Causes of the civil war


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Causes of the civil war

  1. 1. Causes of the Civil War The Country becomes divided on issues which leads to secession and war. What were these causes?
  2. 2. Sectionalism  The North, South, and West  Each had its own “personality”.  North feared South was trying to spread slavery.  North’s focus was industry.  South’s focus was agriculture.  West’s focus was new settlements.
  3. 3. States Rights • • • Slavery seen as a state issue. The South believed the federal government along with the North and West would go against the South by using high tariffs and challenging the right to owning slaves. Nullification of federal laws was thought to be a state right by the South. This will lead to Southern States seceding from the Union in 1860-61.
  4. 4. Abolitionist Movement • • • • • Against Slavery! John Quincy Adams works in congress against the “gag rule”. (rule to not speak about slavery) Great Britain abolishes slavery in 1833. Harriet Beecher Stowe writes “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”. Anti-slavery literature floods the nation. Underground Railroad helps many escape to Canada. (No slavery country- part of GB)
  5. 5. Dred Scott • • • • • A southern slave living in the North with his master. He was taken back to the South. He sued for his freedom because he had lived on free soil. Supreme court rules that he is the property of his master. Africans were not citizens and were not protected under the constitution. This ruling meant that slavery could spread.
  6. 6. Kansas-Nebraska Act 1845 • • • • Senator Stephen Douglas proposes “popular sovereignty “, which meant the people living in the territory could decide for themselves on the issue of slavery. 1854 congress passes law allowing people to decide for themselves. This over-turns the Missouri Compromise. Proposed for southern support for a railroad in the North. Fighting breaks out between supporters and opponents of slavery.
  7. 7. The Issue of Slavery • • • • • • Slaves worked hard for their owners. They had no say or protection from the will of their owners. The responsibility for their care was with the owner. No rights as citizens. There was growing support for their freedom. Supporters of slavery felt it was more humane to care for them than if they would have to care for themselves. They used the example of poor factory workers in the North and the hardships they faced.
  8. 8. Founding of the Republican Party  Formed by the critics of the KansasNebraska Act.  Republicans agreed to allow slavery to continue in the South.  They opposed any further spread of slavery into the new territories. “Slavery in the South OK…Slavery everywhere else, no way!”
  9. 9. John Brown’s Raid in Virginia       White Abolitionist in 1859 Organizes a slave rebellion at Harper’s Ferry. He hoped that the rebellions would spread in Kansas and Virginia, it did not work. Caught and hanged. Becomes a hero to many in the North. Violence brings the nation to the verge of a civil war.