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Reconstruction and changes in the united states


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Reconstruction after Civil War

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Reconstruction and changes in the united states

  1. 1. Reconstruction and Changes in the United States
  2. 2. Northern Postwar Problems <ul><li>Economic problems in the North: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>800,000 Union soldiers were returning to the north where there were no jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There was no longer a need for so many factories, so there were a lot of layoffs </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Physically northern farms and cities were hardly touched since most battles took place in the south </li></ul>
  4. 4. Southern Postwar Problems <ul><li>Financially the South was destroyed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confederate money was worthless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The plantation economy which had depended mostly on slavery was now ended </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Physically the South was Destroyed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In some areas all homes, barns and bridges were destroyed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the south’s railroads were totally destroyed </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Problems That Would Arise From The Ruins <ul><li>About 4 million former slaves were now free (“Freedmen”) but had little opportunity for jobs or any hope of providing for their families. </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of thousands of veterans were also created by the war. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Early Steps Toward Reconstruction <ul><li>Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan (1863) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under this plan, a southern state could form a new government after 10% of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Freedmen’s Bureau <ul><li>Government agency formed to help former slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Gave food and clothing to former slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Helped them find jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Helped poor whites as well </li></ul><ul><li>Provided health care for more than 1 million people </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Freedmen’s Bureau’s Most Important Tasks <ul><li>Being involved in teaching former slaves and their children to read </li></ul><ul><li>The agency laid the foundation for the South’s public school system </li></ul><ul><li>It also created colleges for African Americans </li></ul>
  10. 10. Johnson’s Plan <ul><li>A majority of voters from each southern state had to pledge loyalty to the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Each state also had to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment (1865) which had banned slavery throughout the nation </li></ul>
  11. 11. The South’s Black Codes <ul><li>African Americans couldn’t vote, own guns or serve on juries </li></ul><ul><li>They could marry legally and own some kinds of property </li></ul>
  12. 12. Congress Takes Action <ul><li>Members of Congress known as Radical Republicans vowed to take control of Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Two main goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They wanted to break the power of wealthy planters who had long ruled the South </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They wanted to ensure that freedmen received the right to vote </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Republicans Start To Take Control <ul><li>They passed the Civil Rights Act (1866) however, fearing the Supreme Court would declare it unconstitutional, they proposed the 14 th Amendment </li></ul>
  14. 14. 14 th Amendment <ul><li>Defined citizens as “all persons born or naturalized in the United States” </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranteed citizens “equal protection of the laws” </li></ul><ul><li>Forbade states to “deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Radical Reconstruction <ul><li>Under the Reconstruction Act (1867) Congress threw out any state’s government that did not ratify the 14 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>To rejoin the Union, states had to write new constitutions and ratify the 14 th Amendment </li></ul>
  16. 16. Johnson Is Almost Impeached <ul><li>Republicans decided to remove Johnson from office after he tried to limit what they could do with Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>They decided to impeach him, or bring formal charges against him. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Grant Is Nominated for President <ul><li>Republicans nominate Ulysses S. Grant for President. </li></ul><ul><li>Southern governments allowed African American men to vote, and as a result Grant easily won the election. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Fifteenth Amendment <ul><li>Proposed in 1869 </li></ul><ul><li>Forbade any state to deny any citizen the right to vote because of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Three Groups Step In As Leaders In The South <ul><li>First were the scalawags : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seen as traitors by some </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were white businesspeople who had opposed secession in 1860 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They wanted to forget the war and just rebuild the South. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Second, were the carpetbaggers : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northerners who came to the south after the war hoping to get rich from the South’s misery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third, were African Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They became sheriffs, mayors, and legislators in the new government </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Rise of Vigilante Groups <ul><li>These groups were radical in their way of thinking </li></ul><ul><li>The KKK (Ku Klux Klan) frightened, threatened, and killed African Americans that were not obedient . </li></ul>
  22. 22. A Cycle of Poverty <ul><li>Sharecropping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedmen and poor whites who went to work on large plantations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They rented and farmed a plot of land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planters provided seed, fertilizer, and tools in return for a share of the crop at harvest time </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Life after Reconstruction <ul><li>Southerners passed poll taxes- requiring voters to pay a fee each time they voted. </li></ul><ul><li>They imposed literacy tests that required voters to read and explain a section of the Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation became the law in the South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law that would separate whites and blacks </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Plessy v. Ferguson <ul><li>The Supreme Court ruled that segregation was legal as long as facilities for blacks and whites were equal. </li></ul>