PRESENTER: M.DUNG Step 1: Identify and Define the Problem The drop in membership The group’s budget crisisCutting the budget Funding the budget The root problem
Identify and Define the ProblemOnce your group agrees about the natureof the root problem you will want to draft aproblem definition, which is a formal writtenstatement describing the problem.An effective problem definition:is stated as a question of fact, value, orpolicy.contains only one central idea.uses specific, precise, and concretelanguage.
Identify and Define the Problem Questions of fact ask the group to determine what is true or to what extent something is true. “What percentage of our projected expenses can be covered with our existing revenue?”
Identify and Define the Problem Questions of value ask the group to determine or judge whether something is right, moral, good, or just. Questions of value often contain words such as good, reliable, effective, or worthy. “What is the most effective way to recruit new members?”
Identify and Define the Problem Questions of policy concern what course of action should be taken or what rules should be adopted to solve a problem. “Should we sponsor an annual fund-raising event with the local Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) chapter in order to help fund our budget?”
Identify and Define the ProblemAfter some discussion, the group decidedthat the problem they needed to solve wasa policy question that could be best stated:“How can we increase our revenues inorder to meet our budget in the currenteconomic conditions?”
Step 2: Analyze the Problem Presenter: Thuy Trang
= finding out ASAP about the problem• materials available @ library/ Internet• interview experts, former members (why they dropped out + what might entice them to rejoin), non- members (what would entice them to join).• conduct surveys
Questions to guide problem analysis• What are the symptoms of this problem?• What are the causes of this problem?• Can this problem be subdivided into several smaller problems that each may have individual solutions?• What have others who have faced this problem done?• How successful have they been with the solutions they attempted?• How is our situation similar and different from theirs?• Does this problem consist of several smaller problems? If so, what are their symptoms, causes, previously tried solutions, and so forth?• What would be the consequences of doing nothing?• What would be the consequences of trying something and having it fail?
importantDuring the information gathering and analysis step, it is important to consciously encourage members to share information they have found that is new or contradicts the sentiments or preferences expressed in the group. It is difficult for most of us to give up our pet theories or preferred worldviews.A group that is willing to consider new and unexpected information will more deeply analyze the problem and, therefore, will likely come to a more effective solution.
Step 3Determine Criteria for Judging Solutions Presented by To Uyen
Criteriastandards or measures used for judging the merits ofproposed solutions how the group will evaluate the virtues of each alternative solutions
CriteriaWhy?• When developing criteria before thinking about speciﬁc solutions more likely to come to a decision that all members can accept• Without clear criteria, group members may argue for their preferred solution without considering whether it will can solve the problem and whether it is practicable Group members must bear in mind sth in common before stating their options
Suggested questions to set criteria• What are the quantitative and qualitative measures of success that a solution must be able to demonstrate?• Are there resource constraints that a good solution must meet (costs, time, manpower)?• What risks are unacceptable?• Is ease of implementation a consideration?
When potential criteria have been listed…The entire group must agree upon certain criteria andregard them seriously to judge solutions
ExampleA group face the problem of budget for stationary, which costs them up to $450 every year.After discussion, they’ve agreed on the following criteria: 1. The budget must be cut down to less than $300/year 2. The essential materials’ quality, eg. paper and pen, must be the same
Step 4: Identifyalternative solutions Presenter: Pham T. Hieu
An alternative is the generation of new ideas Problem Solutions A B C D
BrainstormingBrainstorming is a method used in groups in order to support creative problem-solving, the generation of new ideas and greater acceptance of proposed solutions
Capacity of human brain to make associations BrainstormingFor example:When a person sees or hears the word “fun”,the brain automatically searches for wordsassociations and produces suggestions such as :cinema, theatre, concert, or terms such as :humor, friends, relaxation, free time, sunsea,…
Rules ofbrainstorming• No criticism or judgment• Express completely and freely• Quantity matters• All ideas must be put down
Benefits• Solutions can be found rapidly and economically• Results and ways of problem-solving that are new and unexpected• A wider picture of the problem or issue can be obtained• The team shares responsibility for the problem
Step 5: Evaluate Solutions and Decide Presenter: Trúc Anh
Evaluate Solutions• Sort through potential solutions to find the one or ones that will best solve the problem
Evaluate Solutions• Compare each of the alternatives to the decision criteria
Evaluate Solutions• Quickly review the list and eliminate those that obviously do not meet the criteria
Evaluate Solutions• Concentrate on evaluating the remaining solutions, talking about how well each meets specific criteria and comparing the positive features of each. This discussion may result in only one solution that meets all the criteria, but often there will be more than one viable solution.
Decision Makingis the process of choosing among alternatives.• Five methods are commonly used to reach a group decision. Methods that require greater agreement among members are more time consuming.
1. The expert opinion method• Once the group has eliminated those alternatives that do not meet the criteria, the group asks the member who has the most expertise to make the final choice.Example: Group leader, the most prestigious member,…• Obviously, this method is quick and useful if one member is much more knowledgeable about the issues or has a greater stake in the implementation of the decision.
2. The average group opinion method• Each group member ranks each of the alternatives that meet all the criteria. Their rankings are then averaged.• The alternative receiving the highest average becomes the choice.• This method is useful for routine decisions or when a decision needs to be made quickly.• It can also be used as an intermediate straw poll so the group can eliminate low-scoring alternatives before moving to a different process for making the final decision.
3. The majority rule method• The group votes on each alternative, and the one that receives a majority of votes (50 percent + 1) is selected.• Although this method is considered democratic, it can create problems. If the majority voting for an alternative is slight, then nearly as many members oppose the choice as support it. If these minority members strongly object to the choice, they may sabotage implementation of the solution either actively or passively.
4. The unanimous decision method• The group must continue deliberation until every member of the group believes that the same solution is the best.• When a group reaches unanimity, however, each member is likely to be committed to selling the decision to others and helping to implement it.
5. The consensus method (an alternative to the unanimous decision method)• The group continues deliberation until all members of the group find an acceptable solution, one they can support and are committed to helping implement.• Some group members may believe there is a better solution than the one chosen, but all feel they can live with the chosen solution.
5. The consensus method• Arriving at consensus, though easier than reaching unanimity, is still difficult.• Although the majority rule method is widely used, the consensus method is a wise investment if the group needs everyone’s support to implement the decision successfully.
Sometimes a group will choose only one solution. But frequently a group will decide on a multi-pronged approach that combines two or three of the acceptable solutions.
Step six: implement the agree-upon solution• The group has the responsibility to implement the agree-upon solution or, if the group is presenting the solution for others for implementation making recommendation for how the solution should be implemented. The group[ has already considered implementation in terms of selecting a solution, but now must fill in the details.
Some key questions• What tasks are required by the solutions?• Who will carry out these tasks?• What is a reasonable time frame for implementation generally and for each of the tasks specifically?