educational resources Beetham, H., Falconer, I., McGill, L. and Littlejohn, A. Open practices: briefing paper. JISC, 2012
  10. 10. Award winning video on OERs from South Africa
  11. 11. Open Scholars Use and Contribute Open Educational Resources Because it saves time!!!
  12. 12. OER Barriers to Adoption • Few instructor incentives • Publisher push back • Quality concerns • Licensing, copyright issues • “not invented here” syndrome • Lack of open culture and practice • Insufficient content
  13. 13. Open Educational Practice Networks Open sharing of teaching ideas and know-how
  14. 14. Beetham, H., Falconer, I., McGill, L. and Littlejohn, A. Open practices: briefing paper. JISC, 2012 Using open technologies
  15. 15. Components of ‘Open Pedagogy’ • Student ownership and control • Artifact Persistence • Open to participation globally • Creation and curation of open artifacts • Affordable – the educational “digital dividend” Innovating Pedagogy, 2013 Open University
  16. 16. Why Create OERs? • Students as prosumers • Teaches: – Production skills – Planning, network literacy – Collaboration – Altruism – Participatory technologies – Net presence Pedagogy, Technology and Student as Producer
  17. 17. Who Should Own Open Text Books? • Faculty? • Institution? • Both – “Tragedy of the Anti-Commons” “economic value may disappear into the ‘black hole’ of resource underutilization” (Buchanan and Yoon 2000).” In recent years, economic modeling of the anticommons has become quite sophisticated. • Everyone
  18. 18. Do Students Like Open Texts? “We aggressively marketed the course as "textbook free" and designed a survey to measure the impact of this variable on student motivation to enroll and the overall engagement level. The results were telling: • 90 percent of our students found the course's digital content "more engaging" than a traditional textbook. • 25 percent said that the "no required textbook" advertising was an incentive to enroll. • 50 percent said that textbook costs had been an academic barrier in the past.” OneClick Digital and the Medrano Project: OER as Content, OER as Pedagogy
  19. 19. We can’t afford textbooks • Textbook prices skyrocketed 82% between 2002 and 2012, • average student budget for books and supplies has grown to $1,207 annually (USA figures). • Current Bill to support open texts across US, goal of reducing costs by 80% • Washington State program since 2010 has saved students $5.4 million versus State cost of less than $1.8 Million • All students get open text books!
  20. 20. Are commercial e-texts the answer?
  21. 21. DRM (Digital Rights Management) You CANNOT • Copy & paste, annotate, highlight • Text to speech • Format change • Move material • Print out • Move geographically • Use after expiry date • Resell Slide credit Rory McGreal
  22. 22. Open Scholars License, Use (and re-use ) Open Data
  23. 23. Open Data Can generate $3-5 Trillion
  24. 24. “Big data and personal information are converging to shape the Internet’s most powerful and surprising consumer products. They’ll predict your needs, store your memories, and improve your life—if you let them.” - MIT Technology Review
  25. 25. Open Data • Sharing not only research results, but the data that generated these results
  26. 26. Open Scholars Filter and Share With Others
  27. 27. If you don’t manage your digital identity- someone else will!
  28. 28. Social Networks • Facebook, LinkedIn, • Academia, • Twitter • Blogs • Listservs • Private – NING – ELGG – Drupal, – Word Press
  29. 29. Personal Identity Professional Identity University Identity An Academic’s Net+ Identity If you don’t create your web identity, someone else will
  30. 30. “How … can we talk seriously about 21st century skills for kids if we’re not talking 21st century skills for educators first?” Will Richardson 21st Century Skills Collaboration Communication Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Creativity and Invention Global Awareness Information and Technology Literacy Self-direction Kraglund-Gauthier
  31. 31. Networks add diversity to learning “People who live in the intersection of social worlds are at higher risk of having good ideas” Burt, 2005, p. 90 Edge effects, estuary learning
  32. 32. If it is not licensed, it is not open.
  33. 33. CC Licensing Options
  34. 34. Predatory Open Access Journals “those that unprofessionally exploit the author-pays model of open-access publishing (Gold OA) for their own profit. Typically, these publishers: • spam professional email lists, • broadly soliciting article submissions for the clear purpose of gaining income. • operate essentially as vanity presses, • typically have a low article acceptance threshold, • Have a false-front or non-existent peer review process. – Jeff Beall
  35. 35. Open Scholars Write and Read Open Access Books Teaching in Blended Learning Environments: Creating and Sustaining Communities of Inquiry Vaughan, Cleveland-Innes, & Garrison
  36. 36. A Tale of 3 Books Open Access - 100,000 + downloads & Individual chapters Translations Over 1600 hardcopies sold @ $40 Can Commercial publisher 934 copies sold at $52.00 Buy at Amazon!! E-Learning for the 21st Century 1st Ed. Commercial Pub. 1200 sold @ $135.00 2,000 copies in Arabic Translation @ $8.
  37. 37. Coming this month…. Teaching Crowds: Learning and Social Media Online Distance Education: Towards a Research Agenda edited by Olaf Zawacki-Richter and Terry Anderson
  38. 38. Challenges of Open Adoption 1. Institutional impotence –“resistance manifested itself as both an active form of change blocking and in more passive forms of intransigence that become a form of institutional impotence both institutionally and at an academic and student level.” 2 Governance -“Governance itself became an activity rather than a means to implement activity” 3 Commercial social media 4 Staff engagement – no time Bryant, P., Coombs, A., Pazio, M., & Walker, S. ((2014). Disruption, destruction, construction or transformation? Open Praxis
  39. 39. Researching Open Education Practice
  40. 40. Does OER make a difference?
  41. 41. Boundless Opportunities for • Unanticipated consequences • Challenges of net privacy/presence • Emergent adaptation by students and teachers • Misuse and exploitation
  42. 42. Openness is a Spiral of Growth… but you have to start somewhere
  43. 43. Terry Anderson Blog: Twitter: terguy Your comments and questions most welcomed! Ndatenda/Masvita, Asante, Ngiyabonga
  44. 44. In July, 2012,the Supreme Court ruled on the ‘Copyright Pentalogy”, a series of copyright cases. The judgement was very favourable for education in Canada. The major implications for education are summarized: • Copyright law is not just about protection of the author; it also is about dissemination to the public • Technological neutrality: The law is neutral in terms of whatever technology is used. This allows users to move technology from one platform or device to another. • Fair dealing was once again stressed as being integral to copyright law, and it “must be given a large and liberal interpretation". • Instruction and research are essentially the same. Copies of reasonable amounts of works can be duplicated by the instructor for class use. • Research" is not restricted to "creative purposes". It can be personal interest. • The user's purpose is paramount in deciding whether copying is “fair” • If copying increases the sale of work, then it does not have a negative impact
  45. 45. Are LMS BAD? • Bricolage – the LMS as Enterprise Systems doesn’t allow or cater for bricolage. • Affordances – resulting in an inability to leverage the affordances of technology to improve learning and teaching. • Distribution – the idea that knowledge about how to improve L&T is distributed and the implications that has for the institutional practice of e-learning." Jones
  46. 46. Walled Gardens (with windows) • Connectivist learning thrives in safe learning spaces with windows allowing randomness, external participation and public presentation