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Chap4: Communicating Nonverbally


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This slideshow was created to accompany the fourth chapter of Communicate! by Kathleen S. Verderber, Rudolph F. Verderber and Deanna D. Sellnow. Publisher: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. ISBN-13: 978-0-495-90171-6

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Chap4: Communicating Nonverbally

  1. 1. By: Miranda Emery
  2. 2. <ul><li>Nonverbal communication- All human communication beyond spoken/written words </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal communication behaviors - Signals that typically accompany our verbal message; (eyes/face, gestures, appearance) </li></ul><ul><li>Emoticons - Symbolic pictures made with keyboard characters to represent emotional tone </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Inevitable </li></ul><ul><li>Primary conveyor of our emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Multichanneled </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies based upon culture, sex, gender, context, or situation </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Use of body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinesics - What and how body motions communicate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures - Movement of hands, arms, and fingers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrators - Augment the verbal message (“About this high”) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emblems - Stand alone and substitute words/thoughts (Agreed upon within culture) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptors - Gestures that occur unconsciously as a response to a physical need (scratch, adjust glasses) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Oculesics - Eye contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial Expression - Arrangement of facial muscles to communicate emotion or reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posture - How we position (body orientation) and move our body (body movement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows attentiveness, respect, and level of dominance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body orientation - Posture in relation to other people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct body orientation - Facing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect - Angled </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body movement - Can be motivated (helps clarify meaning) or unmotivated (distracting from point) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haptics - What and how touch communicates </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Use of voice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacalics - Interpretation of a vocal message based on the paralinguistic features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paralanguage - Voiced but not verbal part of a spoken message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch - Highness or lowness of vocal tone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volume - Loudness or softness of vocal tone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rate - Speed at which a person speaks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality (Timbre) - Sound of the voice that distinguishes it from others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intonation - Variety, melody, or inflection in one’s voice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocalized pauses - Extraneous sounds or words that interrupt fluent speech (like, uh, um, you know, well) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Use of space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proxemics - How space and distance communicate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal space - Distance we try to maintain when we talk to another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intimate distance- Up to 18 inches (private conversations) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal distance- 18 inches to 4 feet (casual conversation) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social distance- 4 to 12 feet (impersonal business, interview) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public distance- More than 12 feet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><ul><li>Physical space - Part of the physical environment over which we exert control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artifacts - Objects and possessions we use to decorate the physical space we control </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Use of time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronemics - How we interpret time (cultural context) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monochronic time orientation - Efforts into one task, when done or time allotted to focus on that task is over, we move on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polychronic time orientation - Multitask </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Self Presentation Cues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Appearance - People make judgments based on looks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endomorphs - Round and heavy. (Stereotype: Kind, gentle and jovial) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mesomorphs - Muscular and strong. (Stereotype: Energetic, outgoing, and confident) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ectomorphs - Lean and have little muscle. (Stereotype: Brainy, anxious, and cautious) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clothing and grooming </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Sending nonverbal messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be conscious of nonverbal behaviors you are displaying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be purposeful in your use of nonverbal communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure that your nonverbal cues do not distract from your message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make your nonverbal communication match your verbal message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt your nonverbal behavior to the situation </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Interpreting nonverbal messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not automatically assume that a particular behavior means the same to everyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider nonverbal behaviors as they relate to the context of your message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay attention to the multiple nonverbal cues being sent and their relationship to the verbal message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use perception checking </li></ul></ul>