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  1. 1. MEMORY<br />By Tierra Forks-Bonds<br />February 2011<br />PSYCH 275<br />
  2. 2. What is Memory?<br />Memory is a cognitive system that encodes, retains, and retrieves information.<br />Three Basic Components of Memory<br /><ul><li>Sensory
  3. 3. Short-term
  4. 4. Long-term</li></li></ul><li>How it Works<br />There are three major processes involved in memory<br /><ul><li>Encodes: Information is developed into a useable form.
  5. 5. Stores: After information has been encoded, it is stored for later use. We are not aware of memory being stored until we need to use the information.
  6. 6. Retrieves: Memories are brought to our awareness.</li></li></ul><li>Where Memory is Stored in the Brain<br />Short Term – The hippocampus and subiculum<br />Long Term (Procedural) – Motor cortex then the cerebellum.<br />Long Term (Priming) – Cerebral cortex <br />Long Term (Episodic) – Prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus<br />Long Term (Semantic) – Prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus<br />Brain The Complete Mind by M. Sweeney (page 243)<br />
  7. 7. Sensory Memory<br /><ul><li>Information from the environment including iconic memory (visual images), echoic memory (auditory senses), and hapticmemory (physical senses such as touch).
  8. 8. Stored very briefly (half-second to 4 seconds).
  9. 9. Converts to Short-Term memory when the individual finds an interest or pays attention to the information received.</li></li></ul><li>Short-Term Memory<br /><ul><li>Also known as working or active memory because it stores information for what we are currently doing or thinking about.
  10. 10. Stored for 20-30 seconds.
  11. 11. Quickly forgotten as it has a limited capacity.
  12. 12. Converts to Long-Term Memory by repetition. </li></li></ul><li>Long Term Memory<br /><ul><li>Stores information over a long period.
  13. 13. Two types of information retrieval
  14. 14. Recall: information is reproduced from memory.
  15. 15. Recoginition: information is recognized that it has been seen before. Feeling of familiarity. </li></li></ul><li>Brain and Memory<br /><br /><ul><li>Each of our senses (taste, sight, hearing, touch, and smelling) relates to one another and forms connections.
  16. 16. Repetition creates strong neural connections.
  17. 17. Brain applies use it or lose it principal with memory.</li></li></ul><li>Over generalizing MemoryArticle: Autobiographical Memory Functioning Among Abused, Neglected, and Nonmaltreated Children: The Over general Memory Effect<br />Over general memories are “memories that do not contain at least one specific detail that identifies an event as a distinct episode.” (Valentino, Toth, Cicchetti)<br /><ul><li>This article outlined the investigation that compares over general memories between abused, neglected and nonmaltreated children.</li></ul>What the study concluded…<br /><ul><li>Abused children’s memories were more over general than those of non-abused children.</li></li></ul><li>Forgetting<br />Forgetting is when we fail to retrieve information that we know is stored in our memory.<br />Why do we forget?<br /><ul><li>Failure to Store
  18. 18. We can forget memories if they were not encoded properly; therefore not making it to long-term memory.
  19. 19. Interference
  20. 20. When information is similar to other information and memories compete and interfere with other memories.
  21. 21. Fading over time
  22. 22. Memory traces begin to fade and disappear over time if they have not came to use.</li></li></ul><li>Selective Memory<br /><ul><li>Also known as Motivated Forgetting
  23. 23. This is when we purposely forget memories because of the negative experiences associated with them.
  24. 24. Studies have shown that blocking out horrid memories can be harmful to long-term memory because of all the effort that is put in to avoid pain.
  25. 25. Rather than trying to cover up and hide certain memories, it is healthier if we deal with the issue so that we can move on.</li></li></ul><li>Memory Loss<br />Amnesia is memory loss that is usually caused by physical damage to the brain or when oxygen is cut off to the brain.<br /><ul><li>Alcohol blackout: Can cause partial or total memory loss and happens after excessive drinking.
  26. 26. Dissociative fugue: Created confusion about identity and life events.
  27. 27. Korsakoff’s psychosis: Inability to form short-term memories. Typically occurs in alcholics.
  28. 28. Post-traumatic amnesia: Happens after coma and causes disorientation, and agitation. Can also happen when negative emotions related to trauma occur.</li></ul>There are many forms of memory loss, and they can occur to anyone at any age. <br />
  29. 29. How Sharp is Your Memory?<br /><ul><li>Test your memory by following the link below.
  30. 30. It will show 15 words one at a time, for one second each.
  31. 31. The goal is to remember as many as possible.
  32. 32. After you have seen all 15 words, write down as many as you can remember.</li></ul><br />
  33. 33. How to Improve Our Memory<br />The following YouTube video contains many tips that we can use to improve our memory.<br /><br /><ul><li>EXERCISE
  34. 34. BRAIN GAMES
  35. 35. SLEEP
  36. 36. BREATHING
  37. 37. BEING SOCIAL
  38. 38. DANCING
  40. 40. RHYMING</li></ul>NO SMOKING<br /><ul><li>NO ACCESSIVE DRINKING
  41. 41. RELAXING</li></li></ul><li>Annotated Bibliography<br /><ul><li>
  42. 42. Slide 10: Forgetting
  43. 43.
  44. 44. Slide 2: What is Memory, Slide 5: Sensory Memory, Slide 6: Short-Term Memory, Slide 7: Long-Term Memory
  45. 45.
  46. 46. Slide 5: Sensory Memory
  47. 47.
  48. 48. Slide 6: Short-Term Memory
  49. 49.
  50. 50. Slide 5: Sensory Memory, Slide 6: Short-Term Memory, Slide 7: Long-Term Memory
  51. 51.
  52. 52. Slide 7: Long-Term Memory
  53. 53.
  54. 54. Slide 13: How Sharp is Your Memory
  55. 55. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 50:8 2009 pp 1029-1038 by Kristin Valentino., Seree L. Toth and Dante Cicchetti
  56. 56. Slide 9: Over generalizing Memory
  57. 57. Brain The Complete Mind by Michael S. Sweeney</li></li></ul><li>Thank You for ReadingHope it Helped-Tierra Bonds<br />