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Environmental Influences


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Environmental Influences

  1. 1. Environmental Influences SQA HIGHER BIOLOGY Unit 3: Control and Regulation
  2. 2. What chemicals affect your growth? What chemicals effect the growth of plants? How does light effect growth?
  3. 3. Learning Content <ul><li>The importance of individual macroelements. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms of deficiency of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium in plants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of iron and calcium in animals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The inhibiting effect of lead on enzyme activity. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Macro-elements in plants <ul><li>What chemical elements does a plant need for growth? </li></ul><ul><li>Where does a plant get these elements from? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Water culture experiments <ul><li>Describe a water culture experiment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain why light is blocked out. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is more than one seedling used? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water culture experiments demonstrate deficiency symptoms – explain what this means. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Water culture experiments <ul><li>Results </li></ul>Reason Symptoms Element omitted
  7. 7. Nitrate concentration and algal growth <ul><li>Describe a method to investigate the effect of nitrate concentration on the rate of algal growth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include reasons for the stages in the method. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A set of results from this experiment are shown opposite, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>summarise these as a line graph. </li></ul></ul>2.10 3.0 2.10 2.5 2.00 2.0 1.11 1.5 0.48 1.0 0.16 0.5 0.05 0.0 Dry mass of algae (g) Mass of nitrate fertiliser (g)
  8. 8. Lead <ul><li>What effect does lead have on the acitivity of the enzyme catechol oxidase? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe an experiment which demonstrates this. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What effects can lead have on humans? </li></ul><ul><li>How can humans come into contact with lead? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the correlation between tooth lead content and performance in a sample of school children. </li></ul><ul><li>What has been done to reduce the impact of lead on humans? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Learning Content <ul><li>The effect of vitamin D deficiency in humans. </li></ul><ul><li>The effect of drugs on fetal development: thalidomide, alcohol, nicotine. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Vitamin D <ul><li>Why is vitamin D essential to humans? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the deficiency symptoms for vitamin D? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can this be prevented? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why is the global distribution of rickets not uniform? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Effects of drugs on foetal development <ul><li>What is thalidomide? </li></ul><ul><li>What was it originally intended for? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the side effects of this drug? </li></ul><ul><li>How was it able to effect the foetus? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Effects of drugs on foetal development <ul><li>Alcohol & Nicotine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce a leaflet which explains the risks of smoking and drinking during pregnancy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are the current guidelines for pregnant women? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Learning Content <ul><li>Light. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The effect of light on vegetative shoot growth and development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The effect of light on flowering in long-day and short-day plants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The effect of light on the timing of breeding in birds and mammals. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Vegetative Shoot <ul><li>What is a vegetative shoot? </li></ul><ul><li>What effects does the absence of light have on vegetative shoot growth? </li></ul><ul><li>What is etiolation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can this be explained? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Phototropism <ul><li>What is meant by ‘positively phototrophic’? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it work? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the advantage to the plant of this mechanism? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Flowering <ul><li>What is meant by photoperiodism? </li></ul><ul><li>Long day (short night) plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When do they flower? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name 3 examples and their critical periods. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Short day (long night) plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When do they flower? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name 3 examples and their critical periods. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are day neutral plants? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name 3 examples. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Flowering <ul><li>What role do hormones play in photoperiodism? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe an experiment which demonstrates the role of hormones in communicating photoperiodism. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How is the hormone transported? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe an experiment which demonstrates this. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describe and explain the distribution of long and short day plants according to latitude and season. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the biological significance of photoperiodism? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Breeding <ul><li>What is rhythmical behaviour? </li></ul><ul><li>What does endogenous mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what is meant by seasonal breeders. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe an example of long day breeders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe an example of short day breeders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the biological significance of seasonal breeding? </li></ul><ul><li>How is migration & hibernation related to photoperiodism? </li></ul>