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1. Memory
 

1. Memory

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1. Memory 1. Memory Presentation Transcript

  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Memory Unit 1 – Understanding the Individual
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Learning Content The domain of cognitive psychology The nature of memory Models of memory Theories of forgetting Application of memory improvement techniques
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Getting you thinking Read the Getting You Thinking box at the top of page 3 in the Collins text books. Work in pairs to discuss ideas to the questions. Be prepared to discuss these with the class. Read the activity box on page 4: ‘Why can’t Clive Wearing Remember?’ Work as a group to deduce to other explanations for Clive’s problem. Can you now summarise three functions of a working memory system?
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY What is Cognitive Psychology? Cognitive Psychology What is studied? How does it differ from other domains? What are mediators? What is the‘information- processing’ approach?
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Ebbinghaus (1885) How can memory be measured and tested? Make notes on Ebbinghaus Nonsense Syllables: What was Ebbinghaus trying to find out? How did he carry out his research? Why is Ebbinghaus’ work criticised?
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Memory as Information Processing For many the best way of understanding memory is in terms of the three basic operations involved in information processing in modern computers: Encoding - Transformation of sensory input into a form which allows it to be entered into memory. Storage - The operation of holding or retaining information. Retrieval - The process by which stored information is extracted from memory. Although researchers do not see human memory operating exactly the same way as a computer, they believe that this approach can help understand an extremely complex phenomenon.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Key Terms What do you think is meant by the following in terms of memory? Capacity Duration Is your capacity and duration always the same? If not, when is it different? Why do you think this is?
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY What is memory? What is Memory? Think of a Psychological definition of what memory actually is Memory can be defined as ‘the retention of information, or learning’. Our memory holds everything we know about ourselves and our world.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY You need to know Short-term memory (STM) Capacity, duration and encoding Studies of STM Long-term memory (LTM) Capacity, duration and encoding Studies of LTM Outline and evaluate two models of memory. These are: Atkinson and Shiffrin’s Multi Store Model Baddeley and Hitch’s Working Memory Model
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Three Stores Several theories of memory are based on the assumption that there are 3 kinds of memory: Sensory memory: a storage system that holds information in an unprocessed form for fractions of a second. Short-term memory (STM): a temporary place for storing information while it receives limited processing. Long-term memory (LTM): a relatively permanent store which has unlimited capacity and duration. Different kinds have been identified: episodic (memory for personal events) semantic (memory for facts and information) procedural (memory for actions and skills). Can yourepresent thesethree memorystores as adiagram?
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Sensory Memory This is the first memory store in Atkinson and Shiffrin’s Multi Store Model. Incoming information is first stored in sensory memory. This is a very brief store that holds information in its original code or modality. Visual information is stored in a visual code. The visual store has a duration of about 200 to 400 milliseconds. The auditory store is thought to have a longer duration, lasting from 1 to 2 seconds.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Questions we need to answer What is the difference between short-term memory and long-term memory? Encoding Capacity Duration What evidence supports the distinction between long-term and short-term memory? Case Study Primacy & Regency Effects Encoding Differences
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Questions we need to answer What models have been proposed to aid our understanding of memory? Atkinson and Shiffrin’s Multi-store Model (1968) Baddeley and Hitch’s Working memory Model (1974)
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY STM Short term memory is a system of storing information for brief periods of time. Researchers see STM in different ways, usually depending upon the model or view of memory that they have proposed. There are three main questions you will need to answer concerned with STM. These are: How much information can we store in STM? (capacity) How long does STM last? (duration) How is the information stored? (encoding) Researchers have carried out experiments to discover the answers to these questions.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY STM Capacity The capacity of STM was investigated by Jacobs (1886) and Miller (1956). Using a digit span task it was found that the capacity of STM was 7, plus or minus 2 items. This means that we can normally fit between 5 and 9 items in our STM, with the average being 7.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY STM Capacity Read Box 1.24 on page 58 of the Higher Textbook. Complete the task as instructed.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY STM Capacity What factors can effect the capacity of the STM? Research this using the textbooks. Make sure you cover the following points: Influence of LTM Reading aloud Rhythmic grouping Pronunciation time
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Chunking Chunking is when we combine individual letters or numbers into a larger meaningful unit. For example: C B W Y A F These letters are unconnected and are therefore memorised as six separate items in STM. IBM GAP PIN BBC ITV STM Here, there are 18 letters, but as they are in 6 meaningful chunks, we can remember them all. The amount stored in STM depends upon the meaning of the chunk under consideration.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY STM Capacity Key Study Baddeley et al. 1975 Read about Baddeley’s study. Discuss: What were they trying to find out? How did they go about it? What did they find out? How can we evaluate this study? Complete an APFCE form
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Recap How many memory stores are there? Can you name them all? What capacity does STM have? What is a chunk of information thought to be? What do we mean by duration & encoding in terms of memory?
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Duration & Encoding We have already discussed the capacity of STM and some studies on this. Using WS4 and IS4, answer the questions on capacity. Answer the rest of the questions on WS4 using IS4 and the textbooks to help you. Whenever it asks you to make a record of the aims, procedures, findings and conclusions of a study, complete a KEY STUDY worksheet.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Recap LTM STM EncodingDurationCapacity
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Recap Encoding in LTM is mainly semantic, as proved by Baddeley. The duration of LTM has been proved to be at least 48 years for some memories. This was proved by Bahrick. The capacity of LTM is infinite. This has not been proved, as capacity of LTM is immeasurable. LTM STM predominantly uses acoustic or phonological coding, as proved by Baddeley. The duration of STM is about 20 seconds. This was proved by Peterson and Peterson (1959). The capacity of STM is 7 +/- 2 items. This was proved by Jacobs & Miller with a digit span task STM EncodingDurationCapacity
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Recap Encoding in LTM is mainly semantic, as proved by Baddeley. The duration of LTM has been proved to be at least 48 years for some memories. This was proved by Bahrick. The capacity of LTM is infinite. This has not been proved, as capacity of LTM is immeasurable. LTM STM predominantly uses acoustic or phonological coding, as proved by Baddeley. The duration of STM is about 20 seconds. This was proved by Peterson and Peterson (1959). The capacity of STM is 7 +/- 2 items. This was proved by Jacobs & Miller with a digit span task STM EncodingDurationCapacity
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Recap Encoding in LTM is mainly semantic, as proved by Baddeley. The duration of LTM has been proved to be at least 48 years for some memories. This was proved by Bahrick. The capacity of LTM is infinite. This has not been proved, as capacity of LTM is immeasurable. LTM STM predominantly uses acoustic or phonological coding, as proved by Baddeley. The duration of STM is about 20 seconds. This was proved by Peterson and Peterson (1959). The capacity of STM is 7 +/- 2 items. This was proved by Jacobs & Miller with a digit span task STM EncodingDurationCapacity
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Recap Encoding in LTM is mainly semantic, as proved by Baddeley. The duration of LTM has been proved to be at least 48 years for some memories. This was proved by Bahrick. The capacity of LTM is infinite. This has not been proved, as capacity of LTM is immeasurable. LTM STM predominantly uses acoustic or phonological coding, as proved by Baddeley. The duration of STM is about 20 seconds. This was proved by Peterson and Peterson (1959). The capacity of STM is 7 +/- 2 items. This was proved by Jacobs & Miller with a digit span task STM EncodingDurationCapacity
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Recap Encoding in LTM is mainly semantic, as proved by Baddeley. The duration of LTM has been proved to be at least 48 years for some memories. This was proved by Bahrick. The capacity of LTM is infinite. This has not been proved, as capacity of LTM is immeasurable. LTM STM predominantly uses acoustic or phonological coding, as proved by Baddeley. The duration of STM is about 20 seconds. This was proved by Peterson and Peterson (1959). The capacity of STM is 7 +/- 2 items. This was proved by Jacobs & Miller with a digit span task STM EncodingDurationCapacity
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Recap Encoding in LTM is mainly semantic, as proved by Baddeley. The duration of LTM has been proved to be at least 48 years for some memories. This was proved by Bahrick. The capacity of LTM is infinite. This has not been proved, as capacity of LTM is immeasurable. LTM STM predominantly uses acoustic or phonological coding, as proved by Baddeley. The duration of STM is about 20 seconds. This was proved by Peterson and Peterson (1959). The capacity of STM is 7 +/- 2 items. This was proved by Jacobs & Miller with a digit span task STM EncodingDurationCapacity
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Models There are two models of memory which we will look at. These are: Atkinson and Shiffrin’s multi store model Baddeley and Hitch’s working memory model For each model you will need to be able to describe and evaluate the model
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Multi Store Model Sensory memory LTMSTM Attention Rehearsal Forgotten through: Decay Displacement Forgotten through: Retrieval cue failure Interference
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Multi Store Model This model distinguishes between short-term memory (STM) and long term memory (LTM). Incoming information is stored initially in sensory memory. This information is then encoded into STM. This store is short lived, and information held in it will quickly be forgotten. If information is rehearsed, it is refreshed in the short term store, or transferred into the long term store.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Multi Store Model Support The main assumption of the two process theory is that there are two separate stores of memory; STM and LTM. Evidence to support this distinction is therefore also evidence to support this model. There are four main areas of research that have found evidence for two stores. These are: Studies into capacity, duration and encoding of STM and LTM Brain damaged patients The primacy and recency effect Evidence for rehearsal
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Multi Store Model Support Studies into capacity, duration and encoding of STM and LTM have found that these two stores have different characteristics, suggesting therefore that there must be two stores. Do you know any examples of these?
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Multi Store Model Support A second type of evidence to support the idea of two distinct stores comes from neuropsychological studies on brain damaged patients. These people have impaired memories, but the impairment appears to affect one store only, the other store of memory appears relatively intact. This suggests that not only are STM and LTM different in nature, but that they occupy different areas in the brain, because if one area of the brain gets damaged, then only one store gets damaged.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Multi Store Model Support The third type of evidence comes from the primacy/recency effect. You will hear a list of words. When finished, you should write down as many of the words as you can remember in any order.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Primacy / Recency Effect Serial Position Curve 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Position of word in list Numberofpeoplewhorecalled word
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Primacy / Recency Effect This is where if participants are asked to memorise a long list of words, they will recall the words at the beginning of the list and the words at the end better than those in the middle. This is because words at the end are still in STM, and words at the beginning are in LTM, as they were rehearsed, but words in the middle were neither rehearsed (due to time pressures), nor are they still in the short term store, as this only lasts for 20 seconds, so they are forgotten. Complete the Activity Box on p14 of Collins.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Multi Store Model Evidence from rehearsal studies How can Peterson and Peterson’s study into the duration of STM provide support for the multi store model? It highlights rehearsal is the key aspect for recall, if rehearsal is prevented, the information does not transfer to LTM and is forgotten. It therefore supports the MSM as it suggests that rehearsal is the key to transfer of information - as this model claims.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Multi Store Model Can you think of any criticisms? Atkinson and Shiffrin's two process model is too simplistic The model fails to take account of factors such as the strategies we use to remember things It is accused of being more interested in the capacity that can be processed rather than the nature of memory.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Multi Store Model Can you think of any criticisms? It focuses upon structure rather than the processes involved. The claim that rehearsal is the only route to LTM from STM is also criticized. Doubt has also been cast upon the assumption that STM is a unitary store with a severely limited capacity. Baddeley and Hitch’s claimed this was a major limitation of this model.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Working Memory How many radiators are there in your house? How did you do this? Most people: imagined each room (a visualisation task). counted each radiator (using internal speech sounds) arrived at the answer To be successful, different pieces of information had to be processed and held in your memory at the same time in order to put the whole together.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Working Memory Baddeley and Hitch suggested that STM contains all the ideas we are currently considering in our conscious mind. Their model comprises a central executive (the controller), and two interlinking subsystems (slave systems). They proposed that this system of memory was an active processor. As such, we should think of STM as a much more active store than Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed in their model.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Working Memory Model It is the central executive that deals with the many different types of information. It is involved with tasks such as deciding what to do next, and solving problems. The subsystems each deal with a different type of information. What are these? Add to your diagram. Central Executive Phonological Loop Visuo-spatial Scratchpad
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Working Memory Model At any given time, the subsystems can be used for different tasks. These stores can be used at the same time. Sometimes the subsystems combine upon a task. Baddeley believed there are further subsystems to be identified and argued that one of the goals of research was to discover as many of them as possible. It is important to realise that this model of working memory is a model of short term memory. It does not describe the long term memory component at all.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Evaluating Working Memory Strengths One central aspect of this model is the assumption that short term memory is not unitary. What does this mean? It consists of separate stores that deal with different types of information, working at the same time as each other. Suggests that our STM capacity may be larger than Atkinson and Shiffrin suggested, even though each type of store is limited. Evidence that supports these separate categories within short term memory is also evidence to support the working memory model. Conrad and Hull (1964), Frick (1984), Baddeley and Lieberman (1980), Salame and Baddeley (1982).
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Evaluating Working Memory Strengths Frick (1984) found that digits or words stored in STM did not have to be recoded into an auditory form, but could be held visually. This supports the presence of a store that is short term and holds visual and spatial information (the VSSP).
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Evaluating Working Memory What criticisms can you think of? The model does not focus upon LTM, it only provides a model for half the story! The model does not explain how information is recalled. The model does not adequately explain how this information is transferred to LTM There may be one unitary store for STM think of all the support for this idea for Atkinson and Shiffrin. The studies that support this model are mainly artificial lab experiments that lack ecological validity.
  • SQA HIGHER PSYCHOLOGY Check your understanding Collins page 19 Answer questions 1-8 & 10 Extension Reading Read the interview with Dr Philip Beaman on page 18 of Collins.