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Memory

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MEMORY

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Memory

  1. 1. MEMORY
  2. 2. WHAT IS MEMORY?WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF MEMORY INLEARNING?
  3. 3. MEMORY-THEPROCESS BY WHICH WE ENCODE,STORE AND RETRIEVE INFORMATION.
  4. 4. MEMORY PROCESS ENCODING STORAGE RETRIEVAL (INFORMATION SAVED FOR (RECOVERY OF STORED(INITIAL ERECORDING OF FUTURE USE) INFO) INFO)
  5. 5. THE THREE SYSTEMS OF MEMORYSENSORY MEMORY-THE INITIAL,MOMENTARYSTORAGE OF INFORMATION,LASTING ONLY ANINSTANT.SHORT TERM MEMORY-MEMORY THAT HOLDSINFORMATION FOR 15 TO 25 SEC.LONG TERM MEMORY-MEMORY THAT STORESINFORMATION ON A RELATIVELY PERMANENTBASIS,ALTHOUGH IT MAY BE DIFFICULT TORETRIEVE.
  6. 6. SHORT-TERM MEMORY LONG-TERM MEMORYSENSORY MEMORY (REPETITIVE (ELABORATE REHEARSAL REHEARSAL,RETAINS INFO. MOVES INFO.INTO LONG- IN SHORT TERM MEMORY) TERM MEMORY)
  7. 7. SENSORY MEMORY-THE FIRST REPOSITORY OF THEINFORMATION THE WORLD PRESENTS TOUS.-FORGETTING TYPICALLY WITHIN 1 SEC.
  8. 8. TYPES OF SENSORY MEMORY1. ICONIC MEMORY-SENSORY MEMORYTHAT REFLECTS INFORMATION FROM THEVISUAL SYSTEM.2.ECHOIC MEMORY-SENSORY MEMORYTHAT STORES AUDITORY INFORMATIONCOMING FROM THE EARS.
  9. 9. SHORT TERM MEMORY (WORKING MEMORY)-MEMORIES THAT ARE STORED FOR ONLY FEWSECONDS.CHUNK-A MEANINGFUL GROUPING OF STIMULI THATCAN STORED AS A UNIT IN SHORT TERM-MEMORY.
  10. 10. PBSFOXCNNABCCBSMTV PBS FOX CNN ABC CBS MTV
  11. 11. REHEARSAL- THE REPETITION OFINFORMATION THAT HAS ENTERED SHORT-TERM MEMORY.
  12. 12. LONG TERM MEMORY-MEMORY THATSTORES INFORMATION ON A RELATIVELYPERMANENT BASIS.
  13. 13. TYPES OF LONG TERM MEMORY1. DECLARATIVE MEMORY-MEMORY FOR FACTUAL INFORMATION:NAMES,FACES,DATES, AND THE LIKE.2. PROCEDURAL MEMORY-MEMORY FOR SKILLS ANDHABITS,SUCH AS RIDING A BIKE AND HITTING ABASEBALL,SOMETIMES REFERRED AS A NON DECLARATIVEMEMORY.3. SEMANTIC MEMORY-MEMORY FOR GENERAL KNOWLEDGE ANDFACTS ABOUT THE WORLD,AS WELL AS MEMORY OF THE RULES INLOGIC THAT ARE USED TO DEDUCE OTHER FACTS.
  14. 14. ENCODING OR TRANSFERRINGTHERE ARE TWO KINDS OF ENCODING OR TRANSFERRING OFINFORMATION FROM SHORT-TERM MEMORY TO LONG TERM-MEMORY.AUTOMATIC ENCODING-IT IS THE TRANSFER OF INFORMATION FROMSHORT-TERM MEMORY INTO LONG-TERM MEMORY WITHOUT ANYAWARENESS. EX, PERSONAL EXPERIENCES AND CONVERSATION,INTERESTING FACTS, LEARNING HOW TO PERFORM VARIOUS SKILLS.EFFORTFUL ENCODING-IT INVOLVES TRANSFER OF INFORMATION FROMSHORT-TERM MEMORY TO LONG-TERM MEMORY EITHER BY WORKINGHARD TO REPEAT OR REHEARSE THE INFORMATION OR BY MAKINGASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN NEW AND OLD INFORMATION.
  15. 15. METHODS OF EFFORTFUL ENCODING1. MAINTENANCE REHEARSAL-REFERS TO SIMPLYREPEATING OR REHEARSING THE INFORMATIONRATHER THAN FORMING NEW ASSOCIATION.2. ELABORATIVE REHEARSAL-INVOLVES ACTIVELYMAKING MEANINGFUL ASSOCIATIONS BETWEENINFORMATION TO BE LEARNED WITH INFORMATIONALREADY STORED IN LONG TERM MEMORY.
  16. 16. ENCODING EFFECTS1. PRIMACY EFFECT-REFERS TO BETTER RECALL ORIMPROVEMENT IN RETENTION.2.RECENCY EFFECT-REFERS TO BETTER RECALL ATTHE END OF A TASK.
  17. 17. CAT DOG LOVE MONEY DOLLAR MAYOR SHIP FEU GUM BAY JOY PSYCHOLOGY
  18. 18. THEORY ON MEMORY AND FORGETTINGFORGETTING-IS THE INABILITY TO RETRIEVE,RECALLOR ORGANIZE INFORMATION THAT WAS STORED ORSTILL STORED IN LONG TERM MEMORY.REASONS FOR FORGETTING1. REPRESSION2.INTERFERENCE3. SYSTEMATIC DISTORTION

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