Chap5: Listening and Responding

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This slideshow was created to accompany the fifth chapter of Communicate! by Kathleen S. Verderber, Rudolph F. Verderber and Deanna D. Sellnow. Publisher: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. ISBN-13: 978-0-495-90171-6

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Chap5: Listening and Responding

  1. 1. Chapter 5: Listening and Responding By: Miranda Emery
  2. 2. What is listening? <ul><li>“ The process of receiving constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide clarification, connect us to others, build trust and empathy, help us learn and remember material, and improve our ability to evaluate information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hearing is a physiological process/ listening is cognitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening only occurs when we put meaning to what we hear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>50% shortly after and 20% two days later, yet 80% of execs believe listening is one of the most important skills </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Listening <ul><li>Appreciative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: to enjoy the thoughts and experiences of others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation: Casual social interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discriminative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: Accurately understand the speaker’s meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May require reading “between the lines” and picking up on nonverbal cues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation: Listening to a Dr. to see if there is reason for concern </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Listening <ul><li>Comprehensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: Not only to understand, but to learn, remember, and recall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation: Listening in Ms. Emery’s oral communications class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empathic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: To try to understand how someone else is feeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation: Therapists, counselors, psychologists, and psychiatrists do this. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Listening <ul><li>Critical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: To evaluate the worth of a message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires more psychological processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most demanding of the types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires that you understand and remember both the verbal and nonverbal message, assess the speaker’s credibility, and effectively listen all the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation: Listening to a political candidate, apology from someone who has violated your trust </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Steps of the Listening Process <ul><li>Attending - The process of focusing on what a speaker is saying regardless of the potential distractions of other competing stimuli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Get physically ready to listen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Resist mental distractions while you listen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Resist interrupting others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Hear a person out before you react </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Observe nonverbal cues </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Steps of the Listening Process <ul><li>Understanding - Decoding a message accurately to reflect the meaning intended by the speaker. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Ask questions to gain additional information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Question - Statement designed to get further info or clarify info already received </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Paraphrase the message to check your understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrase - Putting into words the ideas or feelings you have perceived from a message </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Content paraphrase - Focused on the denotative meaning of the message </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings paraphrase - Response that captures the emotions attached to the content of a message. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Steps of the Listening Process <ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing effectively </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Listen carefully </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notice what images and feelings you have experienced from the message </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine what the message means to you </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create a message that conveys these images or feelings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Steps of the Listening Process <ul><ul><li>3. Empathize with the speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy - Intellectually identifying with or vicariously experiencing the feelings or attitudes of another. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empathic responsiveness- When you experience an emotional response parallel to, and as a result of observing, another person’s actual or anticipated display of emotion. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perspective taking - Imagining yourself in the place of another, most common form </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic responsiveness - Feeling concern, compassion, or sorrow for another because of the other’s situation or plight. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Steps of the Listening Process <ul><li>Remembering - Being able to retain information and recall it when needed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Repeat the information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition- Saying something aloud or mentally a few times after hearing it, helps store info in long-term memory, otherwise it is stored in short-term for as little as 20 seconds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Construct mnemonics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mnemonic device- Any artificial technique used as a memory aid. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Take notes </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Steps of the Listening Process <ul><li>Evaluating - Critically analyzing what you have heard to determine its truthfulness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factual statements- Accuracy can be verified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferences- Conjectures which may be based on fact or observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Analyze the “facts” to determine if they are true </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often requires questions that test the evidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Test inferences to determine whether they are valid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You are listening critically when you separate facts from inferences and then evaluate them as true or valid. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Steps of the Listening Process <ul><li>Responding (See page 100) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Guidelines for responses that offer emotional support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive message- Comforting statements that have a goal to reassure, bolster, encourage, soothe, console, or cheer up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Guidelines for responses that demonstrate respect when disagreeing or critiquing others </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Thank you

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