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Civil War Era 8th Grade Unit 2
  U.S. History    by the Standards
Nationalism
Nationalism A sense of the South as a distinct region with a common culture and set of political priorities that were in conflict with the rest of the U.S.--in the decades leading up to the Civil War.  At the heart of that nationalism was slavery. This "Southern thought" opposed classical liberalism, capitalism, industrialism, and democracy.  Saw itself in opposition to the very ideals of the American Revolution.
  Sectionalism
Sectionalism One big neighborhood dispute, and the neighborhood was the United States in the mid-1800s.  The nation was divided by its interests, attitudes, and overall lifestyles.  Northerners focused on fast-paced business and industry, spending their days manufacturing, shipping, and trading goods.  The Southern economy relied on slow and steady agricultural growth. Planting and picking crops was the work of slaves who supported plantation owners' with their labor.
Expansion of Slavery
Expansion of Slavery Spread of slavery into western territory raised tension Southerners insisted they be allowed to take their enslaved workers with them anywhere except free states (the plantation system depended on slaves to harvest the cotton) In the North and West, which were not economically dependent on slave labor—there was a feeling that slavery was morally wrong—they did not want to extend slavery to new territory To Southerners, this meant that no new slave states could be formed—and the political power of the South would decrease
Tariffs
Tariffs Northeastern manufacturers and laborers wanted protective tariffs to ensure that their factories could compete successfully with European manufactures Southerners whose economy rested mainly on agriculture opposed high tariffs because they would have to pay more for imported goods Even though the northwest was a farming region—they were mostly in favor of high tariffs—they felt the high tariffs would provide revenue for roads, canals and railroads—increase urban markets for farm products
Westward Expansion
Westward Expansion When Missouri applied for admission to the Union as a slave state—controversy erupted What resulted was the Missouri Compromise—Missouri and Maine would be admitted to the union—Missouri slave and Maine free—however, the remainder of the Louisiana Territory would be divided at the 36-30 north parallel—slavery would be forbidden north of this line.
Internal Improvements
Internal Improvements Building roads and bridges within America President Adams proposed a program of federal support for internal improvements in Dec. 1825; strict Jeffersonians claimed it to be unconstitutional.  The South had few plans to build canals and roads. Jackson, with a political base in the South, felt that federal support meant a possibly corrupt giveaway program for the North.
Nullification
Nullification When a state declares a federal law “null and void”—doesn’t recognize the law 1832—Congress passed yet another high tariff—South Carolina threatened to secede or leave the Union if the government tried to collect on these taxes—eventually a bill was passed to lower the tariff rates and South Carolina remained in the Union
Dred Scott vs Sanford
Dred Scott v Sanford The Supreme Court ruled that African Americans were not citizens and therefore could not sue in court
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Plessy v Ferguson The Supreme Court ruled that segregation was legal as long as separate facilities were equal Again—founding fathers did not intend for African Americans to be citizens
Lincoln’s Suspension of Habeas Corpus
Lincoln’s Suspension of Habeas Corpus During the Civil War both presidents (Abe Lincoln and Jefferson Davis) suppressed anti-war opinion by curtailing the civil rights of citizens In some areas martial law was declared—a form of military rule that includes suspending constitutional guarantees of civil rights Habeas Corpus—was also put aside—requires that persons who are arrested be brought to court to show why they are being held It was Lincoln’s belief that the survival of the nation during an emergency overrode the Constitution
Missouri Compromise
Missouri Compromise Through the efforts of Henry Clay, two states were admitted, a free Maine and a slave Missouri, and the balance of power in Congress was maintained as before. Stipulated that all the Louisiana Purchase territory north of the southern boundary of Missouri, except Missouri, would be free, and the territory below that line would be slave.  The Missouri Compromise was repealed by the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act and declared unconstitutional in the 1857 Dred Scott decision.
Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850 Those favoring the North:  California would be admitted a free state and slave trade (not slavery) was forbidden in the District of Columbia The South:  would gain a stronger Fugitive Slave Law designed to suppress the Underground Railroad Territory gained after the Mexican War would be divided into two territories Utah and New Mexico—question of slavery there would be decided by popular sovereignty
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Kansas-Nebraska Act The area west of Missouri would be divided into to territories—Nebraska and Kansas—the question of slavery in the two areas would be decided by popular sovereignty—this negated the Missouri Compromise because they both lay above the 36-30 parallel
Popular Sovereignty
Popular Sovereignty The right to vote on whether slavery shall exist in the territories
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Uncle Tom’s Cabin This book increased anti-slavery feeling in the North by portraying slavery at its worst Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
Issues Leading to Civil War Slavery Economics State’s Rights
Slavery
Slavery During the 19th century the South remained almost completely agricultural, with an economy and a social order largely founded on slavery and the plantation system. These mutually dependent institutions produced the staples, especially cotton, from which the South derived its wealth.  The North had its own great agricultural resources, was always more advanced commercially, and was also expanding industrially.
Economics
Economics The North was self sufficient complete with agriculture and industry The South was mainly agricultural and depended on New England as well as Europe for manufactured goods
State’s Rights
State’s Rights Two sides to the issue: those who want the federal government to have more control and those who felt the states should have more power They felt that the states should still have the right to decide if they were willing to accept certain federal acts. This resulted in the idea of nullification, where the states would have the right to rule federal acts unconstitutional.
Antietam
Antietam General Lee planned to attack Washington D.C. to destroy northern morale—he would split his army into two groups McClellan attacked Lee at Antietam in Maryland In the bloodiest single day of fighting McClellan forced Lee to retreat to Virginia The Confederates lost more than 11,000 casualties—McClellan lost even more—his army was too damaged to pursue Lee and finish him.
Gettysburg
Gettysburg Marked the turning point of the Civil War After three days of fighting Union casualties were more than 23,000 while more than 28,000 Confederates were killed or injured The Union Army under the leadership of General Meade failed to pursue Lee as he retreated.
Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation DID NOT FREE ALL SLAVES! Freed enslaved people in those areas that were rebelling against the Union It didn’t immediately free anyone as it only pertained to those areas held by the enemy
Sherman’s March  to the Sea
Sherman’s March to the Sea Sherman marched from Chattanooga to Atlanta, Georgia, defeating Generals Joseph E. Johnston and John B. Hood.  After capturing Atlanta, he laid waste to much of the rest of Georgia in what has been called Sherman's March to the Sea, reaching the sea at Savannah, Georgia.
Sherman’s March to the Sea Burning towns and plantations as they went, Sherman's armies hauled off crops and killed livestock to retaliate and to deny use of these economic assets to the Confederacy When Sherman turned north through South Carolina and North Carolina to approach the Virginia lines from the south, it was the end for Lee and his men, and for the Confederacy.
Abolitionists vs. Slaveholders
Comparison Abolitionists Slaveholders
Robert E. Lee vs.  Ulysses S Grant
Comparison Robert E. Lee Ulysses S Grant
Abraham Lincoln vs.  Jefferson Davis
Comparison Abraham Lincoln Jefferson Davis
Harriet Beecher Stowe vs. Mary Chestnut
Comparison Harriet Beecher Stowe Mary Chesnut
Lincoln’s Reconstruction
Lincoln’s Reconstruction
Congressional Leaders Reconstruction
Congressional Reconstruction
Johnson’s Reconstruction
Johnson’s Reconstruction
Impeachment of Johnson Impeachment Trial Constitutional Powers Edmund G. Ross
Impeachment Trial
Impeachment Trial
Constitutional Powers
Constitutional Powers
Edmund G. Ross
Edmund G. Ross
Black Codes
Black Codes A series of statutes passed by the ex-Confederate states.  They varied greatly from state to state as to their harshness and restrictiveness.  Provided for the segregation of public facilities and placed severe restrictions on the freedman's status as a free laborer, his right to own real estate, and his right to testify in court.   
Sharecropping
Sharecropping Sharecropping came to define the method of land lease that would eventually become a new form of slavery.  Without land of their own, many blacks were drawn into schemes where they worked a portion of the land owned by whites for a share of the profit from the crops.  When accounting time came, the black farmer was always a few dollars short of what he owed the landowner, so he invariably began the new year with a deficit. As that deficit grew, he found it impossible to escape from his situation.
Jim Crow
Jim Crow Laws Jim Crow laws were laws that imposed racial segregation.  They existed mainly in the South.  The laws sprouted up in the late nineteenth century after Reconstruction and lasted until the 1960s.
Civil War Amendments
Civil War Amendments The Thirteenth Amendment outlawed slavery. The Fourteenth Amendment was ratified in Slaves became citizens. The Fifteenth Amendment allowed African Americans (males) the right to vote.
Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass One of the leaders of the abolitionist movement The first black citizen to hold high rank (as U.S. minister and consul general to Haiti) in the U.S. government.
Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan The original Ku Klux Klan was organized by ex-Confederate elements to oppose the Reconstruction policies of the radical Republican Congress. And to maintain "white supremacy."  After the Civil War, when local government in the South was weak or nonexistent and there were fears of black outrages and even of an insurrection, informal vigilante organizations or armed patrols were formed in almost all communities to control the blacks.
Exodusters
Exodusters Reconstruction gave way to renewed racial oppression, a former slave named Benjamin “Pap” Singleton began urging blacks to form their own independent communities in the West.  Those who followed his advice called themselves “Exodusters,” because they believed the West would prove their promised land.   
Border Ruffians
Border Ruffians Were from Missouri and supported slavery Tried to destroy the free staters Wanted Kansas to be a slave state
Bushwhackers
Bushwhackers Supported the Confederacy Were for slavery
Jayhawkers
Jayhawker Supported the Union Were against slavery
Underground Railroad
Underground Railroad A secret passage way for slaves to escape the south to freedom in the north Led by Harriet Tubman
Free-Staters
Free-Staters Did not want slavery in Kansas
Abolitionists
Abolitionists People who are opposed to slavery
Effects of Scarcity on Price
Effects of Scarcity on Price Price and Production When the prices up—production tends to go down   Consumption and Distribution When consumption goes down—distribution is limited  
Kansas Constitution
Kansas Constitution Rights Guaranteed by the Kansas Constitution and Bill of Rights  Equal rights People have the political power Assembly Petition Trial by Jury Search and Seizure Justice without delay Voting rights Free Speech
Agricultural Practices Before and After the Dust Storms Rotation of Crops Shelter Belts Irrigation Terracing Stubble Mulch
Rotation of Crops
Rotation of Crops Rotate crops in such a way that one takes nutrients out of the ground while the other puts nutrients back in to the ground.
Shelter Belts
Shelter Belts Provide protection to the land from erosion due to the wind blowing the top soil away
Irrigation
Irrigation Has allowed farmers to grow crops previously only available in those regions which sustain a lot of rain Now, however, they have created another problem as the water table in the Ogallala Aquifer is at very low levels.
Terracing
Terracing Has allowed farmers to produce crops on land that is not flat—by terracing the land, it keeps the rainfall in the field without washing away topsoil.
Stubble Mulch
Stubble Mulch By leaving the stalks in the field after the harvest, moisture collects and the roots rot and place nutrients back in the ground Now many use no-till planters which plant right over the stalks.
Birth/Death Rates
Birth/Death Rates Birth Rate is calculated by dividing the number of live births in a population in a year by the midyear resident population. Death Rate is calculated by dividing the number of deaths in a population in a year by the midyear resident population.
Population Growth Rates
Population Growth Rates The change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time.
Migration Patterns
Migration Patterns The way in which people move and settle into new places Early on moved for food Today most move to improve their way of life
Rural vs. Urban
Rural v Urban Steady decline of population in rural areas Most move to urban areas for opportunity
Juveniles vs. Adults  Under the Law Due Process Trial Age Restrictions Punishment Rehabilitation Diversion
Due Process
Due Process Juvenile Is unnecessary in the juvenile courts because they are already protective in how their court is structured. Adult Due process ensures the government will respect a person’s legal rights Government can not deny a person of life, liberty or property
Trial
Trial Juvenile	 Less formal than adult courts Rules of evidence are more relaxed Evidence is allowed that would not be allowed in adult court Adult Formal proceedings Very structured Only certain evidence can be allowed
Age Restrictions
Age Restrictions Juvenile	 When a person who is under 16 years old, but is at least 7 years old, commits an act which would be a "crime" if he or she were an adult, and is then found to be in need of supervision, treatment or confinement, the person is called a "juvenile delinquent". The act committed is called a "delinquent act". All juvenile delinquency cases are heard in Family Court.  Adult Children who are 13, 14 and 15 years old who commit more serious or violent acts may be treated as adults. These cases may be heard in Supreme Court, but may sometimes be transferred to the Family Court. If found guilty, the child is called a "juvenile offender", and is subject to more serious penalties than a juvenile delinquent.
Punishment
Punishment Juvenile Rehabilitation and treatment, in addition to community protection, are considered to be primary and viable goals. Adult More strict rules More severe punishment for offenders
Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation Juvenile Programs, schools and treatment to educate criminals and try to return them to society—hopefully without committing another crime. Adult Programs, schools and treatment to educate criminals and try to return them to society—hopefully without committing another crime.
Diversion
Diversion Juvenile May cases involving juveniles are not heard in court. The child's case is handled by another agency, usually a public or private social services agency. This is known as "diversion."  The child, the child's parents, and the agency come to some agreement about how to handle the child's offense. This will often involve meeting certain conditions, such as, restitution, community service, counseling, or school attendance.  If the child meets all of the conditions agreed to, the case will be dismissed without court action. If the conditions are not met, the child may be referred to juvenile court. Adult Depending on the crime, diversion is not an option
Influences on World Trade and Interdependence Location Advantage Resource Distribution Labor Cost Technology Trade Networks Trade Organizations
Location Advantage
Location Advantage By being located next to a major river, water way, high way or rail system, it is much easier to get goods to market
Resource Distribution
Resource Distribution If a plan is in place that brings resources from many places together to create a product, then that product will be distributed to more people.
Labor Cost
Labor Costs Many companies today are relocating their factories to foreign countries where people will work for less than we do here in America.
Technology
Technology As technology advances, there will be less need for manual/physical labor—more work will be done by machine
Trade Networks
Trade Networks A group of countries world wide share resources for trading purposes.
Trade Organizations
Trade Organizations Work together to get the best deal for those involved

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Civil War Era

  • 1. Civil War Era 8th Grade Unit 2
  • 2.   U.S. History   by the Standards
  • 4. Nationalism A sense of the South as a distinct region with a common culture and set of political priorities that were in conflict with the rest of the U.S.--in the decades leading up to the Civil War. At the heart of that nationalism was slavery. This "Southern thought" opposed classical liberalism, capitalism, industrialism, and democracy. Saw itself in opposition to the very ideals of the American Revolution.
  • 6. Sectionalism One big neighborhood dispute, and the neighborhood was the United States in the mid-1800s. The nation was divided by its interests, attitudes, and overall lifestyles. Northerners focused on fast-paced business and industry, spending their days manufacturing, shipping, and trading goods. The Southern economy relied on slow and steady agricultural growth. Planting and picking crops was the work of slaves who supported plantation owners' with their labor.
  • 8. Expansion of Slavery Spread of slavery into western territory raised tension Southerners insisted they be allowed to take their enslaved workers with them anywhere except free states (the plantation system depended on slaves to harvest the cotton) In the North and West, which were not economically dependent on slave labor—there was a feeling that slavery was morally wrong—they did not want to extend slavery to new territory To Southerners, this meant that no new slave states could be formed—and the political power of the South would decrease
  • 10. Tariffs Northeastern manufacturers and laborers wanted protective tariffs to ensure that their factories could compete successfully with European manufactures Southerners whose economy rested mainly on agriculture opposed high tariffs because they would have to pay more for imported goods Even though the northwest was a farming region—they were mostly in favor of high tariffs—they felt the high tariffs would provide revenue for roads, canals and railroads—increase urban markets for farm products
  • 12. Westward Expansion When Missouri applied for admission to the Union as a slave state—controversy erupted What resulted was the Missouri Compromise—Missouri and Maine would be admitted to the union—Missouri slave and Maine free—however, the remainder of the Louisiana Territory would be divided at the 36-30 north parallel—slavery would be forbidden north of this line.
  • 14. Internal Improvements Building roads and bridges within America President Adams proposed a program of federal support for internal improvements in Dec. 1825; strict Jeffersonians claimed it to be unconstitutional. The South had few plans to build canals and roads. Jackson, with a political base in the South, felt that federal support meant a possibly corrupt giveaway program for the North.
  • 16. Nullification When a state declares a federal law “null and void”—doesn’t recognize the law 1832—Congress passed yet another high tariff—South Carolina threatened to secede or leave the Union if the government tried to collect on these taxes—eventually a bill was passed to lower the tariff rates and South Carolina remained in the Union
  • 17. Dred Scott vs Sanford
  • 18. Dred Scott v Sanford The Supreme Court ruled that African Americans were not citizens and therefore could not sue in court
  • 20. Plessy v Ferguson The Supreme Court ruled that segregation was legal as long as separate facilities were equal Again—founding fathers did not intend for African Americans to be citizens
  • 21. Lincoln’s Suspension of Habeas Corpus
  • 22. Lincoln’s Suspension of Habeas Corpus During the Civil War both presidents (Abe Lincoln and Jefferson Davis) suppressed anti-war opinion by curtailing the civil rights of citizens In some areas martial law was declared—a form of military rule that includes suspending constitutional guarantees of civil rights Habeas Corpus—was also put aside—requires that persons who are arrested be brought to court to show why they are being held It was Lincoln’s belief that the survival of the nation during an emergency overrode the Constitution
  • 24. Missouri Compromise Through the efforts of Henry Clay, two states were admitted, a free Maine and a slave Missouri, and the balance of power in Congress was maintained as before. Stipulated that all the Louisiana Purchase territory north of the southern boundary of Missouri, except Missouri, would be free, and the territory below that line would be slave. The Missouri Compromise was repealed by the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act and declared unconstitutional in the 1857 Dred Scott decision.
  • 26. Compromise of 1850 Those favoring the North: California would be admitted a free state and slave trade (not slavery) was forbidden in the District of Columbia The South: would gain a stronger Fugitive Slave Law designed to suppress the Underground Railroad Territory gained after the Mexican War would be divided into two territories Utah and New Mexico—question of slavery there would be decided by popular sovereignty
  • 28. Kansas-Nebraska Act The area west of Missouri would be divided into to territories—Nebraska and Kansas—the question of slavery in the two areas would be decided by popular sovereignty—this negated the Missouri Compromise because they both lay above the 36-30 parallel
  • 30. Popular Sovereignty The right to vote on whether slavery shall exist in the territories
  • 32. Uncle Tom’s Cabin This book increased anti-slavery feeling in the North by portraying slavery at its worst Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
  • 33. Issues Leading to Civil War Slavery Economics State’s Rights
  • 35. Slavery During the 19th century the South remained almost completely agricultural, with an economy and a social order largely founded on slavery and the plantation system. These mutually dependent institutions produced the staples, especially cotton, from which the South derived its wealth. The North had its own great agricultural resources, was always more advanced commercially, and was also expanding industrially.
  • 37. Economics The North was self sufficient complete with agriculture and industry The South was mainly agricultural and depended on New England as well as Europe for manufactured goods
  • 39. State’s Rights Two sides to the issue: those who want the federal government to have more control and those who felt the states should have more power They felt that the states should still have the right to decide if they were willing to accept certain federal acts. This resulted in the idea of nullification, where the states would have the right to rule federal acts unconstitutional.
  • 41. Antietam General Lee planned to attack Washington D.C. to destroy northern morale—he would split his army into two groups McClellan attacked Lee at Antietam in Maryland In the bloodiest single day of fighting McClellan forced Lee to retreat to Virginia The Confederates lost more than 11,000 casualties—McClellan lost even more—his army was too damaged to pursue Lee and finish him.
  • 43. Gettysburg Marked the turning point of the Civil War After three days of fighting Union casualties were more than 23,000 while more than 28,000 Confederates were killed or injured The Union Army under the leadership of General Meade failed to pursue Lee as he retreated.
  • 45. Emancipation Proclamation DID NOT FREE ALL SLAVES! Freed enslaved people in those areas that were rebelling against the Union It didn’t immediately free anyone as it only pertained to those areas held by the enemy
  • 46. Sherman’s March to the Sea
  • 47. Sherman’s March to the Sea Sherman marched from Chattanooga to Atlanta, Georgia, defeating Generals Joseph E. Johnston and John B. Hood. After capturing Atlanta, he laid waste to much of the rest of Georgia in what has been called Sherman's March to the Sea, reaching the sea at Savannah, Georgia.
  • 48. Sherman’s March to the Sea Burning towns and plantations as they went, Sherman's armies hauled off crops and killed livestock to retaliate and to deny use of these economic assets to the Confederacy When Sherman turned north through South Carolina and North Carolina to approach the Virginia lines from the south, it was the end for Lee and his men, and for the Confederacy.
  • 51. Robert E. Lee vs. Ulysses S Grant
  • 52. Comparison Robert E. Lee Ulysses S Grant
  • 53. Abraham Lincoln vs. Jefferson Davis
  • 54. Comparison Abraham Lincoln Jefferson Davis
  • 55. Harriet Beecher Stowe vs. Mary Chestnut
  • 56. Comparison Harriet Beecher Stowe Mary Chesnut
  • 63. Impeachment of Johnson Impeachment Trial Constitutional Powers Edmund G. Ross
  • 71. Black Codes A series of statutes passed by the ex-Confederate states. They varied greatly from state to state as to their harshness and restrictiveness. Provided for the segregation of public facilities and placed severe restrictions on the freedman's status as a free laborer, his right to own real estate, and his right to testify in court.  
  • 73. Sharecropping Sharecropping came to define the method of land lease that would eventually become a new form of slavery. Without land of their own, many blacks were drawn into schemes where they worked a portion of the land owned by whites for a share of the profit from the crops. When accounting time came, the black farmer was always a few dollars short of what he owed the landowner, so he invariably began the new year with a deficit. As that deficit grew, he found it impossible to escape from his situation.
  • 75. Jim Crow Laws Jim Crow laws were laws that imposed racial segregation. They existed mainly in the South. The laws sprouted up in the late nineteenth century after Reconstruction and lasted until the 1960s.
  • 77. Civil War Amendments The Thirteenth Amendment outlawed slavery. The Fourteenth Amendment was ratified in Slaves became citizens. The Fifteenth Amendment allowed African Americans (males) the right to vote.
  • 79. Frederick Douglass One of the leaders of the abolitionist movement The first black citizen to hold high rank (as U.S. minister and consul general to Haiti) in the U.S. government.
  • 81. Ku Klux Klan The original Ku Klux Klan was organized by ex-Confederate elements to oppose the Reconstruction policies of the radical Republican Congress. And to maintain "white supremacy." After the Civil War, when local government in the South was weak or nonexistent and there were fears of black outrages and even of an insurrection, informal vigilante organizations or armed patrols were formed in almost all communities to control the blacks.
  • 83. Exodusters Reconstruction gave way to renewed racial oppression, a former slave named Benjamin “Pap” Singleton began urging blacks to form their own independent communities in the West. Those who followed his advice called themselves “Exodusters,” because they believed the West would prove their promised land.  
  • 85. Border Ruffians Were from Missouri and supported slavery Tried to destroy the free staters Wanted Kansas to be a slave state
  • 87. Bushwhackers Supported the Confederacy Were for slavery
  • 89. Jayhawker Supported the Union Were against slavery
  • 91. Underground Railroad A secret passage way for slaves to escape the south to freedom in the north Led by Harriet Tubman
  • 93. Free-Staters Did not want slavery in Kansas
  • 95. Abolitionists People who are opposed to slavery
  • 97. Effects of Scarcity on Price Price and Production When the prices up—production tends to go down   Consumption and Distribution When consumption goes down—distribution is limited  
  • 99. Kansas Constitution Rights Guaranteed by the Kansas Constitution and Bill of Rights Equal rights People have the political power Assembly Petition Trial by Jury Search and Seizure Justice without delay Voting rights Free Speech
  • 100. Agricultural Practices Before and After the Dust Storms Rotation of Crops Shelter Belts Irrigation Terracing Stubble Mulch
  • 102. Rotation of Crops Rotate crops in such a way that one takes nutrients out of the ground while the other puts nutrients back in to the ground.
  • 104. Shelter Belts Provide protection to the land from erosion due to the wind blowing the top soil away
  • 106. Irrigation Has allowed farmers to grow crops previously only available in those regions which sustain a lot of rain Now, however, they have created another problem as the water table in the Ogallala Aquifer is at very low levels.
  • 108. Terracing Has allowed farmers to produce crops on land that is not flat—by terracing the land, it keeps the rainfall in the field without washing away topsoil.
  • 110. Stubble Mulch By leaving the stalks in the field after the harvest, moisture collects and the roots rot and place nutrients back in the ground Now many use no-till planters which plant right over the stalks.
  • 112. Birth/Death Rates Birth Rate is calculated by dividing the number of live births in a population in a year by the midyear resident population. Death Rate is calculated by dividing the number of deaths in a population in a year by the midyear resident population.
  • 114. Population Growth Rates The change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time.
  • 116. Migration Patterns The way in which people move and settle into new places Early on moved for food Today most move to improve their way of life
  • 118. Rural v Urban Steady decline of population in rural areas Most move to urban areas for opportunity
  • 119. Juveniles vs. Adults Under the Law Due Process Trial Age Restrictions Punishment Rehabilitation Diversion
  • 121. Due Process Juvenile Is unnecessary in the juvenile courts because they are already protective in how their court is structured. Adult Due process ensures the government will respect a person’s legal rights Government can not deny a person of life, liberty or property
  • 122. Trial
  • 123. Trial Juvenile Less formal than adult courts Rules of evidence are more relaxed Evidence is allowed that would not be allowed in adult court Adult Formal proceedings Very structured Only certain evidence can be allowed
  • 125. Age Restrictions Juvenile When a person who is under 16 years old, but is at least 7 years old, commits an act which would be a "crime" if he or she were an adult, and is then found to be in need of supervision, treatment or confinement, the person is called a "juvenile delinquent". The act committed is called a "delinquent act". All juvenile delinquency cases are heard in Family Court. Adult Children who are 13, 14 and 15 years old who commit more serious or violent acts may be treated as adults. These cases may be heard in Supreme Court, but may sometimes be transferred to the Family Court. If found guilty, the child is called a "juvenile offender", and is subject to more serious penalties than a juvenile delinquent.
  • 127. Punishment Juvenile Rehabilitation and treatment, in addition to community protection, are considered to be primary and viable goals. Adult More strict rules More severe punishment for offenders
  • 129. Rehabilitation Juvenile Programs, schools and treatment to educate criminals and try to return them to society—hopefully without committing another crime. Adult Programs, schools and treatment to educate criminals and try to return them to society—hopefully without committing another crime.
  • 131. Diversion Juvenile May cases involving juveniles are not heard in court. The child's case is handled by another agency, usually a public or private social services agency. This is known as "diversion." The child, the child's parents, and the agency come to some agreement about how to handle the child's offense. This will often involve meeting certain conditions, such as, restitution, community service, counseling, or school attendance. If the child meets all of the conditions agreed to, the case will be dismissed without court action. If the conditions are not met, the child may be referred to juvenile court. Adult Depending on the crime, diversion is not an option
  • 132. Influences on World Trade and Interdependence Location Advantage Resource Distribution Labor Cost Technology Trade Networks Trade Organizations
  • 134. Location Advantage By being located next to a major river, water way, high way or rail system, it is much easier to get goods to market
  • 136. Resource Distribution If a plan is in place that brings resources from many places together to create a product, then that product will be distributed to more people.
  • 138. Labor Costs Many companies today are relocating their factories to foreign countries where people will work for less than we do here in America.
  • 140. Technology As technology advances, there will be less need for manual/physical labor—more work will be done by machine
  • 142. Trade Networks A group of countries world wide share resources for trading purposes.
  • 144. Trade Organizations Work together to get the best deal for those involved