Cog5 lecppt chapter05


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  • INSERT FIG 5.4
  • ?
  • Correct answer: a
    Feedback: Depth of processing is important for memory. Hence, a person engaged in shallow processing will not remember as well.
  • Correct answer: d
    Feedback: All of these tasks involve working memory.
  • Correct answer: c
    Feedback: Working memory is dynamic and hence information is quickly lost.
  • Correct answer: d
    Feedback: Stimulus-based priming is based on perceptual aspects of a stimulus and hence is bottom-up.
  • Correct answer: c
    Feedback: This option is reliant on maintenance rehearsal, which is the least favorable way to learn material.
  • Correct answer: b
    Feedback: This is actually an elaborative rehearsal strategy in which she is adding meaning to the information. Mnemonics are complex organizational schemes for learning.
  • Correct answer: a
    Feedback: The last words are still in working memory at the time of testing.
  • Cog5 lecppt chapter05

    1. 1. © 2010 by W. W. Norton & Co., Inc. The Acquisition of Memories and the Working-Memory System Chapter 5 Lecture Outline
    2. 2. Chapter 5: Working Memory  Lecture Outline  The Modal Model  Working Memory  Entering Long-term Storage  Elaborate Encoding  Organizing and Memorizing  Links Among Acquisition, Storage, and Retrieval
    3. 3. Chapter 5: Working Memory  One way to frame learning and memory  Acquisition  Storage  Retrieval  Analogy to creating, storing, and opening a computer file
    4. 4. Chapter 5: Working Memory  This view is problematic for at least two reasons  New learning is grounded in previously learned (stored) knowledge  Effective learning depends on how the information will be later retrieved
    5. 5. The Modal Model  Information processing Each of these systems is separate
    6. 6. Sperling (1960) Iconic Memory Research  Whole report procedure Flash a matrix of letters for 50 milliseconds Identify as many letters as possible Participants typically remember 4 letters  Partial report procedure Flash a matrix of letters for 50 milliseconds Participants are told to report bottom row Participants were able to report any row requested
    7. 7. Sperling Sensory Memory Demonstration  A matrix of 12 letters and numbers briefly flash on the next few slides  As soon as you see the information, write down everything you can remember in its proper location
    8. 8. 記憶大考驗 I 人究竟能記得多少呢? 請隨手拿個筆和紙,我們準備開始!
    9. 9. X X X X X X X X X X X X Whole Report
    10. 10. B 5 Q T 2 H S 9 O 4 M Y X
    11. 11. 請寫出剛剛畫面中呈現的所有字母
    12. 12. B 5 Q T 2 H S 9 O 4 M Y
    13. 13. X X X X X X X X X X X X Partial Report – No Delay
    14. 14. X 2 V 9 R Q M 7 L > K H 5 F <> <
    15. 15. 2 V 9 R Q M 7 L > K H 5 F <
    16. 16. 請寫出剛剛畫面中 >< 所指到的字母
    17. 17. Sperling’s Results
    18. 18. Sensory Stores  Iconic store or visual sensory register Holds visual information for 250 msec longer Information held is pre-categorical Capacity: up to 12 items Information fades quickly  Econ or auditory sensory register Holds auditory information for 2-3 seconds longer to enable processing
    19. 19. The Modal Model  The modal model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968; Waugh & Norman, 1965)  Short-term memory (STM)  Long-term memory (LTM)
    20. 20. The Modal Model  Working memory (WM)—a dynamic form of short-term memory
    21. 21. Vogel, Woodman, & Luck Results (2001)  Can retain 3-4 colors or orientations  Store integrated objects, not just features
    22. 22. Long-Term Memory  Capacity Thus far limitless  Duration Potentially permanent Long-Term Memory (LTM)
    23. 23. The Modal Model  Experiments supporting the modal model  Presented a long series of words (e.g., 30)  Perform free-recall afterward  Look at the position in the list (serial recall)
    24. 24. The Modal Model  Primacy effect  Better memory for first few items  Long-term memory  Memory rehearsal allows transfer from WM to LTM
    25. 25. The Modal Model  Recency effect  Better memory for the last few items  Based on working memory
    26. 26. The Modal Model 30 seconds not enough to wipe out recency Another task is needed to do so
    27. 27. The Modal Model Recency effect the same Memory for the rest of the list is better Slow presentation aids pre-recency items
    28. 28. The Modal Model Primacy associated with hippocampus Working memory associated with perirhinal cortex
    29. 29. Working Memory  Virtually all mental activities require working memory (WM)  Reading  Goal-driven behavior  Some tasks demand more WM resources than others  Individual differences in WM capacity predict some cognitive abilities
    30. 30. Working Memory  Digit-span task  Participant asked to remember digits  List is increased until memory fails  Maximum number is the digit span
    31. 31. Working Memory  Chunking  The ability to condense information  Requires effort  Reduces load  Does not increase WM
    32. 32. 記憶大考驗 II 人究竟能記得多少呢? 請隨手拿個筆和紙,我們準備開始!
    33. 33. 1. 英文題
    34. 34. 準備好了 ……嗎
    36. 36. 請依序寫出剛剛畫面中的所有字母
    37. 37. 2. 數字題
    38. 38. 準備好了 ……嗎
    39. 39. 77088088252521314520
    40. 40. 請依序寫出剛剛畫面中的所有數字
    41. 41. 1. 英文題 DADNCKUMITANTFBIETORNBA DAD NCKU MIT ANT FBI ET OR NBA 2. 數字題 77088088252521314520 770 880 8825252 1314 520  親親你 抱抱你 爸爸餓我餓我餓 一生一世 我愛你 解答時間 !!!!!
    42. 42. Working Memory  One metaphor for working memory is a loading dock  Mechanically transfers input to and from long-term memory  A better metaphor is a librarian  Actively categorizes, catalogs, and cross-references new material
    43. 43. Working Memory  Reading span  Captures active nature of working memory  Participant reads sentences and remembers the last word in each sentence  The number of words remembered is the reading span
    44. 44. Working Memory Operation span  Another measure of working memory  Is equation true or false?  Remember a word  Number of words remembered is the operation span
    45. 45. Working Memory  Reading span and operation span correlate strongly with  Test performance  Reasoning  Reading ability
    46. 46. Working Memory  Working memory is often divided into three components  Central executive  Visuospatial buffer  Articulatory rehearsal loop
    47. 47. Working Memory  Executive control  Control sequences of thought and action  Select and launch responses  Plan and set goals  Break habit or routine
    48. 48. Working Memory  WM is an update to the modal model  It is a dynamic form of STM
    49. 49. Working Memory Working memory Long-Term Memory Time Temporary Long-lasting Capacity Limited Large Access Relatively easy Relatively hard
    50. 50. Entering Long-Term Storage  Two Types of Rehearsal  Maintenance rehearsal—reciting  Relational or elaborative rehearsal—linking
    51. 51. Entering Long-Term Storage  Relational or elaborative rehearsal is superior  Repeated exposure does not guarantee memory  For example, try to remember the design details of a penny  Recite a phone number
    52. 52. Entering Long-Term Storage Remembered greater than forgotten Frontal areas Hippocampus and adjacent areas
    53. 53. Entering Long-Term Storage  Shallow processing—superficial  Deep processing—meaningful
    54. 54. Entering Long-Term Storage 54 Deeper processing ensures better recall
    55. 55. Entering Long-Term Storage  Incidental learning—unintentional  Intentional learning—intentional
    56. 56. Entering Long-Term Storage  Imagine an experiment in which you cross depth of processing (three levels)  Typeface task (shallow)  Phonological task (intermediate)  Semantic task (deep)  And intention to learn (two levels)  Incidental learning  Intentional learning
    57. 57. Entering Long-Term Storage
    58. 58. Entering Long-Term Storage  Depth of processing strong  Intention to learn has no effect  Intention to learn can lead you to choose a deeper strategy
    59. 59. Elaborate Encoding  Very hard to find info  Very easy to find info
    60. 60. Elaborate Encoding  Depth of processing promotes recall by facilitating later retrieval  Consider learning as a way to establish indexing, a path to the information  Connections between to-be-remembered items facilitates retrieval
    61. 61. Elaborate Encoding  Craik & Tulving (1975) Example Result Elaborate “The great bird swooped down and carried off the struggling chicken.” Better memory Simple “She cooked the chicken.” Worse memory
    62. 62. Elaborate Encoding  Craik & Tulving (1975)
    63. 63. Elaborate Encoding  Elaborate sentences result in richer retrieval paths
    64. 64. Organizing and Memorizing  Katona (1940) argued that the key to creating connections in the to-be- remembered material is organization  We memorize well when we find order in the material
    65. 65. Organizing and Memorizing  Mnemonics improve memory through organization
    66. 66. Organizing and Memorizing  Peg-word systems: items are “hung” on a system of already well known “pegs”  “One is a bun, two is a shoe…”  First-letter mnemonics  Roy G. Biv  King Phillip Crossed the Ocean to Find Gold and Silver
    67. 67. Organizing and Memorizing 67 Mnemonics Help
    68. 68. Organizing and Memorizing The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange items into different groups. Of course one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step; otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run, this may not seem important but complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. At first, the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then, one never can tell. After the procedure is completed one arranges the materials into different groups again. Then they can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used once more and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated. However, that is part of life.
    69. 69. Organizing and Memorizing  What is the pattern?
    70. 70. Organizing and Memorizing  Ambiguous pictures are understood and remembered better if they are identified (Wiseman & Neisser, 1974)
    71. 71. Links Among Acquisition, Storage, and Retrieval  Memory facilitated by organizing and understanding  What the memorizer was doing at the time of exposure matters  The background knowledge of the memorizer matters
    72. 72. How to train your memory What strategies do you use for remembering? Why do they work?  
    73. 73. 聯覺  What color is Tuesday? 73
    74. 74. Links Among Acquisition, Storage, and Retrieval  Acquisition, storage, and retrieval are not easily separable  New learning is grounded in previously learned (stored) knowledge  Effective learning depends on how the information will later be retrieved
    75. 75. Chapter 5 Questions
    76. 76. Which group would perform the WORST on a memory test? a) Participants engaged in shallow processing without previous warning of a memory test. b) Participants engaged in medium processing with previous warning of a memory test. c) Participants engaged in deep processing without previous warning of a memory test. d) Participants engaged in deep processing with previous warning of a memory test.
    77. 77. Someone with a larger working memory capacity is likely to perform better than someone with a smaller working memory capacity on which of the following tasks a) following directions b) efficient reading c) learning a computer language d) all of the above
    78. 78. Which statement about working memory is TRUE? a) It has unlimited storage capacity. b) It functions as a storage container. c) Information in it is fragile and easily lost. d) It refers mainly to the resources that are retained over long intervals.
    79. 79. Which of the following statements applies to stimulus-based priming but not to expectation-based priming? a) It has an immediate effect on attention. b) It has a cost attached. c) It leads to faster recognition of subsequent related stimuli. d) It is bottom-up.
    80. 80. Which of the following would help improve recall of a difficult-to-understand paragraph the LEAST? a) quizzing yourself in order to improve comprehension of the paragraph b) chunking the sentences in the paragraph into smaller, meaningful groups c) repeating the paragraph aloud many times d) giving the paragraph a meaningful title
    81. 81. Veronica wanted to go to the grocery store but was out of paper for writing a shopping list. She came up with several possible ways to remember what she needed to buy (listed below). Which of her ideas is a simple mnemonic strategy? a) Using the peg-word system to associate different items on the shopping list with words in an easy- to-remember rhyme. b) Imagining what she can cook with all of the items on the list and imagining what all the food would taste like. c) Composing a long story with all the items on her list. d) Repeating all the items on her list multiple times.
    82. 82. What causes the recency effect? a) The last words heard are still in working memory at testing. b) The first words heard are also the first words to leave working memory. c) Words that get more attention are better encoded into long-term memory. d) Experimenters tend to give easier words first as warm-up.