Chap10: Problem Solving in Groups


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This slideshow was created to accompany the tenth chapter of Communicate! by Kathleen S. Verderber, Rudolph F. Verderber and Deanna D. Sellnow. Publisher: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. ISBN-13: 978-0-495-90171-6

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Chap10: Problem Solving in Groups

  1. 2. Problem Solving Process <ul><li>1. Identify and define the problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem definition - Formal written statement defining the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective problem definition is stated as a question of fact, value, or policy; one central idea; uses specific, precise, and concrete language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q of fact - Asked to determine what is true or to what extent something is true </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q of value - Determine whether something is right, moral, good, or just </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often contains: good, reliable, effective, or worthy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q of policy - Determine what course of action should be taken </li></ul></ul>
  2. 3. Problem Solving Process <ul><li>2. Analyze the problem </li></ul><ul><li>3. Determine criteria for judging solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criteria - Standards or measures used for judging the merits of purposed solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Identify alternative solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming - Uncritical, non-evaluative process of generating possible solutions by being creative, suspending judgment, and combining or adapting ideas </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Problem Solving Process <ul><li>5. Evaluate solutions and decide </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 methods: Page 229 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>6. Implement the agreed-upon solution </li></ul>
  4. 5. Shared Leadership <ul><li>“ Leadership is most often a shared activity in which different members perform various functions based on their unique strengths and expertise” (Fairhurst, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Informal leaders (aka emergent leaders) - Leaders who gain power because they are liked and respected by the group </li></ul><ul><li>Shared leadership functions - Set of roles that group members perform to facilitate the work of the group and help maintain harmonious relationships between members. </li></ul><ul><li>Role - Specific pattern of behavior that group members perform based upon their skills and their perceptions of the group’s needs at the time </li></ul>
  5. 6. Shared Leadership <ul><li>Types of roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task roles - Help the group acquire, process, or apply information that contributes directly to completing a task or goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance roles- Sets of behaviors that help a group develop and maintain cohesion, commitment, and positive working relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural roles - Sets of behaviors that directly support a group process </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Making Meetings Effective <ul><li>Guidelines for meeting LEADERS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before the meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Prepare and distribute agenda - organized outline of the information and decision items that will be covered during the meeting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Decide who should attend </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Manage meeting logistics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Room, seating, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Speak with each participant before the meeting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Making Meetings Effective <ul><li>Guidelines for meeting LEADERS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During the meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Review and modify the agenda </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Monitor member interaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Monitor time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Praise in public, reprimand in private </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Check periodically to see if the group is ready to make a decision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. Implement group’s decision rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7. Summarize decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8. Set the next meeting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Making Meetings Effective <ul><li>Guidelines for meeting LEADERS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Following up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Review outcome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Prepare and distribute meeting summary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Repair damaged relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Conduct informal progress reports </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Making Meetings Effective <ul><li>Guidelines for meeting PARTICIPANTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before the meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Study agenda </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Study minutes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Do your homework </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. List questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Plan to play a leadership role </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Making Meetings Effective <ul><li>Guidelines for meeting PARTICIPANTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During the meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Listen attentively </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Stay focused </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Ask questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Take notes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Play devil’s advocate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. Monitor your contributions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Making Meetings Effective <ul><li>Guidelines for meeting PARTICIPANTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Following Up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Review and summarize your notes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Evaluate your effectiveness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Review decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Communicate progress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Complete your tasks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. Review minutes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Communicating Group Solutions <ul><li>Deliverables - Tangible or intangible products of work that must be provided to someone else </li></ul><ul><li>Written formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written brief - Short document that describes a problem, background, process, decision, and rationale so that a reader can quickly understand and evaluate a group’s product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive report - Written document that provides a detailed review of the problem solving process used to arrive at a recommendation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex ecutive summary - One-page synopsis of a comprehensive report </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Communicating Group Solutions <ul><li>Oral formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral brief - Summary of a written brief delivered to an audience by a group member </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral report - Similar to a comprehensive report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symposium - Set of prepared oral reports delivered sequentially by group members before a gathering of people who are interested in the work of the group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panel discussion - Structured problem solving discussion held by a group in front of an audience </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Communicating Group Solutions <ul><li>Virtual formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote access reports (RAR) - Computer-mediated audiovisual presentation of a group’s process and outcome that others can receive electronically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streaming videos - Pre-recording that is sent in compressed form over the Internet </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Thank You