Reconstruction Of The South Chap17

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Reconstruction after the Civil War
Middle School American History
Grades 6-8

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Reconstruction Of The South Chap17

  1. 1. Reconstruction of the South American History Chapter 17
  2. 2. The End Results <ul><li>258,000 Confederates died in the war </li></ul><ul><li>Most were adult males </li></ul><ul><li>South’s economy & society needed rebuilding </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War in Pictures </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Reconstruction </li></ul>
  4. 4. Everybody had a plan … <ul><li>Lincoln’s 10% plan </li></ul><ul><li>10% of states voters vowed loyalty to Union </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form a new government & constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No slavery </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Lincoln Was Soft on the South <ul><li>Punishment served no useful purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Offered amnesty/swear loyalty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to Confederate leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Right to vote to African Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educated or served in Union Army </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Would force “equal rights” in Southern states </li></ul>
  6. 6. Some jumped in quick <ul><li>Louisiana, Arkansas & Tennessee agreed in 1864 </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln’s congress refused to let it occur </li></ul>
  7. 7. Plan 2- Those Radical Republicans! <ul><li>Thought Lincoln was too mild </li></ul><ul><li>Congress should decide the South’s fate </li></ul><ul><li>Refused to let the 10% plan work </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Wade-Davis Bill <ul><li>July 1864 </li></ul><ul><li>50% swear loyalty to Union </li></ul><ul><li>Only males who never took arms against the North could vote on new state congress & constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Former Confederates – no public office </li></ul><ul><li>No slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln refused to sign this into law </li></ul>
  9. 9. Freedmen’s Bureau-What was life like for African Americans <ul><li>Helped African Americans freed from slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Established- March 1865 </li></ul><ul><li>Food, clothes, medical services </li></ul><ul><li>Established schools </li></ul><ul><li>Established universities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Howard, Atlanta, Fisk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helped them acquire land </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.freedmensbureau.com/ </li></ul>
  10. 10. Watch your back! <ul><li>President Lincoln Assassinated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 days after Civil War ended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ford’s Theater </li></ul><ul><li>John Wilkes Booth </li></ul><ul><li>“Your name is Mud” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ford’s Theater
  12. 12. Lincoln Memorial
  13. 13. A New President <ul><li>Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes President </li></ul><ul><li>Not quite as “gentle” as Lincoln </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment in order </li></ul><ul><li>No desire to help African Americans </li></ul>
  14. 14. Johnson’s Plan <ul><li>Restoration </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Amnesty – swore an oath to the Union </li></ul><ul><li>High ranking officials had to do it personally </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed governors </li></ul><ul><li>Only pardoned, whites could vote </li></ul><ul><li>No equal rights for blacks, no voting </li></ul><ul><li>Left it up to individual states to “manage their freed people” </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>No slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Denounce secession </li></ul><ul><li>Ratify the 13 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>End of 1865 most of the South was “restored” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Whose Plan Was Right? <ul><li>There were 3 plans </li></ul><ul><li>10% Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Wade Davis Plan </li></ul><ul><li>The “Restoration” </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Divide yourselves into 3 equal groups </li></ul><ul><li>What are the characteristics of each plan? </li></ul><ul><li>Defend your plan and the correct one </li></ul>
  19. 19. South “Restored” but not settled <ul><li>Struggle in Washington D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress did not want to readmit southern states on Johnson’s terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>felt it robbed the Union of it’s victory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>treatment of African Americans not improving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ku Klux Klan emerged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>terrorized African Americans in the South– burning houses, churches, schools, rioting and murder </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Black Codes <ul><li>passed by southern states </li></ul><ul><li>aim to control freed men, women children </li></ul><ul><li>enable plantation owners to exploit them as workers </li></ul><ul><li>reincarnation of the “slave codes” </li></ul>
  21. 21. Examples of the Code– Slavery in Disguise <ul><li>could be arrested for not having a job </li></ul><ul><li>forced to work for plantation owner to pay off the fine </li></ul><ul><li>some laws refused to let them own or rent farms </li></ul><ul><li>orphaned babies were taken as unpaid apprentices </li></ul>
  22. 22. Civil Rights Act of 1866-passed by Congress <ul><li>full citizenship to African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Federal government could intervene in state affairs </li></ul><ul><li>overturned black codes </li></ul><ul><li>contradicted the Dred Scott Case– African Americans were not citizens </li></ul>
  23. 23. President Johnson says no way! <ul><li>Vetoes both the Freedmen’s Bureau Bill and Civil Rights Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>did not represent ALL states </li></ul><ul><li>Congress had enough votes to override </li></ul><ul><li>Rift between Congress and President grew </li></ul>
  24. 24. 14 th Amendment of 1866 <ul><li>Congress passed to ensure Civil Rights Act did not get overturned </li></ul><ul><li>Full citizenship to anyone born in the USA </li></ul><ul><li>No state could take away ones life, liberty or property without “due process” </li></ul><ul><li>all had “equal protection” of the laws </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>voting was granted only for men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>white men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Southern states had to ratify it to gain entry to the Union </li></ul><ul><li>Only Tennessee ratified it </li></ul><ul><li>delayed adoption of amendment until 1868 </li></ul>
  26. 26. New Players in Congress <ul><li>Election time for Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson rallied for rejection of Amendment from North and South </li></ul><ul><li>campaigned against the Republicans </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans gained control of congress </li></ul><ul><li>created their own “reconstruction plan” </li></ul>
  27. 27. Radical Reconstruction <ul><li>Congress was in control </li></ul><ul><li>could override any veto that Johnson issued </li></ul><ul><li>10 remaining states that did not accept 14 th amendment divided into 5 districts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>under authority of a military commander </li></ul></ul><ul><li>African American males allowed to vote </li></ul><ul><li>former Confederate leaders could not hold office </li></ul>
  28. 28. How to get back in… <ul><li>ratify the 14 th amendment </li></ul><ul><li>submit new constitutions for approval </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Reconstruction Act– registered new voters and prepared states for new state constitutional conventions </li></ul>
  29. 29. Johnson and Congress Spar <ul><li>Congress passed laws to limit the powers of the president </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tenure of Office Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>didn’t allow the President to remove government officials without Senate approval </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson tests the act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>suspends the Secretary of War without approval </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed commanders to southern districts that congress opposed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Impeach, Impeach, Impeach <ul><li>House of Representatives vote to impeach </li></ul><ul><li>accused him of misconduct </li></ul><ul><li>trial lasted 3 months </li></ul><ul><li>both sides argued back and forth saying it was just politically motivated </li></ul><ul><li>35-19 to convict. 1 vote short of 2/3rds majority </li></ul>
  31. 31. New Election, New President <ul><li>1868 Gen. Ulysses S. Grant– Republican </li></ul><ul><li>Horatio Seymour– Democrat </li></ul><ul><li>Grant won; also received 500,000 African American votes in the South </li></ul>
  32. 32. 15 th Amendment– 1869 <ul><li>prohibited state and federal governments from denying the right to vote to any MALE citizen because of race, color or previous condition of servitude </li></ul>
  33. 33. The South During Reconstruction <ul><li>3 groups in the South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>white Southerners– supported Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>white settlers from the North </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Group 1– African Americans <ul><li>important in politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>population– helped with Republican victories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>held some positions in political office at state level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national level had more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hiram Revels– senator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blanche K Bruce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>former runaway slave </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>established a school for African Americans </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>became superintendent of schools in MS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>senator in US senate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Scalawags and Carpetbaggers <ul><li>Not everyone got on the same page </li></ul><ul><li>Some southerners didn’t want to secede </li></ul><ul><li>agreed with Republicans of the North </li></ul><ul><ul><li>non-slave holding farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>businessmen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Called Scalawags </li></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>Northerners moved South to make a new life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>called– Carpetbaggers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>doctors, lawyers, teachers, former Union soldiers </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Resistance to Reconstruction <ul><li>Some white Southerners could not let go of old ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wouldn’t let ex-slaves leave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>refused to rent land to ex-slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stores refused to grant credit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>employers would not hire them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used fear to keep them in line </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Ku Klux Klan <ul><li>formed in 1866 </li></ul><ul><li>wore white sheets and hoods </li></ul><ul><li>“midnight rides” </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson county FL– 150 in 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>keep from voting </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>Hate Crimes </li></ul>
  40. 41. Some Improvements <ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>whites and African Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>created their own schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedmen’s bureau helped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teachers from North came South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by 1870 50% white kids and 40% African Americans in public school; segregated </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>Sharecropping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rented land; crude shack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seeds, tools, mule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>% of crop back to landowner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not much left in the end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not much better than slavery </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. End of Reconstruction <ul><li>Both sides growing weary; ready to move on </li></ul><ul><li>wanted “reconciliation” </li></ul><ul><li>Amnesty act– 1872 pardoned most Confederates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vote and hold office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changed the political balance– Democrats </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Democrats take control <ul><li>easily took control in white states </li></ul><ul><li>Ku Klux Klan helped gain democratic control in heavily African American populated states </li></ul>
  44. 45. Republicans had their own problems <ul><li>scandals </li></ul><ul><li>top government officials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unfair business deals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accepting bribes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>threatening to withhold tax money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vice-president; secretary of war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>democrats won control of the house </li></ul></ul>
  45. 46. Getting out while the getting is good… <ul><li>1876 election </li></ul><ul><li>Grant does not run for another term </li></ul><ul><li>Rutherford B. Hayes (R) vs. Samuel Tilden (D) </li></ul><ul><li>Tight election </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 electoral vote (20 disputed votes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>commission– 7 from each party; 1 independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hayes wins </li></ul></ul>
  46. 48. Compromise of 1877 <ul><li>deal made to settle election dispute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>democrats wanted to fight the verdict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more aid to the region </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>withdraw troops from Southern states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Democrats will maintain African/American rights </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 49. Hayes: no friend to the African American <ul><li>“…your rights and interests would be safer if this great mass of intelligent white men were left alone by the general government” </li></ul><ul><li>states would deal with the “African American” issue alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction was over </li></ul>
  48. 50. More changes in the South; not all good <ul><li>Democrats in control </li></ul><ul><li>Redeemers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>save the south from republican rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adopted conservative ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stopped many social programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>schools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lowered taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less public spending </li></ul></ul>
  49. 51. The South’s Economy <ul><li>lags behind the nation </li></ul><ul><li>industrialization slow </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of “New South” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Grady led the cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coal, iron, tobacco, cotton, lumber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rise of textile mills; Northern companies moved south </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James Duke developed the tobacco manufacturing </li></ul></ul>
  50. 52. <ul><li>industry grew (not as fast as North) </li></ul><ul><li>workers worked hard, long hours </li></ul><ul><li>cheap wages </li></ul><ul><li>kids too </li></ul><ul><li>RR boom </li></ul>
  51. 53. A divided society <ul><li>15 th Amendment allowed African Americans the right to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Southern states looked for loop holes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>poll tax– had to pay before you could vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>literacy test– read & explain constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grandfather clause– if father or grandfather voted before Reconstruction; didn’t have to pass literacy test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African American voting declined </li></ul></ul>
  52. 54. Ending thoughts <ul><li>Some good things occurred </li></ul><ul><li>Some not so good </li></ul><ul><li>for the African American </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The slave went free, stood a brief moment in the sun then moved back again toward slavery.” W.E.B. Du Bois </li></ul></ul>
  53. 55. Jim Crow Laws <ul><li>1890’s– segregation was prominent </li></ul><ul><li>Laws required separation in most public places </li></ul><ul><li>Plessy vs. Ferguson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>separate section on train </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>access to public facilities = to whites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kept segregation in south for 50 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>were really not equal </li></ul></ul>

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