1308158591 group process workshop 2011


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1308158591 group process workshop 2011

  1. 1. Supporting Students Throughout the Group Process
  2. 2. Group Process <ul><li>“ Groups are the Ferraris of work design. They are high performance but high maintenance and expensive.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Lawler </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning How to Collaborate <ul><li>Learning to work in a group is a new skill for many students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students may become frustrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students may want to work alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students may lack the skills to be a good collaborator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As with any new skill, the students will need practice, guidance, and support to develop this ability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With repeated practice and reflection, students will improve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers use several different tools to help students become better collaborators </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. This is a student’s biggest fear!
  5. 5. Five Ingredients Necessary for Successful Collaborative Learning <ul><li>1. Positive Interdependence - sink or swim (common goal) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Face-to Face Interactions </li></ul><ul><li>- motivation, joint problem solving, clarifying task </li></ul><ul><li>3. Individual accountability </li></ul><ul><li>- structure group objectives </li></ul><ul><li>- set interim deadlines </li></ul><ul><li>- peer assessment of individual contributions </li></ul><ul><li>4. Interpersonal, Teamwork & Social Skills </li></ul><ul><li>- Discussion, problem solving/decision making, communication </li></ul><ul><li>5. Group Processing </li></ul><ul><li>- evaluate group process, provide each other feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Johnson, D.W. & Johnson, R.T. (1991) </li></ul>
  6. 6. How do we support students in their development of group process? <ul><li>Create a structured learning situation for student collaborative work with clear roles and group interaction norms. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide structured questions and process tools that guide students in their groupwork. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor groups while they are working – observe and listen to group members, and provide feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Implement workshops and discussions to support students in their own awareness of the characteristics of group process. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Form Groups with Intentionality <ul><li>Heterogeneous groups: mixed-abilities (high achieving, middle achieving, low achieving) </li></ul><ul><li>Homogenous groups: same level of achievement. This allows for a teacher to work with groups needing more help. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on interest/topic </li></ul><ul><li>Students elect group leaders, who then form the groups equitably with teacher guidance </li></ul>Possible Ways to Form Groups - Some Ideas in PBL Starter Kit (page 73)
  8. 8. Student Group Interaction Norms <ul><li>Create an agreed upon decision-making process </li></ul><ul><li>Use that process to check for disagreements and to discuss “undiscussables” </li></ul><ul><li>Use questions to address potential conflicts and to explore ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Always check-in on each member of the group to make sure they understand the group process </li></ul><ul><li>Each group member will explain their actions or beliefs to the group </li></ul>
  9. 9. Student Group Interaction Norms (cont) <ul><li>6. Each group member is responsible for all other group members in understanding the task and coaching each other to perform at a high level </li></ul><ul><li>7. Each group member will explain important words and provide specific examples when needed </li></ul><ul><li>8. All group members will question other members when they encounter “jump to conclusion” comments </li></ul><ul><li>9. When sharing ideas all members will advocate their ideas and ask questions about other ideas </li></ul>Take a look at the collaboration rubrics that have been developed for both middle and high school by the district!
  10. 10. Group Process Tools <ul><li>Develop organizational tools, forms, journals, and other structuring documents that foster the smooth processes needed for effective cooperation and group work: </li></ul><ul><li>Group Contract </li></ul><ul><li>Group Feedback Tool </li></ul><ul><li>Pacing Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Group Task Sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Group Observation Checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Group Learning Log </li></ul>
  11. 11. Group Contracts <ul><li>Have groups write a group contract at the start of a new project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a template, guiding questions, or sample contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review the contract with the group and have each member sign it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the contracts readily available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to the contract when problems in the group arise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask the groups to reflect on the contract at the end of the project </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Example - Group Feedback Tool
  13. 14. How Can I Intervene When a Group is Not Functioning Well? <ul><li>Point out the problem and ask the group members what can be done to resolve it. If there are no suggestions, model several possibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>If a group member is not participating, ask him/her to explain what the group is doing and why. </li></ul><ul><li>If a group asks you a question, try to turn it back to the group to solve, or just give enough help to get them started. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes it can help to participate in a group meeting as a member of the group to model effective process and collaboration skills (i.e. active participation, listening, questioning, etc.) </li></ul>
  14. 15. Some Final Thoughts on the Teacher’s Role in Group Process <ul><li>Forming the work groups with intentionality </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly specifying objectives in terms of both product and process </li></ul><ul><li>Providing or directing students to appropriate resources </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring groups as they work and offering feedback as well as support </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing group communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating student performance </li></ul>
  15. 16. Research-based Final Thoughts… <ul><li>Research has suggested that group size should be approximately four (4) people – exceptions should be rare and with specific purpose/focus </li></ul><ul><li>Students across the spectrum of abilities benefit by heterogeneous grouping, especially low-ability students </li></ul><ul><li>Positive structures must be in place to support groups or else the groups may be ineffective </li></ul><ul><li>“ Positive interdependence” includes mutual goals, joint rewards, as well as resource and role interdependence </li></ul>These research-based strategies were developed by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Portland, Oregon
  16. 17. Useful Websites <ul><li>http://groups.physics.umn.edu/physed/Research/TAOrientation/Cooperative%20Groups.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.studygs.net/cooplearn.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.netc.org/focus/strategies/coop.php </li></ul><ul><li>http://teaching.berkeley.edu/bgd/collaborative.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/coop/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.centralischool.ca/~bestpractice/coop/process3.html </li></ul>