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  1. 1. Chapter Two EARLY ENGLISH AMERICA (1590 TO 1675)
  2. 2. SPANISH COLONIZATION IN 1600 <ul><li>Spain was the only empire to have successful colonies at the turn of the 17 th century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, the defeat of the Spanish Armada and a surge in Dutch trade made expansion and colonial reinforcement difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues in North America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Spanish believed that the New World was of no value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They realized that they overestimated how much gold and silver was actually there </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, they still held on to New Mexico and Florida believing that they would find fortunes similar to the Aztec Empire in Central America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic missionaries were sent to both locations and started more than 50 missions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The missionaries believed the Native Americans would readily adopt European dress, customs, food, and farming methods. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the North, the Spanish crown grew tired of funding poor expeditions and proposed that all who wished to colonize the North use their own funding </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. SPANISH COLONIZATION IN 1600 <ul><li>Interaction with Native Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish and Native Americans frequently intermingled, leading to a class of Spanish citizens known as Mestizos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Half Spanish, Half Native American </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Spanish crown took this seriously, gave the Mestizos a decent amount of rights as Spanish citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They also began a series of preventative measures to ensure Spanish explorers and colonists did not further exploit Native Americans </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. ENGLISH COLONIZATION IN IRELAND <ul><li>The British’s involvement in Ireland cost the empire an enormous amount of money that could have been used to fund expeditions to the New World </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Justification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The British needed to subdue the Catholic threat in Ireland in order to protect Protestant rule in England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sort of a passive-aggressive of showing force against the Spanish/Catholic threat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pacification Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military conquest, slaughter of civilians, seizure of land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England sought to conquer, not absorb the ethnic Catholic Irish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>English writers at the time frequently compared the ethnic Irish to Native Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. ENGLISH COLONIZATION IN IRELAND <ul><li>The English easily confused liberty with license </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Irish were “too free” (sound similar to their views towards the Native Americans?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the Irish did not convert to Protestantism, they were problematic barbarians and had to be dealt with appropriately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert to the ‘correct religion’ or be annihilated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This mentality is important because it gets transplanted wholesale to North America with English colonization </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the English give up on annihilating Ireland? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Queen Elizabeth I turned their attention to North America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After defeating the Spanish Armada, they scrambled to stake their claims in the New World </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. ENGLAND’S MOTIVES FOR EXPANSION <ul><li>Spreading Protestantism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The quintessential P.R. reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Catholicism was the norm in England and they wanted to do anything to stop Catholicism in the rest of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furthermore, it was a win-win situation if they could destroy Catholicism and Spain at the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The 5 Gs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold, Glory, God, Greed, and Gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National glory, profit, and missionary zeal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The English knew the Spanish were fighting a losing battle looking for mineral wealth in North America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They believed the best way to make a fortune was to exploit resources in North America, make goods, and trade! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dealing with the English social crisis </li></ul>
  7. 8. ENGLAND’S SOCIAL CRISIS <ul><li>England’s decline economy (brought on by frequent drought and war) led to an increasing number of poor that strained the economy and led to a social crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Population grew from 3 million in 1550 to 4 million in 1600 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A significant change for the time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Enclosure movement” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich landlords wanted to make a profit by raising sheep to expand wool trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They introduced modern farming techniques such as crop rotation and as a result, they evicted small farmers and took away common land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(common land was communal land that was frequently used by poor, subsistent, farmers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This caused thousands of unemployed farmers to flood the cities in search of jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crime rates rise as a result </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The English crown did little to alleviate the problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry VIII stated those without jobs could be whipped, branded, forced into military service, or executed </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. ENGLAND’S SOCIAL CRISIS <ul><li>Elizabeth I offered two solutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Force vagrants and vagabonds to accept any job offered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go to America! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(The ‘unruly poor’ was highly encouraged to venture to the New World to find riches) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Propaganda campaigns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The crown and colonizing companies appealed to the poor by stating they could become “Masterless Men” in the New World </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A man could control his own labor, gain independence from the English “man”, and own land. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Moore’s Utopia describes this in detail and encouraged the ‘unruly poor’ to go to America to escape the inequities of Europe </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. ENGLAND’S INITIAL PUSH TO AMERICA <ul><li>How many people left? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 1600 and 1700, over half a million people left England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustained immigration was vital for a colony’s success (and survival) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower class “unruly poor” and indentured servants represented 2/3 of those that left England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indentured servants did not enjoy liberties while under contract (essentially another form of slavery) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dealing with Land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land was the basis of liberty for the English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was also a source of wealth and power for colonial officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking land from Native Americans was needed to expand the English crown’s mission </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. ENGLAND’S INITIAL PUSH TO AMERICA <ul><li>Interaction with Native Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom line: English wanted Native American land at any cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This sparked over a century of frequent, bloody warfare between colonists and Native Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The English knew how to fight and had superior weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This gave this another sense of ‘authority’ over the savages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike the Spanish, the English could care less for how the Native Americans were treated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English interaction essentially reshaped Indian society and culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The English also transformed the natural environment by fencing in land and introducing disease, crops, and livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paradox of colonial land entitlement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The English recognized Native American sovereignty to land based on their occupancy on that land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, the English forcibly took the land surrounding the Native Americans based on vacuum domicilium (land not actively in use by the natives was up for grabs) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. ENGLISH COLONIES <ul><li>Roanoke (Failure) </li></ul><ul><li>Jamestown </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st attempt – Failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd attempt – Success </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Maryland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious/Cultural failure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plymouth (limited success) </li></ul><ul><li>Massachusetts Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Rhode Island Connecticut </li></ul>
  12. 15. ROANOKE
  13. 16. ROANOKE <ul><li>Sir Walter Raleigh (English pirate) sent 100 colonists to set up a colonial base on Roanoke Island, off the coast of North Carolina. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? He wanted to keep pressure on Spanish ships in the area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The initial push to colonize was abandoned and most of first 100 returned to England </li></ul><ul><li>In 1586, he sent another 100 colonists to try to establish a permanent colony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those 100 disappeared when a supply ship came in 1590 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than likely, they assimilated with the local Indian tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The only evidence left was the word “Croatoan” scrawled on a tree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Raleigh quickly lost his enthusiasm for colonization and gave up </li></ul><ul><li>Moral of the story: England really needed to plan better before attempting to colonize </li></ul>
  14. 18. JAMESTOWN
  15. 19. JAMESTOWN <ul><li>The first successful English colony (1607) </li></ul><ul><li>The colony was located in the middle of a swamp in present-day Jamestown, Virginia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They thought it was safe from Spanish attack </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Big mistake from the beginning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There were no riches to be found in the swamp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, there were many mosquitos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led to malaria and typhoid fever </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local resources were non-existent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The colonists did not want to work or trade with anyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>None of the original settlers were farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occupations: blacksmith, jeweler, goldsmith, perfumer, and indentured servants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 21. JAMESTOWN <ul><li>In the first year, disease and lack of food killed over 50 of the original 104 settlers </li></ul><ul><li>400 more settlers came the next year </li></ul><ul><li>After the winter of 1610, only 65 settlers remained </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically, 1 in 10 survived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most died of starvation and disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moral of the story: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is similar to Roanoke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to plan and take advantage of economic resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very poor planning on the type of laborers that were sent over initially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic planning was not the greatest either </li></ul></ul>
  18. 23. JOHN SMITH
  19. 24. CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH SAVES JAMESTOWN <ul><li>Tough, professional soldier that saved Jamestown by instilling martial law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also a statutory rapist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made everyone an ‘employee’ of the colony </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Death penalty for all </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rape, adultery, theft, lying, slander against the company or crown, blasphemy, laziness, stealing an ear of corn, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New policies in Jamestown </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head-right system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50 acres of land for whoever pays their way over to Jamestown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established House of Burgesses and instilled new liberties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, the company could veto anything it wanted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established slavery in the colony in 1619 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overall, the ends justify the means </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jamestown survives by John Smith’s near totalitarian management </li></ul></ul>
  20. 26. VIRGINIA COLONY <ul><li>Founded in 1607 after England realized they could make a profit off of selling tobacco (the “stinking weed” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ironically, King James I considered tobacco “harmful to the brain and dangerous to the lungs” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, he did not have any problem with selling it to make a profit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco later becomes the ‘cure-all’ for medicinal purposes in the 17 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1624, 200,000 pounds were grown and exported </li></ul><ul><li>By 1680, 15 million pounds were grown and exported </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially, tobacco becomes the new gold for English in North America </li></ul><ul><li>The tobacco boom was partially responsible for the establishment of colonial government in Virginia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This led to rich immigrants coming to stake their claim in Virginia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually, a social and political elite was established </li></ul></ul>
  21. 30. VIRGINIA COLONY <ul><li>Social Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men outnumbered women 6 to 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtually no stable family life as most single men were out to “strike it rich” on tobacco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At this point, it was better to be a single woman and keep an independent legal identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, most married women received “dower’s rights” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 of their husband’s estate upon his death </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Slavery in the colony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of slaves slowly climbed during the mid-17 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1623 – 23 of 1200 Virginians were black </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1660 – 900 of 24,000 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before 1660, blacks were able to acquire freedom and land (similar to indentured servitude) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some freedmen became very wealthy and had property rights similar to whites </li></ul></ul>
  22. 31. MARYLAND
  23. 32. MARYLAND <ul><li>Established in 1632 as a proprietary colony under Cecilius Calvert (Lord Baltimore) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land grants and governmental authority was organized under a single individual who had “full, free, and absolute power” over the colony; only answered to the King </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the land was carved up from sections of Northern Virginia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maryland was the second Chesapeake Bay colony and developed like Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco became the dominate economic commodity </li></ul>
  24. 33. MARYLAND <ul><li>Colonial Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essentially a return to the Middle Ages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calvert wanted Maryland to be a feudal domain where land was divided out into manors and the owners paid Calvert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any person who brought 5 laborers received 2000 acres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calvert believed representative government did not work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ordinary people should have nothing to do with politics and government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonial Structure Loophole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calvert’s charter provided for “all privileges, franchise, and liberties to all Englishmen” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This was vague enough to leave the government limited by its own law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This was also a good recipe for conflict </li></ul></ul>
  25. 35. MARYLAND <ul><li>Religion and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calvert was a Catholic and fully expected Maryland to be a haven for his downtrodden Catholic brethren (particularly the wealthy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He imagined Maryland as a Catholic utopia where Protestants and Catholics could work together in peace and harmony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, Protestants quickly outnumbered Catholics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rich Catholics never showed up and Protestants gained enough strength to overthrow Catholic influence in Maryland by 1655 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maryland had a different foundation, but ended up like Virginia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco plantations, some religious radicals, and mostly Protestant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious/Cultural failure </li></ul></ul>
  27. 37. PLYMOUTH BAY COLONY <ul><li>Pilgrims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily religious separatists that fled England to Holland because of their animosity toward the Church of England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They wanted nothing to do with the Church of England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After staying in Holland, they believed their children were too influenced by the English, Dutch, and Satan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They decided to go to the Virginia Colony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, they landed in Cape Cod, Massachusetts in 1620 aboard the Mayflower </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mayflower Compact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All adult men aboard the Mayflower signed a compact indicating that they would obey “just and equal laws” enacted by representatives of their choosing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is this important? </li></ul></ul>
  29. 39. PLYMOUTH BAY COLONY <ul><li>The Mayflower Compact is the first written frame of government that transferred to the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pilgrims wanted to build a society based on the early Christian saints that was founded on government based on consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voting would not be restricted to only male church members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land would be common, but could be divided among settlers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initial Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They faced a similar situation to Jamestown; starvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They arrived 6 weeks before winter with no food or animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Half of the settlers died that first winter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squanto and a band of Native Americans taught the Pilgrims where to fish, plant corn, and helped them form an alliance with a local chief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the autumn of 1621, the Plymouth settlers invited their Native American allies for a feast of Thanksgiving (harvest festival) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plymouth remained independent until 1691 when it was absorbed by the Massachusetts Bay colony </li></ul>
  30. 40. PILGRIMS
  32. 42. MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY <ul><li>Chartered in 1629 by Puritans (another religious separatist group) from England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puritans were upset over the Protestant reformation, but were still very nationalistic toward England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They believed the best way to remedy the religious issues was to create a perfect society in the New World that England could model itself after </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They believed religion was complex and they wanted to create a Bible Commonwealth governed by “moral liberty” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moral liberty kept the Puritans close knit and prompted more families to come to the colony </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They essentially wanted to be the “City on a Hill” to serve as a prime example for how religious life should be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King Charles I granted the Puritans charter while he decided to rule England without Parliament’s consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another one of the various reasons why Charles got the axe (literally) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Massachusetts Bay became the second great English colony </li></ul>
  33. 44. MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY <ul><li>Religion, Politics, and Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law revolved around a combination of English Common Law, Biblical Law, and statutes fit to specific colonial needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They allowed for slaves however </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statutes were created to instill a sense of fear with potential offenders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They would rather scare than carry out harsh punishments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puritans organized into self-governing towns with no large-scale colonial government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think of the states without a federal government (or the Articles of Confederation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each town had a Congregational Church and a school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harvard College was created in 1636 to train ministers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Church government was decentralized, but full church membership was required to vote in elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Church and colonial governments were closely connected </li></ul></ul>
  34. 46. MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY <ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Per capita, wealth was pretty evenly distributed (significantly better than Virginia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The economy was primarily centered on farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fishing and timber exportation were large industries though </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A merchant class that traded with England rose gradually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This did not bode well for some of the most conservative Puritans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants that continually clashed with Puritan authorities left to establish Portsmouth, New Hampshire </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 47. MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY <ul><li>Family Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structurally patriarchal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women were expected to be subordinate to their husbands at all times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True freedom for Puritan women meant submission to authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasoning: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biblical in nature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eve was the evil temptress that caused man to fall into sin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, women were allowed full church membership and could divorce </li></ul></ul>
  36. 48. MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY <ul><li>Liberty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberty was defined by social class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A rigid hierarchal structure that was justified by God’s will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bodies of Liberties set the rights for free speech, assembly, and equal protection for all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basically, liberties were decided by a body of men </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No true sense of “natural rights” just yet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministers were forbidden from holding political office </li></ul></ul>
  37. 49. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PURITANS AND PILGRIMS? <ul><li>Puritans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to fix and reform the Church of England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They felt it was worth salvaging and wanted to use their utopian colony to lead by example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They believed the Church had too many trappings of Catholic influence, but it could be remedied </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pilgrims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They were the true separatists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They had enough of the Church of England and wanted nothing to do with it </li></ul></ul>
  38. 50. RHODE ISLAND
  39. 51. RHODE ISLAND <ul><li>Founded by Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Williams was a young, liberal Puritan minister that preached any citizen should be able to practice whatever religion they choose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed in separation of church and state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hutchinson was a well-educated, articulate woman who charged all Puritan ministers of preaching falsely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed she was directly inspired by the Holy Sprit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This did not make her popular with most Puritans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Put on trial for sedition and banished from the Massachusetts Bay colony </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Both wanted to create a society based on true religious toleration </li></ul>
  40. 52. Roger Williams Anne Hutchinson
  41. 53. RHODE ISLAND <ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of church and state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation in government by all male property owners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An early view of voter’s rights expressed in the Constitution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Overall, Rhode Island is probably the best example of religious freedom and democratic government in the early colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Religious toleration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did the treatment of Hutchinson and Williams go against Puritan’s ideal of religious freedom? </li></ul></ul>
  42. 54. RHODE ISLAND <ul><li>Religious Toleration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps the Puritans had a very narrow view of what religious freedom meant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True religious tolerance violated the Puritans’ view of moral liberty </li></ul></ul>
  44. 56. CONNECTICUT <ul><li>Founded in 1633 </li></ul><ul><li>Puritanism was the only recognized religious organization and government model </li></ul><ul><li>The Bible became the absolute basis for law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inerrancy of scripture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indian Relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecticut General Court punished anyone who chose to live with Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The wilderness was perceived as the harborage of Satan and the Native Americans were his minions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists argued frequently over efficient ways to take land from the natives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes they traded or paid them </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 57. CONNECTICUT <ul><li>Pequot War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The white population in Connecticut grew rapidly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict with natives became inevitable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The war was sparked by a fur trader that was killed by the Pequot Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They were a large tribe that controlled the fur trade and collected tribute from other Indian tribes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angered by the death of the fur trade, Connecticut and Massachusetts Bay soldiers combined with neighboring Indians to massacre the Pequot tribe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 500 men, women, and children died after their village was set on fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After a few months, the tribe was virtually eliminated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most were dead or sold into slavery </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 58. THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR <ul><li>Religion, Politics, and Freedom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1600, commoners in England were insisting that all Englishmen had certain rights that applied to everyone in the kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This did not set well with the privileged social elite who believed rights were confined to those with money, influence, and power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tradition of English liberties goes back to the Magna Carta passed by King John in the 1200s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extension of certain liberties and rights to “all the free men of the realm” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This was not bad in the 1200s as the majority of England worked as serfs (another form of indentured servitude) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, in 1600, many “free men” in England demanded that their liberties be respected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This caused friction between the King, Parliament, and the people </li></ul></ul>
  47. 59. THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR <ul><li>What were the rights? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to oversee the King’s conduct (King is not above the law) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to revolt if the King grossly violated his authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to subject the King to the rule of law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to own property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to security of their person (no illegal search and seizure, false imprisonment, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habeas Corpus (cannot be held without being formally charged for a crime) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to face one’s accuser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to a trial by jury </li></ul></ul>
  48. 60. THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR <ul><li>What sparked the war? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King Charles I wanted to impose taxes without Parliament’s consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He also wanted to imprison political enemies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worst of all…he wanted to make England a Catholic nation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under the pretense of revolting against a King who grossly violated his authority, civil war broke out in 1642 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles loses his head literally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oliver Cromwell becomes the Lord Protector of England and the Commonwealth of England was founded </li></ul></ul>
  49. 61. THE ENGLISH COMMONWEALTH <ul><li>The general definition of freedom called for the “common rights of all individuals” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief that freedom was the common heritage of all Englishmen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief that England was the world’s guardian of liberty (another justification for warfare) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They reasoned that the King of England ruled over a nation of free men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very different from the idea that the King granted a nation of men freedom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Colonies During the Commonwealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>England was too busy with it’s own issues to pay attention to the colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The New England colonies formed a confederation to serve as a means of protection against hostile natives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The British army was too busy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 62. THE ENGLISH COMMONWEALTH <ul><li>What did Cromwell and the Commonwealth do for the colonies? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Took an aggressive stance for colonial expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatly promoted Protestantism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted trade and commerce in the Western Hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>End of the Commonwealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cromwell dies, his son is an inept ruler, and Charles II (Charles I’s son) gets reinstated to the throne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles II officially accepts the charter of Connecticut and Rhode Island during this period </li></ul></ul>
  51. 63. THE NAVIGATION ACTS <ul><li>A series of acts passed to ensure that the Dutch did not interfere with England’s commercial empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was illegal to trade with anyone other than English citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charles II figured this was the best way to confine colonial trade </li></ul><ul><li>Additional importation taxes increased the crown’s revenue and helped keep some English merchants from bankruptcy </li></ul><ul><li>However, these laws were fairly ineffective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most colonial governors ignored the laws </li></ul></ul>