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Memory

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Memory is the ability to store and restore events, facts and knowledge.

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Memory

  1. 1. MEMORY •Memory is the ability to retain information over time through 3 processes: encoding , storing & retrieving
  2. 2. MEMORY PROCESS Encoding Storing Retreieving making mental representation s of information so that it is placed in memories placing encoded info into relatively permanent memory for later recall getting, recalling information that was placed in short-term and long term storage
  3. 3. 3 STAGES OF MEMORY • ATKINSON & SHRIFFIN MODEL (1968) 1. SENSORY MEMORY >Initial process >holds environmental Information >From an instant to several seconds > aka Working Memory > holds limited information 2. SHORT-TERM MEMORY 3. LONG-TERM MEMORY > 2-30 seconds >stores almost unlimited information over long periods of time
  4. 4. SENSORY MEMORY EXAMPLES: • Iconic Memory • Echoic Memory FUNCTIONS: •Prevents being overwhelmed •Gives decision time •Provides stability •Playback Recognition
  5. 5. SHORT-TERM MEMORY Limited Duration- 2-30 seconds, can be prolonged with Maintenance Rehearsal Limited Capacity-an average of 7 items, FUNCTIONS: •Attending •Rehearsing •Storing
  6. 6. LONG-TERM MEMORY Capacity & Permanency Chances of retrieval Accuracy
  7. 7. Incoming Information Sensory Memory Selective attention Short-term Memory Encoded for Storage Long-Term Memory NO ATTENTION FORGOTTEN NOT ENCODED FORGOTTEN
  8. 8. LEVELS OF PROCESSING
  9. 9. LEVELS OF PROCESSING • CRAIK & LOCKHART MODEL (1972) “Remembering depends on how information is encoded.” 1.SHALLOW PROCESSING 2.DEEP/ SEMANTIC PROCESSING
  10. 10. SHALLOW PROCESSING • Structural • Phonemic • Graphemic • Orthographic Paying attention to basic or physical features. Encoding information at a shallow level may result to poor recall.
  11. 11. SEMANTIC PROCESSING Encoding information by the use of associating old or familiar info with new information. This type of processing results in better recall. *Elaborative Rehearsal
  12. 12. FORGETTING Can be described as the loss of information already stored in long-term memory.
  13. 13. FORGETTING WHY DO PEOPLE FORGET?
  14. 14. 1. CUE DEPENDENT Unavailable stimuli during attempted recall. 2. ORGANIC Physiological brain damage. 3. INTERFERENCE THEORIES 1. Proactive- old interferes with new 2. Retroactive- new interferes with old 4. DECAY THEORIES “Memory Trace’ vanishes because it hasn’t been used for a long
  15. 15. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING. :)

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