Ch 6 Texas Reconstruction

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  • 1. Reconstruction, republicanism, and “redemption”
    Chapter Six
  • 2. The Myth of Reconstruction
    Southerners fought against the North to protect local institutions and states’ rights
    The North won and then set out to deliberately enforce a policy of rape, pillage, plunder, and vindictive punishment on the South
    The South became controlled by vindictive Union soldiers, carpetbaggers, and scalawags
  • 3. The Myth of Reconstruction
    Carpetbagger – Northerner who came to the broken South for economic opportunity. They claimed they had the South’s interests in mind, but were all about the money.
    Scalawags – Southerners who had always favored the Union; opposed secession, and sometimes taken up arms against the South (think of Gainesville)
  • 4. The Myth of Reconstruction
    The North easily manipulated and subjected Southerners to unethical and inhumane punishment during Reconstruction
    They raised taxes, ruined the economy, and used military force to perpetuate their control as long as possible
    In essence, the South was a subjugated colony of the North (not any better off than the American colonies were in the 1760s and early 1770s)
  • 5. The Burning of Atlanta, Georgia
  • 6.
  • 7. The “Lost Cause”
  • 8. The “Lost Cause”
    Term first appears in 1866 in historian Edward A. Pollard’s The Lost Cause: A New Southern History of the War of the Confederates
    Writings by Jubal A. Early for the Southern Historical Society in the 1870s push the “Lost Cause” mentality as a cultural phenomenon
    Historian Jason Phillips argues that the Confederate “culture of invincibility” evolved into the “Lost Cause”
    Confederates used religious overtones to justify their defeat and eventual redemption
  • 9. The “Lost Cause”
    Major Concepts of the Movement/Cult
    Robert E. Lee and “Stonewall” Jackson represented Southern nobility
    Northern generals represented low moral standards and subjected the Southerners to horrific evils (Grant and Sherman are key targets)
    Confederate losses on the battlefield were inevitable due to Northern superiority in resources and manpower (Industrialization
    Confederates losses are also attributed to betrayal of General Lee’s subordinates (mainly Gen. James Longstreet, but this is an opinion of Lt. Gen. Early)
  • 10. The “Lost Cause”
    Major Concepts of the Movement/Cult
    Defense of states’ rights was the primary catalyst that led Southerners to secede from the Union
    Preservation of slavery was never a main tenant
    Secession was justifiable and a constitutional response to Northern cultural and economic aggression against the Southern way of life
    Slavery was a benign institution
    Slaves were loyal and faithful to their benevolent masters
  • 11. The “Lost Cause”
    In Summary
    The movement was created in part for Southerners to cope with the dramatic political, social, and economic changes that came after the war
    This feeds directly into Southern animosity and the Southern Myth of Reconstruction
    In part, it also feeds groups such as the Ku Klux Klan
    The movement is transferred into the 20th century by the United Confederate Veterans and the United Daughters of the Confederacy
  • 12. The Reality of Reconstruction
    Most historians agree that Reconstruction was very moderate (compared to what it could have been)
    Reconstruction was a period of irregularity for Southerners as they tried to:
    Regain admission to the United States
    Rebuild their devastated economy
    Cope with the emotional baggage of defeat; the “Lost Cause” cult/mentality
  • 13. The Reality of Reconstruction
    Reconstruction was politically, economically, and socially abnormal for the South
    Northern imposed Reconstruction governments pursued active government that resulted in higher taxes
    Southerners preferred antebellum Southern government that was inactive and weak
    Traditional Democratic leaders in the South were disfranchised while blacks were temporarily enfranchised
  • 14. The Reality of Reconstruction
    Slavery was abolished
    The Southern economy was in ruins because of war debt and the lack of an large, inexpensive labor pool
    Blacks were given limited rights
    This struck fear in the hearts of many Southerners
  • 15. The Reality of Reconstruction
    Moderate Reality
    There were no mass executions of Confederate politicians or military personnel
    There was no nationalization or appropriation of plantation lands by the North
    The North did not force war reparation payments on the South
    The Reality of Industrialization
    The North was now the strongest section of the nation due to rapid population increases and industrialization
    As a result, the South was no longer an equal section of the nation.
  • 16. Lincoln’s Legacy for Reconstruction (1863-1865)
    The Ten Percent Plan (1863)
    • Lincoln wanted a quick and painless method to bring the secessionist states back to the Union after the war ended
    • 17. The plan indicated that any state would be reaccepted to the Union after 10% of the people who voted in the 1860 election took an oath to the United States.
    • 18. The only exclusion were CSA officers and leaders.
    Congress’ Response to Lincoln: The Wade-Davis Bill (1864)
    • Congress felt that Lincoln was too conciliatory and weak on the secessionist states.
    • 19. They were afraid the slave and plantation owners would quickly regain all their previous power.
    • 20. The Wade-Davis Bill indicated that 50% of the people of a secessionist state would be required to take an oath to the United States before they could be considered for statehood.
  • Phases of Reconstruction in Texas
    • Provisional Texas Government (1865-1866)
    • 21. Presidential Reconstruction (1866-1867)
    • 22. Congressional Reconstruction (1867-1870)
    • 23. Radical Reconstruction (1870-1874)
    • 24. Redemption (1874-1876)
    • How do secessionist states regain recognition with the United States?
    • 25. What do we do with the Confederates?
    • 26. Civil status for their leaders
    • 27. What is the Constitutional and legal status of freed blacks (freedmen)?
  • Andrew Jackson Hamilton (Provisional Texas Gov. 1865-1866)
  • 28. U.S. President Andrew Johnson
  • 29. Provisional Government
    President Andrew Johnson appoints Andrew Jackson Hamilton, former U.S. congressman and Unionist as provisional Texas Governor in June 1865
    Johnson’s Terms of Reconstruction
    All seceded states must declare secession null and void
    Cancel all debt accumulated during the war
    Approve the Thirteenth Amendment
    Ended slavery
    Most people were required to take an oath of loyalty to the U.S.
    Johnson wanted to end Reconstruction quickly
    Exemptions to Johnson’s Reconstruction
    All high-ranking ex-Confederates
    Property owners with land values over $20,000
  • 30. Provisional Government
    Political Factions in Texas (1865-1866)
    Slavery is the divisive issue
    Hamilton Unionists – proposed basic rights for freedmen; similar to national Republicans
    Conservative Unionists – opposed granting any freedoms to blacks beyond emancipation
    Conservative Democrats – former Secessionist Democrats; also opposed any freedoms for blacks beyond emancipation
  • 31. Constitutional Convention of 1866
    Gov. Hamilton attempted to appease President Johnson’s rapid reinstatement of former Confederate states
    Legal status of secession
    Declares secession illegal
    Controversy over Texas’ war debt
    Debt forgiven
    Issue of slavery
    Accepts the demise of slavery
    Does not accept the Thirteenth Amendment (finally does in 1870)
  • 32. Constitutional Convention of 1866
    Freedmen’s Rights
    Constitution grants blacks freedoms federal policy forced them to concede
    Right to purchase and sell property
    Right to sue and be sued
    Right to enter legally binding contracts
    Right to testify in court against other only other blacks
    Rights withheld
    Election and access to public office
    Jury participation
    Public schools
    25 June 1866, the Constitution of 1866 was approved
    Essentially amended the Constitution of 1845
  • 33. James Webb Throckmorton – Texas Gov. (1866-1867)
  • 34. Presidential Reconstruction
    Election of 1866
    Hamilton’s faction argues that the philosophy of the Union is the only way for Texas to be readmitted as a state; selects Elisha M. Pease to head the Union campaign
    James Webb Throckmorton, ex-Confederate general , appealed to the Conservative Democrats
    Denied blacks’ rights
    Advocated that a “radical” take-over by Unionists was possible
    Would lead to a new racial order in the South
    Political disarmament of ex-Confederates
    Denial of a rightful place for ex-Confederate states in the Union
  • 35. Presidential Reconstruction
    Social Status of Freedmen
    Roughly 250,000 in Texas (1865)
    Some freedmen remained in slavery until 1868
    Whites did not accept them as free
    Distrusted and feared them
    Saw them as an economic and social burden
    White racial superiority was the norm
    Paranoia over the potential mixing of black men and white women
    Later becomes one of the typical justifications for lynching against blacks
  • 36. Black Codes in Texas
    1866, Texas state legislature enacted this set of laws to dictate black economic progress
    Contract labor law (binding agreement)
    Could be thrown in prison and sent to work for the state if they refused to work
    Blacks prohibited from interracial mixture
    Could not hold public office
    Could not serve on juries or bear witness against a white person
    Could not vote
    The social conditions for blacks greatly deteriorated under Throckmorton and Presidential Reconstruction
  • 37. Freedmen’s Bureau
    • Established in 1866 to help fight for the rights of freedmen in hostile areas in the South
    • 38. Had an impossible task; only 1000 agents in the South
    • 39. Was an experiment in social policy that might have worked in the New Deal era or the 1960s
    • 40. Goals:
    • 41. Establish schools for blacks
    • 42. Aid to poor/aged blacks
    • 43. Settle racial disputes
    • 44. Secure equal treatment and civility for blacks in the court system
    • 45. Made decent gains in healthcare and education, but it gets overshadowed with Reconstruction and lasting racial animosity
  • Freedmen’s Bureau in Texas
    Public Perception
    Viewed as carpetbaggers who were bent on rendering the South powerless
    Intruders interfering with race relations
    Opportunists who worked solely for the money they earned from their office
    Limited manpower
    Only 70 agents and subordinates in Texas
    Lacked the personnel to truly help freedmen integrate into society
    General G. M. Gregory
    First head of the Freedmen’s Bureau in Texas
    Attempted to fully integrate freedmen into society
    Asserted that freedmen had full legal rights
    Texans protested enough to get him transferred to Maryland
  • 46. Freedmen’s Bureau in Texas
    Teachers difficult to recruit
    Instruction not easy in an atmosphere promoting white supremacy
    School supplies hard to find
    16 schools in 1865
    Some improvements were made in health care and social aid for blacks
  • 47. Freedmen’s Bureau in Texas
    Teachers difficult to recruit
    Instruction not easy in an atmosphere promoting white supremacy
    School supplies hard to find
    16 schools in 1865
    Some improvements were made in health care and social aid for blacks
  • 48. Radical Reconstruction
  • 49. Military Occupation
    Public Perception
    Texans openly condemned them
    Openly attacked them in hit-and-run operations
    Believed that the military was involved in too many aspects of their lives (violated rugged individualism’s version of republicanism)
    Protecting the western and southern frontiers from Indian attacks
    Protecting the civil rights of freedmen and Unionists
    Escorting cattle herds
    Censoring the press
    Inspections and quarantines at ports
    Sanitation programs
  • 50. The 9th Cavalry at Ft. Davis
  • 51. Military Occupation
    Military issues
    Public drunkenness
    Soldiers destroyed farm goods
    Stole livestock
    Destruction of private property
    Openly criticized former Confederates
  • 52. Republican Party Factions
    Not everyone was happy with President Johnson’s vision of Reconstruction, especially the Republicans
    Radical Republicans
    States should be treated like conquered provinces
    All means should be taken to guarantee the rights of freedmen
    All southerners should take an oath of allegiance before voting or serving in government
    Conservative Republicans
    Worried about mainstream Republican ideology
    Endorsing tariffs
    Promoting internal improvements
    Moderate Republicans
    Somewhere between the two extremes
    Overall, Republicans felt Johnson was too lenient and the Civil War was in vain if Southern states were brought back into the Union with prewar political/social structures
  • 53. Republican Party Motives
    Question: Can radicalism be truly sincere?
    Opinion 1: Republicans were selfish and recruited blacks into their ranks to diminish the strength of hostile white southerners
    Opinion 2: Republicans were truly desiring to make a meaningful change in the South
    Really wanted blacks to have equality under the law
  • 54. Congressional Reconstruction (1867-1870)
    Reconstruction Act of 1867
    • Johnson really tried to keep this one from getting passed
    • 55. The act effectively seized control of Reconstruction from Johnson
    • 56. More Radical Republicans were coming into Congress; outnumbering moderates and Democrats
    • 57. The act divides the South into 5 military districts
    • 58. First District: Virginia
    • 59. Second District: North and South Carolina
    • 60. Third District: Georgia, Alabama, and Florida
    • 61. Fourth District: Arkansas and Mississippi
    • 62. Fifth District: Texas and Louisiana
    • 63. Republican Party was established in Houston on 4 July 1867
    • 64. All ex-Confederate states required to write new constitutions with all races participating in the constitutional conventions (blacks must be granted suffrage and allowed to hold public office)
  • Effects of the 1867 Reforms in Texas
    The Reconstruction Acts barred ex-Confederate office holders from voting
    Those that took the oath of the U.S. and then participated in the Confederacy
    However, over 59,000 white Texas were able to most
    Many were ex-Confederate soldiers
    Loophole: those that swore to uphold the U.S. Constitution were not subjected to the scrutiny of the Reconstruction Acts of 1867
    Roughly only 7,000 to 10,000 Texas were disenfranchised
  • 65. Congressional Reconstruction (1867-1870)
    Johnson Gets Impeached
    • Congress attempts to impeach him twice; they succeed the second time
    • 66. Charge him with violating the Tenure of Office Act
    • 67. He narrowly escapes being thrown out of office
    • 68. Good lawyers convince Congress he would play nice until the end of his term
    • 69. Johnson becomes the first president to get impeached and the first to succeed an assassinated president
    Christmas Day Amnesty Act
    • Johnson grants unconditional amnesty to all Confederates on 25 December 1868, less than a month before he turned over the office to Ulysses S. Grant
    14th Amendment
    • Guarantees citizenship for all freedmen
    15th Amendment
    • Guarantees suffrage (right to vote) regardless of race, color, or previous servitude (slavery)
    • 70. Feminists enraged because they were not included
  • Texas Under Martial Law
    General Philip Sheridan removes Texas Governor Throckmorton from office effective 30 July 1867
    Elisha M. Pease is appointed as the interim governor
    An election for a constitutional convention is announced for February 1868
    Gen. Philip H. Sheridan
  • 71. Elisha M. Pease – Texas Governor
    Congressional Reconstruction
  • 72. Convention of 1868
    Black Participation
    Republicans invited blacks to participate
    George T. Ruby of Galveston was the most prominent
    Black leaders demanded that voter registration boards included black members
    Roughly 48,000 freedmen registered to vote for the Convention of 1868
    Despite violence, over 82 percent of registered blacks voted in February 1868
    George T. Ruby
  • 73. Constitutional Convention of 1868
    Ab initio (from the beginning); “to be treated as invalid from the outset”
    Belief that all official acts passed under secession to help the Confederacy were null and void
    Belief in equality for freedmen
    Support for state financing of public schools
    Use of eastern railroad interests to build new lines in Texas
    Disenfranchisement of ex-Confederates
    Edmund J. Davis’ “Radical” faction believed in it
    Pease and Hamilton’s “Moderate” supporters rejected it
    This issue becomes the key argument for the convention
    By August 1868, the delegates disband without a constitution because funding ran out
  • 74. Constitution of 1869
    Delegates meet again in February 1869 to approve the measures presented in the convention from 1868
    Departed from the Texas political tradition in numerous ways:
    Granted suffrage and general civil rights to blacks
    Enthusiastic support for all Texans to receive a public education
    Checks and balances between local/county and state statutes
    State laws increasing the power of the governor
    Attempted to keep railroad interests from taking public land
  • 75. Rise of the Ku Klux Klan
  • 76. Rise of the Ku Klux Klan
    Reaction to Reconstruction
    • Klan was created in 1865 immediately after the end of the Civil War
    • 77. Created by a group influenced by the theatre
    • 78. Attempting to conceal their purpose under the symbolism of carnival
    • 79. Really did not gain steam until Radical Reconstruction in the late 1860s
    • 80. The group was essentially a reaction to two things:
    • 81. A rising number of discontented veterans in the South
    • 82. Dramatically altered social situation where whites had to reclaim white supremacy
    • 83. Waco’s own Felix H. Robertson was most likely a member (his son was a member of the Klan in the 1920s)
    • 84. The Klan becomes tied with the Democratic Party
    • 85. Essentially a para-military force that served the interests of Democrats, planters, and all those who wished for white supremacy to return to an “Old South”
    • 86. The group relates well to the “Lost Cause” mentality
    • 87. President Grant effectively uses federal power to silence the Klan throughout the rest of Reconstruction
    • 88. Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871
    • 89. They never really go away; just go underground until the 1920s
  • 90.
  • 91.
  • 92.
  • 93.
  • 94. Klansmen in Mississippi
  • 95. Ku Klux Klan Warning to Carpetbaggers in Ohio
  • 96. Texas Governor Edmund J. Davis
  • 97. The 1869 Election
    Radical Republican candidate – Edmund J. Davis
    Supported ab initio along with the 13th and 14th amendments
    Moderate Republicans – A. J. Hamilton
    Hamilton did not really care about their program
    Moderates were trying to appeal to Democrats
    Democrats do not nominate a candidate
    Some could not vote/hold office due to disenfranchisement
    Democrats were afraid another Dem. Governor would prolong Reconstruction in Texas
    Democrats were attempting to show their defiance by boycotting the polls
  • 98. The 1869 Election
    Davis wins; 39,838 to 39,005 (Hamilton)
    Democrats did not want to support a man who fled to the North and engaged in their politics (Hamilton)
    Constitution of 1869 approved
    72,366 to 4,928
    Pease resigned in September 1869
    Texas military commander Gen. Reynolds appoints Davis governor in January 1870
    After the U.S. Congress received results of the election, Texas was restored to the Union on 30 March 1870
    President Ulysses S. Grant signed the bill
  • 99. Blacks in the Texas Legislature
    The Twelfth Legislature (1870-1871)
    2 black senators
    12 black representatives
    Constituted 12 percent of the membership
    George T. Ruby
    Established a political base in Galveston
    Became president of the Union League in 1868
    Served as senator from Galveston from 1869-1873
    Matt Gaines
    Self-educated slave who became a preacher after the war
    Advocate in the Texas Senate for African-American causes and constant critic of those temperate on race issues
  • 100.
  • 101. E. J. Davis’ Administration
    Most agree he initiated Radical Reconstruction in Texas
    Assisted primarily by scalawags
    Organize a state police force
    Empowered to assist local officials
    Organize a state militia
    Guard the frontier and Mexican border
    Homestead program to encourage farming
    160 acres for those who worked land for 3 yrs.
    Bureau of Immigration
    To attract European settlers
    Public School System
    More railroad construction projects
    Higher taxes came as a result of this progressive agenda
  • 102. Davis’ Critics
    Extravagant Spending
    Most of the state’s revenue under Davis went to funding:
    Law enforcement
    School System
    Frontier Defense
    These were issues common to Texas’ political ideals
    Opponents condemned Davis on the following points:
    Central gov’t usurpation of local autonomy
    Davis was too friendly with Northern railroads
    Believed state taxation was unnecessary
  • 103. Democratic Take-Over (1873)
    Democrats won majorities in both houses of the Thirteenth Legislature (1873)
    Democrats began an assault against Davis’ programs
    Cut his public school system
    Abolished the state police
    Changed the homestead policy to make land less affordable
    However, they passed an amendment to use land grants to entice railroad construction
  • 104. U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant
  • 105. A Nation in Transition (1873-1874)
    The Grant Administration
    • Known primarily as an era of scandals
    • 106. Grant had difficulty dealing with a Congress that was split on issues such as:
    • 107. Tariffs
    • 108. Currency
    • 109. Civil Service Reform
    • 110. Mark Twain reflects on this period as an ‘age of excess’; also becomes known as the “Gilded Age”
    Panic of 1873
    • Really marks the shift between Radical and Redemptive Reconstruction
    • 111. The economy in the South was bad, but it gets much worse
    • 112. Cotton prices fall in half
    • 113. Many small landowners, merchants, and some wholesalers go bankrupt
    • 114. Sharecropping becomes common
    • 115. Sharing the risk of owning land; black and white farmers participate
    • 116. Crop-Lien System – farmers have to commit a portion of their year’s crops as collateral for purchasing needed goods
    • 117. President Grant takes the blame; Republicans lose many seats in Congress
  • Freedmen
    Farmers delivered a portion of their year’s crops to the landowner for:
    Land to farm
    Planting necessities (fertilizer, seed, etc.)
    Farm animals
    Some degree of independence
    Farmers established their own work schedules
    Chronic indebtedness was normal for sharecroppers
    Interest rates on bank loans roughly 15%
  • 118. Freedmen
    Potential Jobs
    Cowboys (working ranches in East Texas)
    State Police or Militia
    Army service on the frontier
    Women’s jobs
    Worked in white households
    Menial tasks for substandard wages
    Some black Texans managed to start businesses, but this was rare at the time
  • 119. Freedmen
    Independent black churches rose in number during Reconstruction
    Churches served many functions:
    Religious services
    Social activities
    Educational instruction
    Political planning
    Workforce planning
    Religion reinforced people’s sense of morality and proper behavior
    A majority of blacks joined the Baptist denomination during this era
    Methodists also represented a significant percentage
  • 120. Redemptive Reconstruction (Texas Gov. Richard Coke)
  • 121. Richard Coke’s Grave, Oakwood Cemetery, Waco, Texas
  • 122. Redemptive Reconstruction
    Gubernatorial Election of 1874
    Davis ran again on a Republican ticket
    Richard Coke ran as a Conservative Democrat
    Ex-Confederate from Waco
    “Redemptive Democrats”
    Restoring states’ rights
    Overthrowing the Republican/freedmen coalition
    “Redeeming Texas” to its former glory
    Coke won the election
    100,415 to 52,141
  • 123. Transition Issues
    Ex parte Rodriguez
    Texas Supreme Court case that ruled Coke’s election illegal
    Rodriguez, citizen from Harris County, found to have voted twice
    Caused a panic among Republicans regarding voter fraud
    The “Semi-Colon Court”
    Rodriguez’s lawyers asserted that the 1869 Constitution was in conflict with a law passed by the 13th Legislature
    “…all elections shall be held at the county seats until otherwise provided by law; and the polls shall be open for four days”
  • 124. Transition Issues
    The “Semi-Colon Court”
    Supreme Court argued that the semicolon made the two clauses independent
    Thus, the legislature could not alter the voting period
    Davis’ Issue
    Option 1: Disregard the Supreme Court and uphold the election
    Option 2: Uphold the Supreme Court’s action and disregard the election
    Davis wired President Grant for assistance
    Grant replies he wants nothing to do with the issue
    Davis assumes that Grant wanted him to disregard the Supreme Court’s decision
  • 125. Coke’s Administration
    Appealed to business interests
    Moderate endorsement of railroad and industrial expansion
    Also appealed to agrarian sentiments
    Farmer’s society known as the “Grange” greatly supported Coke
    The “Redeemer” Agenda
    Republicans destroyed Southern prosperity
    It was up to the “Redeemers” to deliver the South from Republican rule
    Moderate industrialization
    Lower expenses of gov’t
    Lower taxes
    Create an inexpensive labor supply
  • 126. Constitution of 1876
    Democrats demanded a new constitution
    Wanted to erase Reconstruction mandates
    Wanted to overturn Republican successes for freedmen
    Return to limited government
    Davis calls a convention in 1875
    75 of the 90 delegates were professed Democrats
    41 farmers made the largest professional bloc
    Lawyers came in second with 29
    Notable delegates
    Lawrence “Sul” Ross
    John S. “Rip” Ford
  • 127.
  • 128. Constitution of 1876
    Return to Jacksonian Democracy
    Limited gov’t and frugality
    Used the Constitution of 1845 as a model
    Prohibited the state from chartering banks
    Texas could regulate corporations and railroad companies
    State debt ceiling of $200,000
    Virtually abolished the public school system
    Set a strict tax rate
  • 129.
  • 130. Constitution of 1876
    Return to Jacksonian Democracy
    Limited gov’t and frugality
    Used the Constitution of 1845 as a model
    Prohibited the state from chartering banks
    Texas could regulate corporations and railroad companies
    State debt ceiling of $200,000
    Virtually abolished the public school system
    Set a strict tax rate
  • 131. Constitution of 1876
    Suffrage and Poll Taxes
    Delegates from East Texas wanted a poll tax
    To disfranchise blacks (most could not afford to pay the tax)
    Republicans and Grangers defeated the proposal
    A poll tax is later added though
    Struck down voter registration
    Disfranchised women
    Aliens could vote though
    Essentially, it was a return to Jacksonian concepts of universal manhood suffrage
  • 132.
  • 133. Constitution of 1876
    The Executive Branch
    Governor had traditional charge to oversee the execution of laws, but had no real authority to do so
    Goes back to distrust of central government
    Term of office cut from 4 to 2 years
    Governor could veto legislation
    Legislature can override with 2/3s vote
    Governor can call special session of the legislature
    Voters would now choose:
    Lieutenant governor
    Land Commissioner
    Attorney General
  • 134. Constitution of 1876
    Many argued that parents should bear responsibility for education
    White landowners did not want to pay to educate black children
    Grangers advocated for local control of education
    Can save money and establish schools that worked around crop cycles
    Constitution passed a $1 tax on males between 21 and 60 to support “state education”
    No provisions for local taxes and funding for community schools
    Public education remained inadequate as a result
  • 135. Constitution of 1876
    Public School Land
    Constitution endowed a permanent school fund from land previously set aside
    The University of Texas took away the 3 million acres granted in 1858
    However, it was granted 1 million acres over pools of oil
  • 136. Constitution of 1876
    Approved 53 to 11 in November 1875
    Texas still operates under the Constitution of 1876
    One of the longest and convoluted state constitutions in the country
    Alabama and California edge out Texas on length
    The document is highly restrictive in nature
    State of Texas only has powers explicitly granted
    No “Necessary and Proper Clause”
    Essentially functions as a limiting document
    As of November 2009, 643 amendments proposed, 467 approved